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CARDIO-VASCULAR SYSTEM

• Principles
• Structures
• Two circuits
– Pulmonary
– Systemic
• Fetal Circulation
• Heart Details
• Other details

Larry M. Frolich, Ph.D.,Human Anatomy


What Does C-V System do?
• Circulate blood throughout entire body
for
– Transport of oxygen to cells
– Transport of CO2 away from cells
– Transport of nutrients (glucose) to cells
– Movement of immune system components
(cells, antibodies)
– Transport of endocrine gland secretions

Larry M. Frolich, Ph.D.,Human Anatomy


How does it do it?
• Heart is pump
• Arteries and veins are main tubes (plumbing)
– Arteries Away from Heart
– Veins to Heart
• Diffusion happens in capillaries (oxygen, CO2,
glucose diffuse in or out of blood)

Larry M. Frolich, Ph.D.,Human Anatomy


Overall Organization of System

• Heart/Great Vessels--
1 Route
• Smaller aa. vv.--many
routes (collateral
circulation)
• Capillaries—network
where diffusion
occurs

Larry M. Frolich, Ph.D.,Human Anatomy


Collateral Circulation

Larry M. Frolich, Ph.D.,Human Anatomy


Walls of Arteries and Veins
• Tunica externa
– Outermost layer
– CT w/elastin and collagen
– Strengthens, Anchors
• Tunica media
– Middle layer
– Circular Smooth Muscle
– Vaso-constriction/dilation
• Tunica intima
– Innermost layer
– Endothelium
– Minimize friction
• Lumen pg 546
Larry M. Frolich, Ph.D.,Human Anatomy
Artery/Vein differences
Arteries (aa.) Veins (vv.)
Direction Blood Away from Blood to Heart
of flow Heart
Pressure Higher Lower

Walls THICKER: Tunica THINNER: Tunica


media thicker than externa thicker than
tunica externa tunica media
Lumen Smaller Larger

Valves No valves Valves (see next)


Larry M. Frolich, Ph.D.,Human Anatomy
Larry M. Frolich, Ph.D.,Human Anatomy
Capillaries
• Microscopic--one cell
layer thick
• Network
• Bathed in extracellular
matrix of areolar tissue
• Entire goal of C-V
system is to get blood
into capillaries where
diffusion takes place

Larry M. Frolich, Ph.D.,Human Anatomy


Two circulatory paths
Systemic
Pulmonary

Larry M. Frolich, Ph.D.,Human Anatomy


GREAT VESSELS
•Aorta
•IVC, SVC
•Pulmonary Trunk
•Pulmonary Veins
Larry M. Frolich, Ph.D.,Human Anatomy
Heart Chambers and Valves

Larry M. Frolich, Ph.D.,Human Anatomy


Right Heart Chambers: Pulmonary Circuit
• Right Atrium (forms most of posterior of heart)
– Receives O2-poor blood from body via IVC, SVC, Coronary sinus
– Ventral wall = rough Pectinate muscle
– Fossa Ovalis- on interatrial septum, remnant of Foramen Ovale
• Right Ventricle
– Receives O2-poor blood from right atrium through tricuspid valve
– Pumps blood to lungs via Pulmonary Semilunar Valve in
pulmonary trunk
– Trabeculae Carnae along ventral surface
– Papillary Muscle-cone-shaped muscle to which chordae tendinae
are anchored
– Moderator Band-muscular band connecting anterior papillary
muscle to interventricular septum

Larry M. Frolich, Ph.D.,Human Anatomy


Left Heart Chambers: Systemic Circuit

• Left Atrium
– Receives O2-rich blood from 4 Pulmonary Veins
– Pectinate Muscles line only auricle
• Left Ventricle (forms apex of heart)
– Receives blood from Left Atrium via bicuspid valve
– Pumps blood into aorta via Aortic Semilunar Valve to body
– Same structures as Rt Ventricle: Trabeculae carnae,
Papillary muscles, Chordae tendinae
– No Moderator Band

