180 views

Uploaded by soonvy

save

You are on page 1of 62

School of Materials & Mineral Resources Engineering

Engineering Campus

Universiti Sains Malaysia

Topic Outcome:

At the end of this topic, students will be able to:

Describe the term “reliability”.

Discuss how to improve the reliability of a product.

Apply statistical aspect in reliability.

Explain a life-history curve of a product.

Construct and discuss OC curve related to reliability.

Use life & reliability testing plan.

Differentiate between availability & maintainability

Topic Outline:

What is Reliability?

Achieving Reliability.

Statistical Aspects of Reliability.

Life-History Curve.

Failure Analysis.

Availability & Maintainability.

(1) What is Reliability?

A reliable product or service meaning that it works for

longer period of time before failure occurs.

Reliability is:

Quality over a long run, or

A probability of success, or,

A probability (numerical value) that a product or a

service will perform its intended function

satisfactorily for a prescribed life under certain

stated environmental conditions.

4 factors associated with reliability.

Can Reliability be measured ?

(numerical value)

a “0” to “1” scale,

a percentage, or

parts per million (ppm).

Examples:

R = 1 or 100% no failure of the product or

service.

R = 0 or 0% certain failure.

R = 0.5 or 50% the product or service is

expected to fail on half the occasions when it is

used.

Common expressions of reliability also include:

Failure rate per 1000 hours (2% failures per Failure

1000 h). in time

(FIT)

Failure rate per 1000 usage cycles.

Mean Time Between Failure (MTBF) (MTBF =

3,500 h).

Probability of an item or service failing (failure

= 2ppm).

Reliability over a fixed period (99% reliability

after 5,000 h).

What is the intended function of the

product/service?

Product/service

designed for particular applications.

expected to perform it task.

What is the intended life of the

product/service?

Product life

Usage

Time, or

Both.

What is the environment conditions

of the product/service usage?

Would it be more severe than actual recommended

condition?

Relationship between Reliability

& Customer Expectation

Key Customer Variables Versus Product Categories/Applications

Environment.

Calculator PC Pacemaker Auto Airline Satellite

Price Low Extremely

high

Discomfort & Low

repercussion caused by

Designed-in

malfunction Reliability Low

and Products”, Marcel Dekker: NY, 2003, p3.

Reliability vs Durability vs

Robustness

Durability: The ability to endure with ongoing preventive

maintenance/servicing

breakdown.

stressed conditions (high temp, altitude, shock..)

(2) Achieving Reliability

Reliability must start from very beginning.

Fully understand customer’s need,

need market

requirement, competitive analysis, comparison

with previous product,

product etc.

Then translate these to subsequence phases.

2 approaches: (1) top-down (2) bottom-up.

Top-down market demand & competitive analysis

Bottom-up comparing current product to previous

product in terms of complexity, technology

capability,and design/manufacturing process.

By combining the two approaches, there are

6 main factors that a reliable

product/service can be achieved:

(1) Emphasis (Penegasan).

(2) System.

(3) Design.

(4) Production.

(5) Transportation.

(6) Maintenance.

(1) Emphasis

Legal means,

More complicated product/service, or

Automation.

(2) System Reliability

Complex product/service

many different components

a system

chances of components not working is increased.

Therefore, the method of arranging the components

affects the entire system reliability.

Series, parallel, or combination.

(2) System Reliability

(Components in Series arrangement)

Reliability of a system depends on individual

components.

Multiplicative theorem is applied.

System Reliability, RS=(RA)(RB)(RC)=0.716

System reliability is always less than the lowest

reliability value of the components.

One component fails, the whole system

not working.

(2) System Reliability

(Components in Parallel arrangement)

Component I

RI=0.750

Component J

RJ=0.840

One component fails, the whole system still able to work;

until all parallel components do not function.

Rs = 1 – (Probability of component I fail)(Probability of

component J fail)

RS = 1 – (1-RI)(1-RJ)=1-(1-0.750)(1-0.840)=0.960

(2) System Reliability

(Components in Parallel arrangement)

reliability increases.

The reliability for a parallel arrangement of components is

greater than the reliability of the individual components.

