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Gas Turbine Overview
Gas Turbine Purpose:
The purpose of a gas turbine engine is to create energy to turn a shaft that drives other rotating equipment such as compressors and generators.
Gas turbines commonly used to drive:
· compressors for transporting gas through pipelines
· generators that produce electrical power
Basic Categories for Gas Turbines Single Shaft
the air flows in a straight or axial path from one end of the gas turbine to the other. The figure shows the simplified airflow through an axial flow gas turbine. As you can see from the red flow lines. .Single Shaft Gas Turbine The axial flow gas turbine is one of the most common gas turbine engine designs.
Basic Categories for Gas Turbines Split [Two] Shaft .
Except for the airflow.Two-Shaft Axial Flow Gas Turbine A separate turbine section drives the compressor. the two rotor systems (compressor and turbine) operate independently. Each compressor is driven at its own speed by its own set of turbine wheels. as shown in the figure. .
The Thermodynamic Laws .
The second law of thermodynamics states that heat cannot be transferred from a cooler body to a hotter body. heat energy is changed to mechanical energy. In a gas turbine engine. In a gas turbine engine.The Thermodynamic Laws The laws of thermodynamics explain the effects of heat in an engine. heat is transferred from the hotter engine to the cooler lube oil. . The first law states that energy can be changed but it cannot be destroyed.
. until the fuel and air mixture is burned in the gas turbine. In the figure. a ball on a level table will not move until it is made to move by some force such as the wind or pushing it by hand. Similarly.The Thermodynamic Laws Newton's First Law of Motion Newton's first law explains why a force is needed to make the gas turbine work. there is no force for the turbine to use to turn the rotor shaft.
In the figure.The Thermodynamic Laws Newton's Second Law of Motion Newton's Second Law explains why the air must be compressed and accelerated to create a force. The force of hitting the nail is proportional to the mass (weight) of the hammer multiplied by the velocity of the hammer when it hits the nail. If you also use a heavier hammer. a hammer is used to drive a nail. . the more force created from the combustion process. it is even easier to drive the nail into the wood. Mass and acceleration directly affect the amount of force created. The more compressed air (mass) that enters the gas turbine.
a boat is near the bank of a river. As his body pushes forward. The blades of the turbine react to the force and turn the rotor. In the gas turbine. In the figure. the boat is pushed backward with the same amount of force. This force is directed into the rear of the case and on to the turbine blades. the thrust force is the action.The Thermodynamic Laws Newton's Third Law of Motion Newton's Third Law explains how the action of creating a thrust force results in the reaction of the turbine rotating. The person steps from the boat toward the land. .
.Brayton Cycle The Brayton Cycle defines what takes place in the gas turbine engine. The events in the Brayton Cycle take place in specific sections of the gas turbine. These events are controlled by the physical laws described on the previous pages. The exhaust event is the only part of the cycle that does not take place in the engine. These events are: · Compression · Combustion · Expansion · Exhaust The Brayton Cycle is unique among engine cycles because all the events in the cycle take place at the same time without interruption.
Gas Turbine Components A gas turbine engine is divided into five sections: · · . · · · air inlet section compressor section Diffuser combustion section turbine section exhaust section .
Air Inlet System The air inlet system controls the air quality and directs a steady flow of air to the compressor air inlet. The amount and quality of air affects engine performance and reliability. .
Air Inlet System The air inlet system has two main assemblies: · filter assembly · inlet ducting assembly .
Filter Assembly The filter assembly consists of the following parts: · weather louvers · inlet screens · filters .
Inlet Ducting Assembly The second main assembly in the air inlet system is the inlet ducting assembly which consists of the following parts: · bypass door (s) · inlet silencer · trash screens · air plenum .
. The compressor draws in atmospheric air through the air inlet and increases its pressure while reducing its volume.Compressor Section The purpose of the compressor section is to compress air for cooling and combustion.
Axial Flow Compressor In an axial flow compressor the air flows axially. This means that the air flows in a relatively straight path in line with the axis of the gas turbine. .
Axial Flow Compressor The Main Components : · case · rotor · stator .