Larry M. Frolich, Ph.D.,Human Anatomy


Heart Valves: Lub*-Dub**
• *Tricuspid Valve: Right AV valve
– 3 Cusps (flaps) made of endocardium and CT
– Cusps anchored in Rt. Ventricle by Chordae Tendinae
– Chordae Tendinae prevent inversion of cusps into atrium
– Flow of blood pushes cusps open
– When ventricle in diastole (relaxed), cusps hang limp in ventricle
– Ventricular contraction increases pressure and forces cusps closed
• *Bicuspid (Mitral) Valve: Left AV valve
– 2 cusps anchored in Lft. Ventricle by chordae tendinae
– Functions same as Rt. AV valve
• **Semilunar valves: prevents backflow in large arteries
– Pulmonary Semilunar Valve: Rt Ventricle and Pulmonary Trunk
– Aortic Semilunar Valve: Left Ventricle and Aorta
– 3 cusps: blood rushes past they’re flattened, as it settles they’re pushed
down (valve closed)

Larry M. Frolich, Ph.D.,Human Anatomy


Another View

Larry M. Frolich, Ph.D.,Human Anatomy


Location of Heart in Thorax

pg 523
Larry M. Frolich, Ph.D.,Human Anatomy
Location of Heart in Chest

• Oblique Position
• Apex = Left of Midline (5th ICS), Anterior to rest of heart
• Base (posterior surface) sits on vertebral column
• Superior Right = 3rd Costal Cartilage, 1” right midsternum
• Superior Left = 2nd Costal Cartilage, 1” left midsternum
• Inferior Right = 6th Costal Cartilage, 1” right midsternum
• Inferior Left = 5th Intercostal Space at Midclavicular line

Larry M. Frolich, Ph.D.,Human Anatomy


• Epicardium (most superficial)
– Visceral pleura
• Myocardium (middle layer) Heart Wall
– Cardiac muscle
– Contracts
• Endocardium (inner) How does heart
– Endothelium on CT muscle get blood
– Lines the heart supply?
– Creates the valves

pg 524

Larry M. Frolich, Ph.D.,Human Anatomy


Blood supply to heart wall
• Rt and Lft Coronary Arteries
– Branch from Ascending Aorta
– Have multiple branches along heart
– Sit in Coronary Sulcus
– Coronary Heart Disease
• Cardiac Veins
– Coronary Sinus (largest)
– Many branches feed into sinus
– Sit in Coronary Sulcus

Larry M. Frolich, Ph.D.,Human Anatomy


Heart Innervation
• Heart receives visceral
motor innervation
– Sympathetic (speeds up)
– Parasympathetic (slows
down) p. 534

Larry M. Frolich, Ph.D.,Human Anatomy


Fetal Circulation
•No circulation to lungs
•Foramen ovale
•Ductus arteriosum
•Circulation must go to placenta
•Umbilical aa., vv.

Larry M. Frolich, Ph.D.,Human Anatomy


Adult remnants of fetal circulation
Adult Fetus
Fossa ovale Foramen ovale

Ligamentum arteriosum Ductus arteriosus

Medial umbilical ligaments Umbilical aa.(within fetus)

Round ligament Umbilical v.(within fetus)


(ligamentum teres) of liver
Ligamentum venosum Ductus venosus

Medial umbilical ligament Umbilical cord (leaving fetus)

Larry M. Frolich, Ph.D.,Human Anatomy


Hepatic Portal System

Larry M. Frolich, Ph.D.,Human Anatomy


Lymphatic System…The Players:
• Lymph- clear fluid from loose areolar CT around
capillaries
• Lymphatic capillaries (near blood capillaries) 
• Lymph collecting vessels (small, 3 tunicas, valves)
• Lymph nodes (sit along collecting vessels)-clean
lymph of pathogens, they are NOT glands
• Lymphatic trunks (convergence large collecting
vessels)
– Lumbar, intestinal, bronchomediastinal, subclavian, jugular
• Lymphatic ducts  empty into veins of neck

Larry M. Frolich, Ph.D.,Human Anatomy


Lymphatic System--Function
• Function: to collect excess tissue fluid collecting at
arteriole end and return leaked blood proteins to
blood (maintain osmotic pressure needed to take
up water into bloodstream)
• Lymph moved through vessels
– Pulse of nearby arteries
– Contraction of surrounding skeletal muscle
– Regular movement of body (wiggling legs)
– Muscle in Tunica Media
• Lacteals-lymphatic capillaries w/unique function
– In mucosa of small intestine, receive digested fat from
intestine
– Fatty lymph becomes milky = Chyle
– Chyle goes to bloodstream
Larry M. Frolich, Ph.D.,Human Anatomy