(2) System Reliability

(Components in Combination arrangement)

Component I

RA=0.955 RC=0.999

Component J

RJ=0.840

RS = (RA)(RI,J )(RC) = (0.95)(0.96)(0.99) = 0.90

Q&A

Component I Component K

RA=0.955 RC=0.999

Component J Component L

RJ=0.840 RL=0.840

Component M

RM=0.999

RS = (RA)(RI,J )(RC)(RK,L,M )

= (RA)[1-(1-RI)(1-RJ)](RC)[1-(1-RK)(1-RL)(1-RM)

(3) Design

Approximate calculation (series) Rs =Rn,

where n is the number of components and R is the

reliability of the component,assuming the reliability

is the same for all the components.

(3) Design

Other techniques:

Having a backup or redundant component (in parallel

arrangement; cheaper redundant component)

see next slide

Over-design.

Having a fail-safe type of device (safety concern)

Maintenance.

Protection for certain environment.

Investment in reliability (RM) reliability

Up to certain level.

(3) Design

(redundancy)

Redundancy (Kelebihan) is the duplication of parts or

features in such a way that the duplicate can take over

the function of another part in the event of failure.

Eg: In a two-engine aircraft, the second aircraft engine

will propel the aircraft if one engine fails.

The addition of redundant parts to a product can

improve the reliability of a system enormously.

enormously

It is important with safety related products and services.

There are 2 types of redundancy:

redundancy

(3) Design

(Active redundancy)

Active redundancy occurs when all the redundant items

are in operation at the same time.

time

Examples:

All 4 aircraft engines operating at the same time

when only 1 engine is enough at cruising altitude

(one engine is not enough for take off).

Both hydraulic brake circuits in your car always

working.Only one circuit is enough to stop the car in

normal driving (but not enough for an emergency

stop).

(3) Design

(Passive redundancy)

Passive redundancy occurs when the redundant items

are available but not put into in use until the active

item fails.

Examples:

The spare tyre in your car can be used in the event

of a puncture.

Spare globe in an overhead projector.

(4) Production

product/service unreliability.

Emphasis should placed on those components which are

least reliable.

(5) Transportation

The actual performance of the product by the customer is

the final evaluation.

Good packaging techniques and shipment evaluation are

essential.

(6) Maintenance

maintenance.

Is it practical?

Product should have ample warming when failure occurs.

(light or buzzer).

Maintenance should be simple and easy to perform.

Discipline & Tasks Involved with

Product Reliability

A study of 72 nondefense corporations revealed that the

product reliability techniques they preferred and felt to

be important were the following:

Supplier

Parts control

control 76%

72%

Failure analysis and correction action 65%

Environment stress screening 55%

Test, analyze, fix 50%

Reliability qualification tests 32%

Design reviews 24%

Failure modes, effects, and critically analysis 20%

Reliability Goals & Metrics

availability,fault-tolerant product are shown below:

Metric Definition

Corrective What customers see CMs are maintenance activities done in a reactive mode and

maintenance (CM) exclude proactive activity such as preventive maintenance.

rate

Part replacement What factory & A part replacement is any part replaced during a CM activity.

(PR) rate logistics

organization see

Failure rate What engineers see A returned part that fails a manufacturing or engineering test.

Any parts that pass all tests are called no trouble found (NTF).

NTFs are important because they indicate a problem with out

test capabilities, diagnostics, or support process.

Each of the stated reliability metrics takes one of three

forms:

CM/PR/failure rate goal based on market demand.

Expected CM/PR/failure rate based on predictions

(Technology/Process Capability)

Actual CM/PR/failure rate based on measurement.

The relationship among the various metrics

Expected

CM/PR/F

R

Actual > Expected Expected > Goal

Potential design or Consider new

process problems technology or

design/mfg/maintenanc

e

Actual Goal

Actual > Goal

CM/PR/F Potential competitive CM/PR/F

R Disadvantage R

Reliability Prediction

Expected

CM/PR/F Reliability

R Model

-baseline

understanding

of product’s

reliability

Actual Goal

CM/PR/F CM/PR/F

R R

Reliability Prediction

Simple technique omit great deal of distinguishing

detail and the very prediction suffers inaccuracy.