.Axial Flow Compressor The Compressor Case: The compressor case contains the rotor and the stator. The case is divided into halves. The upper half may be removed for inspection or maintenance of the rotor and stator blades while the bottom half remains in place.
Axial Flow Compressor The Compressor Rotor: The rotor is the rotating element of the compressor. drum. or wheel. These blades push air to the rear in the same way a propeller does. The rotor contains blades fixed on a spindle. The movement of air is caused by the angle and the shape of the blades. .
. This controlled direction provides increased blade efficiency.Axial Flow Compressor Compressor Stator Stator vanes are the non-moving elements of the compressor. Stator vanes receive high velocity air from each preceding rotor stage of the compressor. They are located between each rotor stage. Stator vanes direct airflow to the next stage of compression at the desired angle. Stator blades are attached to the inner wall of the case.
From there.Axial Flow Compressor Operation When air enters the compressor through the air inlet. called inlet guide vanes. . it is deflected in the direction of blade rotation. The air is then caught and turned as it passes through a set of stator vanes. the air is picked up by another set of rotating blades. incoming air passes through the first row of vanes. As the air enters the first set of rotating blades.
At the compressor exit. . A major effect of an unstable compression process is surging. air volume is decreased.Axial Flow Compressor Operation: As pressure is increased by successive rotor/stator blade sets. the diffusion section finishes the compression process by decreasing air velocity and increasing pressure just before the air enters the combustion section. which is discussed next.
Axial Flow Compressor Compressor Surge: Compressor surge is a characteristic common to all types of gas turbines. The air then tends to reverse flow. the forward compressor blades may provide more air than the downstream stages can compress. When a compressor is not operating at its optimum speed. surge is the result of unstable airflow in the compressor. The compressor surges. This unstable condition is often caused by air building up in the rear stages of the compressor. In general. .
Axial Flow Compressor Compressor Surge Protection: Compressor is protected against surge by: • Inlet Guide Vanes •Air Bleed Valve .
Compression ratios are discussed next. For example. the twoshaft gas turbine design reduces the possibility of surging. Several methods are used to control surging.Axial Flow Compressor Compressor Surge Surging causes the machine to vibrate excessively. . Compressors with higher compression ratios have a greater tendency to surge.
Single axial compressors usually have a compression ratio of approximately 8:1. high-powered gas turbines require greater efficiency and higher compression than can be obtained with a single axial flow compressor. Compression ratio is determined by the discharge pressure (psia) divided by the suction pressure (psia).Axial Flow Compressor Compression Ratio: Large. .
. The front end of the diffuser is bolted to the compressor case. and the back end is attached to the combustion section.Diffuser Purpose The diffuser is located between the compressor section and the main components of the combustion section. The purpose of the diffuser is to prepare the air for entry into the combustion section.
This addition of heat causes the gases to expand and accelerate into the turbine section.Combustion Section The combustion section is located between the compressor and turbine sections. . The hot gases that are generated by burning fuel in the combustion chambers are used to power the turbine and the load. The purpose of the combustion section is to add heat energy to the flowing gases.
A basic combustion chamber consists of the following: · · · · outer case perforated inner liner fuel injectors source of ignition .The Combustion Chamber The main component of the combustion section is the combustion chamber (burner).
the spark plug stops firing. During start-up. After combustion occurs. The burning gases supply the heat energy required to operate the turbine and load. . pressure-regulated fuel to the combustion chamber where it is mixed with the incoming compressed air from the diffuser.The Combustion Chamber The fuel system supplies clean. the fuel and air mixture is ignited by a spark plug (source of ignition).
. Some are equipped with only crossfire tubes. Not all combustion chambers have spark plugs. Note the location of the spark plugs. The figure shows a typical combustion chamber arrangement.The Combustion Chamber Coaxial Arrangement Combustion chambers are arranged coaxially (common axis) with the compressor and turbine to allow efficient flow-through operation.
fuel is injected. Because high pressure compressed air surrounds the burner on all sides except the rear. the hot. expanding gases are directed toward the turbine section. . and the fuel/air mixture is ignited and burned.Combustion Process Compressed air enters the combustion chamber. The burning or combustion gases expand and travel toward a point of lower pressure at the rear of the chambers.