Detailed prediction techniques can become

bogged down in detail and become very costly. The

prediction will also lag far behind and may hinder

timely product development.

Considerable effort is required to generate sufficient data

on a part class/level to report statistically valid

reliability figures for the class/level.

Other variants that can affect the stated failure rate of a

given system are uses,operator

procedures,maintenance and rework practices,

measurement techniques or definitions of failure,

operating environments, and excess handling differing

from those addressed by modeling technique.

technique

(3) Statistical Aspects of Reliability

Types of probability distribution used in reliability

studies are:

continuous probability distribution

Exponential

Normal

Weibull

Gamma

discrete probability distribution

Geometric

Negative binomial

(Frequency Distribution Curves)

Only Exponential, Normal, and Weibull distributions are

widely used.

Their frequency distributions, f(t), as a function of time

are given below.

(Reliability Curves)

distributions are given below:

Exponential Normal Weibull

(Reliability Curves)

Reliability as a function of time.

Exponential : Rt = reliability at time t

−t t = test time or cycle

Rt = e θ θ = mean life or Mean Time

Between Failure (MTBF)

Normal : β = Weibull slope

t (or shape parameter)

Rt = 1.0 − ∫ f (t )dt

0

Weibull : Area under Normal Curve

Rt = e

( θ)

− t

β

(Failure-Rate Curves)

Failure-rate, , is important in describing the life-

history curve of a product.

Failure-rate probability of a failure during a stated

period of time, cycle, or number of impacts.

Failure rate can be estimated from test data by use of

the formulae:

(1) time terminated without a replacement.

(Failure-Rate Curves)

λest =

∑ (test time or cycle)

r

λest =

∑ t + ( n − r )T

est = estimated failure rate

r = number of test failures

t = test time for a failed item

n = number of items tested

T = terminated time

(Failure-Rate Curves)

Q&A

•Determine the failure rate for an item that has the test of

9 items terminated at the end of 22 hours. Four of the

items failed after 4, 12, 15, and 21 h, respectively. Five

items were still operating at the end of 22 h.

r

λest =

∑ t + ( n − r )T

4

λest = = 0.025

(4 + 12 + 15 + 21) + (9 − 4)22

(Failure-Rate Curves)

r

λest =

∑t

r = number of test failures

t = test time for a failed item

(Failure-Rate Curves)

Q&A

•Determine the failure rate for 50 items that are tested for

15 h. When failure occurs, the item is replaced with

another unit. At the end of 15 h, 6 of the items had

failed.

r

λest =

∑t

6

λest = = 0.008

50(15)

(Failure-Rate Curves)

Q&A

Determine the failure rate for 6 items that are tested

to failure. Test cycles are 1025, 1550, 2232, 3786,

5608, and 7918.

r

λest =

∑t

6

λest = = 0.00027

1025 + 1550 + 2232 + 3786 + 5608 + 7918

(Failure-Rate Curves)

Exponential :

1

λ=

θ Constant failure rate:

Normal : Exponential distribution and

t −θ

2

Weibull distribution ( =1)

−

e σ 2

λ= 2

∞ 1 x −θ

∫t −

2 σ

Weibull :

β −1

β t

λ =

θ θ

(Failure-Rate Curves)

Exponential Normal Weibull

(Failure-Rate Curves)

Mean Times Between Failure (MTBF).

MTBF:

How much time has elapsed between failures.

It is used when speaking of repairable

systems.

Another parameter that can be used to describe

reliability as a function of time is Mean Times to

Failure (MTTF).

MTTF:

It is used for non-repairable systems.

(Failure-Rate Curves)

operating is of great concern.

Eg: without radar screen, air traffic controllers are

sightless and therefore out of operation. To be

consider reliable, the radar must be functional for

a significant amount of expected operating time.

Since many systems need preventive or

corrective maintenance, a system’s reliability

can be judged in terms of the amount of time

it is available for use:

(Failure-Rate Curves)

MTTF

Availability =

MTTF + mean time to repair

Mean time to repair = mean down time (MDT).

Q&A

Q&A

•Determine the failure rate and MTBF for 6 items

that are tested to failure. Test cycles are 1025,

1550, 2232, 3786, 5608, and 7918.

r

λest = Time-1

∑t

6

λest = = 0.00027

1025 + 1550 + 2232 + 3786 + 5608 + 7918

1

θ = = 3704 cycle

λ

Q&A

to install. Calculate the availability of the windshield

wipers on a bus driven eight hours a day, if the MTBF

is 1250 hours. When the windshield-wiper motor must

be replaced, the bus is out of service for a total of 24

hours.

1250

Availability = = 0.98

1250 + 24

The bus is available 98 percent of the time.

(4) Life-History Curve

product?

For most products and some services, the pattern of

failures does change. Typically (but not always), the

pattern of failures follows what is known as a “bathtub”

curve. This is the life-history curve of the product.

Debugging Chance Failure Phase Wear out Phase

Phase

Failure rate

( )

Time (t)

Life-History Curve

(Debugging Phase)

It is also called burn-in or infant-mortality or early failure

phase.

A new machine or service, we often find it fails a few

times before it ‘settle down’ to a reliable state of

performance.

Weibull distribution with < 1 is used to describe the

occurrence of failures in this phase.

Product is under warranty (usually).

It is a significant quality cost.

cost

Life-History Curve

(Chance Failure Phase)

Random or constant failure phase.

Failure rate is constant.

The product or service has ‘settle down’ and is reliable.

Any failures that do occur are random

Exponential and Weibull ( =1) distributions are used to

describe this phase.

Reliability studies and Sampling Plans are concerned

with this phase.

The lower the failure rate, the better the product.

Life-History Curve

(Wear Out Phase)

The product is wearing out or the service support

systems are beginning to fail.

Wear out failures tend to have a sharp rise in failure rate.

Normal distribution is the best to describe this phase.

Weibull distribution ( >1) can be used depending on the

type of wear-out distribution.

(8) Availability and

Maintainability

Time related factors of availability, reliability, and

maintainability are interrelated.

Eg: when a water line breaks (reliability) it is no

longer available to provide water to customers

and must be repaired or maintained.

Availability, A:

A time-related factor.

Measures the ability of a product or service to

perform its designated function.

Product available operation +standby.

Availability and Maintainability

Uptime MTBF

A= =

Uptime + Downtime MTBF + MDT

time to obtain a replacement.

Availability and Maintainability

MTTF

Uptime MTBF

A= =

Uptime + Downtime MTBF + MDT

MTTF

MTBF

MTTF MDT

Time

Availability and Maintainability

Maintainability:

Preventive and corrective maintenance on a product

or service can be achieved.

Mean time to repair,mean time to service,repair hours

per number of operating hours, preventive

maintenance cost, and down probability figure of

merit for maintainability.

Keeping maintainability low more cost effective

method of keeping availability high than

concentrating on reliability.

- 1. BEC - Maintenance ProgramUploaded byrachmatdiyanto
- get_fileUploaded byyourikats6161
- Reliability Growth and Repairable System Analysis ReferenceUploaded byhelton_bsb
- TQM_BBA_8_WK_10Uploaded bysameerbadeni
- Capability of Single Hardware Channel for Automotive Safety ApplicationsUploaded byMaXimus Saivignesh
- Company Profile PT at SolusiUploaded bysutomo rochmanda
- Notes 910Uploaded bysdsds-54
- Maintenance Decision Models for Java-Bali 150kV Power Transmission Sub Marine Cable Using RAMSUploaded byaryo_el06
- 470_mce 509 Lecture NoteUploaded byHumaid Shaikh
- SW Quality & Reliability 112.pptUploaded bykhsheth
- Reliability for BegineersUploaded byblitzrags
- ABB Reliability AnalysisUploaded byManit Siriworasilp
- THE INFLUENCE OF SOFTWARE STRUCTURE ON RELIABILITYUploaded byAmir Naghizadeh
- fadecUploaded byMarina Ilic
- General Guidelines on Alarm SystemsUploaded byAnonymous g4hO0E
- Ellingwood PublicationsUploaded byRaymond Wade
- O&G for HSEUploaded byGreg Hearting
- Reliability of Project a Quantitative ApproachUploaded byPavel Barseghyan
- Model PetriUploaded byRui Araújo
- pc817Uploaded byAckerman Rincon
- Reliability-Based Maintenance and Condtion MonitoringUploaded byjoe
- 2.- The 7 Habits of Highly Effective Maintenance -Uploaded byManuel Ordoño
- ED-4704-1Uploaded byDeborah Malanum
- Equipment Reliability AnalysisUploaded bynukke