Airflow To operate efficiently. a combustion chamber must provide: · a means for proper mixing of air and fuel · a way to cool the hot combustion products to a temperature the turbine section components can tolerate. .
Airflow To accomplish these actions. . airflow through the combustor is divided into two air paths: · primary · secondary The primary air is approximately 25% of the total air that enters the chamber. Primary air is sent to the fuel nozzle area for combustion.
The rest of the primary air enters radially through small holes in the front third of the combustion liner. . All primary airflow supports combustion.Air Flow Primary & Secondary Air About half of the primary air flows axially through the front of the combustion liner in the area of the fuel nozzles.
.Air Flow Primary & Secondary Air: Some of this airflow also centers the flame and keeps it from contacting the combustion liner. This part of the airflow dilutes the combustion gases to an acceptable temperature to improve the turbine components service life. The other half of the secondary air enters the combustion liner toward the rear.
Turbine Section The turbine section is located between the combustion and the exhaust sections of the engine. The purpose of the turbine section is to convert the energy of the expanding gases into mechanical energy to drive the compressor. and the load. the accessories. .
the turbine section consists of two major components: · The stator or turbine nozzles · The rotor or turbine wheel .Turbine Section Turbine Section Components Like the compressor section.
.Turbine Section Stators & Rotors The stators and the rotors of the turbine and compressor sections are similar in their construction. Contd. Their positioning is critical to efficient engine operation. and blades are positioned. nozzles. The primary difference is the angle at which the vanes.
the shape and position of the turbine nozzle vanes form passages for expanding gas flow. .Turbine Section Turbine Nozzle The turbine nozzle vanes have two purposes: · prepare the combustion gases for driving the turbine rotor · deflect the combustion gases in the direction of the turbine rotation To accomplish this. Contd.
accessories. the rotor or turbine wheel. and load.Turbine Section Turbine Rotor The energy of the gases leaving the first row of turbine nozzle vanes encounters the next major component of the turbine section. The turbine rotor consists of the following: · shaft · disk · blades or buckets . The purpose of the turbine rotor is to extract mechanical energy to operate the compressor.
Turbine Section Turbine Rotor Blades The blades of the turbine wheel are mounted to the disk in the same manner as compressor blades are mounted to the rotor. bulb. or dove-tail type roots. . This rotor and disk assembly is attached to the shaft. by either fir-tree.
the stator and the rotor. We have looked at the purpose.Turbine Section Nozzle Vane Assembly Each set of stator vanes forms a nozzle vane assembly for the following turbine wheel. Exit guide vanes straighten the gas flow as it enters the exhaust section. Our next focus is on the operation or flow of gases through the turbine section. function. and design features of the two main components of the turbine section. .
.Turbine Section Operation: Hot. the components of the compressor section convert energy by increasing the airflow pressure. As you recall. The nozzle vanes direct the expanding gases into the turbine section. expanding gases from each burner (or combustion chamber) flow through a transition duct to turbine nozzle vanes.
.Turbine Section Operation In contrast. the components of the turbine section convert energy by reducing the pressure of the flowing gases. Pressure is changed to velocity by the shape and position of both the turbine stator vanes and the rotor blades.
Turbine Section Gas Flow The shape of the vanes causes an increase in velocity as the gases pass between the vanes. As Bernoulli's principle states: · an increase in velocity causes a decrease in pressure . As the gases flow into the first set of vanes. the gases accelerate because the space between the vanes is converging (a funnel effect similar to the first half of the venturi tube).
the gases still have enough energy to do work. At this point. The shape of the rotor blades also accelerates the gases. The turbine blades redirect the hot gases into the second row of nozzle vanes. causing it to rotate.Turbine Section Gas Flow The gases leaving the nozzle vanes reach their maximum velocity just before they hit the first-stage turbine. .
. This reduces backpressure on the turbine section. Approximately two-thirds of the total energy available for work in a gas turbine is used to turn the compressor. Exit vanes reduce turbulence before the gases enter the exhaust section.Turbine Section Gas Flow The process continues through each stage of the turbine section.