- 11 Sampling Tech 3newUploaded bysoonvy
- 14 Variable Sampling PlanUploaded bysoonvy
- 11 Sampling Tech 3new - StudentUploaded bysoonvy
- 14 Variable Sampling Plan - StudentUploaded bysoonvy
- 10 Sampling Tech 2Uploaded bysoonvy
- 12 Sampling Tech 4Uploaded bysoonvy
- 12 Sampling Tech 4 - StudentUploaded bysoonvy
- Ieee Paper FormatUploaded byalfi_dafi7807
- 1 Introduction 1rv0Uploaded bysoonvy
- 2 Management Aspect of Quality - StudentUploaded bysoonvy
- 4 Problem SolvingUploaded bysoonvy
- 10 Sampling Tech 2 - StudentUploaded bysoonvy
- Kuliah13editenglishUploaded bysoonvy

- Overview of MEMUploaded byTudor Costin
- MPSWAN_ResponsetoPreBidQueries[1]Uploaded bysonamuni
- High Availability in the Data Center Sun SPARC Enterprise M4000 M5000 M8000 and M9000Uploaded byJiwon Sul
- DOD_1988 - Maintainability Design Techniques (DOD-HDBK-791 AM)Uploaded bymicver_00
- Failure Pattern RCMUploaded byIrvanda Adam Pramono
- Maintenance plannerUploaded byManish Kumar Rathore
- STRATEGIES TO REPLACE, REFURBISH, REPAIR AND UPGRADE POWER TRANSFORMERS: THE SPANISH EXPERIENCEUploaded byR0B0T2013
- 48 A review of overall models for maintenance management.pdfUploaded byFranciscoOrtizRojas
- Maintenance Key Performance IndicatorsUploaded byreveldoq
- RJS Relibility PPT-1Uploaded byRam Janm Singh
- APC white papersUploaded bymonarch_007
- Productivity LectureUploaded byAnthony Royupa
- bbb m,m, klklkl jjkUploaded byEngr Irfan Akhtar
- 20-On-lifetime-costs-of-flotation-operations-5p.pdfUploaded byHans Antonio Sanchez
- V and VUploaded bydakshina656087
- Availability ManagementUploaded byAlexandru Dan Gheorghiu
- Ceragon - 1+1 Resilient Microwave Links - Technical BriefUploaded byzrzahzah
- Functional Requirements 1Uploaded bybabs4chat
- itilfoundationtraining-130321064833-phpapp02Uploaded byj4k4l0d4n9
- 819-1002Uploaded byricksea
- Wind Turbine Reliability AnalysisUploaded bykhayat
- Handbook_Aseet Management_John S. Mitchell 2001Uploaded byLuis Severiche
- Rome Laboratory Reliability Engineers ToolkitUploaded bybrockwell496
- VisionInPrint10433Best%20Practice1[1]Uploaded bysensitivesenses
- Ch04 ReliabilityUploaded byBENZIN
- OPTICAL FIBER TRANSMISSION MEDIA (OPGW) FOR A RELIABLE OPERATION OF THE TELECOMMUNICATION AND PROTECTION SYSTEM ON HVAC SYSTEMUploaded byCarlos Alberto Di Palma
- imc-br003_-en-pUploaded bySerge Justinian Chavez Feria
- Maintenance Book Ch22 on CBMUploaded byBridge Iit At Ranchi
- APC - Mean Time Between Failure Explanation and Standards.pdfUploaded bynamhts
- 2 Statistical Framework for Reliability Planning-- Basic Principles -- VER 2017Uploaded byamrit403