The gas turbine in the figure is a twostage turbine driving a three-stage . More than one stage is used in the turbine section to extract as much power as possible from the hot.Multiple Stage Compressors Gas turbine manufacturers may place more than one set of compressor and turbine stages in an engine as shown in the figure. The additional stages in the compressor section provide more compression of the air before combustion. expanding gases.
The exhaust section is located directly behind the turbine section of the engine. The purpose of the exhaust section is to discharge the spent gases to the atmosphere.Exhaust Section Purpose When the gases exit the turbine section they enter the last section of the gas turbine. the exhaust section. .
The exhaust section usually consists of the following components: · outer housing housing · struts · inner · plenum
These components act as a diffuser, to reduce the turbulence and velocity of exhaust gases.
The inner housing may contain the gas turbine rear bearing assembly and over speed trip device. The outer housing flange is used to connect the exhaust collector or plenum to the gas turbine exhaust section. The diffusion process occurs in the exhaust section as the volume is increased.
As the exhaust gases pass through the exhaust section components: · the velocity is decreased · the pressure remains relatively constant · the turbulence is reduced The exhaust gases enter the atmosphere from the exhaust plenum.
Silencers are usually installed in both the air inlet system and the exhaust section of the gas turbine to reduce operating noise. Silencing is accomplished by baffles covered with sound-absorbing material. In some air inlet ducts, the interior walls of the ducting and air plenum chambers are also lined with this sound-absorbing material.
Purpose: Some of these accessories are the oil pumps, hydraulic pump, fuel pump, and starting means interface. The primary purpose of the accessory drive is to provide a means to drive each accessory at the proper speed and to connect and disconnect the engine from its starting device. The figure shows a typical G.E. accessory drive assembly.
The gearbox is usually located at the front (forward) or the rear (aft) of the gas turbine engine. describes its typical accessory drive system as the main link between the gas turbine and the drive components of the starting system.Accessory Drives G. G.E.E. depending on the engine inlet or exhaust arrangements. . Accessory Drive The accessory drive gear is driven by a shaft that meshes with a helical gear driven by the main rotor shaft.
E. Engine oil from the lube oil pump or the hydraulic pump may leak into. the accessory drive assembly through the drive shaft seal.Accessory Drives G. Accessory Drive: Function The gear drives several accessory devices that support gas turbine operation. or from. Each drive pad is a point of potential oil leakage because of the shaft seal arrangement. .
accessory gear also provides a mount for the turbine overspeed trip bolt mechanism. Accessory Drive: Function The G. The Solar accessory drive is discussed next. The trip bolt mechanism is mounted on the exterior case of the accessory gear.Accessory Drives G. This is covered in more detail in a later lesson.E. The actual overspeed trip bolt is mounted in the main or number one gear shaft.E. .
Accessory Drives Solar Accessory Drive: Function (Contd. pinion gears.) On Solar gas turbines. seal oil pump. lube oil pump. the accessory drive is attached to the air inlet assembly. Mounting pads and gear drives are provided for the starter. speed governor. The accessory housing contains the accessory drive gears. hydraulic oil pump. and the necessary shafts and bearings. and other .
Accessory Drives Solar Accessory Drive: Function If a particular accessory is not used. a cover plate is installed on the mounting pad. During the starting cycle. . the Solar accessory gear is driven by the starter assembly.
During the start cycle. the gas turbine compressor is driven by the gear. .Accessory Drives Solar Accessory Drive: Function A starter disengaging jaw clutch and accessory drive adapter connect the starter to a spur gear and shaft. the compressor shaft drives the gear. After the starter jaw clutch disconnects.
Bearings The main bearings of a gas turbine engine are mounted in a bearing housing. Most bearing housings contain seals to prevent oil leakage into the gas path. .
Bearings Purpose Bearings have several purposes. They: · support engine parts · minimize friction · minimize wear · allow freedom of movement · carry loads .
) · axial forces of power or load change · compression and tension loads between stationary parts and rotating parts caused by thermal expansion and misalignment · vibration .Bearings The primary loads that act on main bearings are: · weight of the rotating mass (compressor. turbine. etc.
such as engine accessories. Plain bearings are used in minor load locations. .Bearings Plain Bearings: There are several types of bearings used in gas turbines: · plain or sleeve · ball and roller Plain bearings are the simplest type of bearing.
pressurized lube oil is injected into the bearing through oil passages. .Bearings Plain Bearing Assembly A plain bearing assembly consists of the: · bearing support or bracket · bearing housing or container · plain or sleeve bearing During engine operation.
Bearings This oil forms a film between the bearing and the surface that is being supported to prevent metal-to-metal contact. . The rotating part moves on a film of lube oil instead of on the surface of the bearing.
Bearings Ball & Roller Bearings Ball bearings and roller bearings are called antifriction bearings because the balls and rollers minimize friction. Ball and roller bearings are commonly used because they: · offer little resistance to rotation · provide precise alignment of rotating parts · are relatively inexpensive · can withstand momentary overloads · are easy to lubricate · work with both radial and axial loads · can endure elevated temperatures .
Bearings Ball Bearings The main disadvantages of ball and roller bearings are that they: · are easily damaged by foreign matter · fail with very little warning A ball bearing consists of the following components: · an inner and an outer race · a set of polished steel balls · a ball retainer .
Roller bearings are made in different shapes and sizes for both radial and thrust loads. Straight roller bearings primarily support radial loads. . but use rollers rather than balls.Bearings Roller Bearings Roller bearings also have an inner and an outer race. Tapered roller bearings support both radial and thrust loads.
Bearings designed to resist thrust in one direction have a heavier race on the side that supports the thrust. . When a roller is tapered. it rolls on an angled outer race. the roller is located between an inner and an outer race.Bearings In roller bearings. The inner races of ball and roller bearings are closely fitted to the rotor shafts to prevent movement of the shaft.
There are two types of hydrodynamic bearings: · radial oil-wedge · thrust oil-wedge .Bearings Types: Hydrodynamic Bearings Hydrodynamic bearings use an oil wedge for support and to reduce friction.
Bearings Hydrodynamic Bearings: Radial OilWedge A radial oil-wedge bearing resembles a plain bearing except the bearing or bushing is divided into several sections. Each pad is able to tilt or lean. . the pads tilt to allow wedges of oil to form between the pad and the shaft. or pads. When the shaft rotates in the bearing.
The axial movement of a gas turbine rotor shaft is controlled by thrust bearings. .Bearings Oil wedges support the shaft as it rotates and cannot be squeezed out of the bearing housing when a heavy load is imposed.
Bearings A typical thrust oilwedge bearing consists of: · a bearing housing · thrust shoes · a thrust collar attached to the rotating shaft The shaft is held in position by oil pressure acting against the thrust collar. If the shaft moves. Hydrodynamic Bearings: Radial OilWedge . the thrust collar loading increases to prevent further movement.
the thrust shoes are positioned against leveling plates.Bearings The thrust oil-wedge bearing operates on the same principle as a radial oil-wedge bearing. As the thrust shoes pivot during gas turbine operation. In a thrust oil-wedge bearing. oil wedges form between the thrust collar and the shoes. . The oil wedges limit axial thrust of the rotor shaft.
Hydrodynamic Bearings: Radial OilWedge . Lube oil is delivered to the bearings to provide support.Bearings Bearing assemblies must be well supported and strong enough to support the loads imposed by the rotating rotor. Information about seals is presented next.
Gas Turbine Performance .
Because cold air is more dense than hot air. The more air in the gas turbine. Some of these factors are: · air density · contaminants Temperature and water content affect the density of the air. it has more mass.Gas Turbine Performance Atmospheric factors affect the performance of gas turbines. . the more force created.
The gearbox is connected to the turbine rotor and compressor.Pneumatic Starting System Purpose: The purpose of a gas turbine engine starting system is to provide power to: · rotate the turbine shaft to starting speed · assist the turbine to self-sustaining speed after combustion occurs Most gas turbine engines are started by starter power input to the main accessory gearbox. . Any gas under pressure may be used as a power source for a pneumatic starting system.
Pneumatic Starting System Starting System: Components Natural gas must meet the manufacturer's specifications. The main components of a Solar Centaur starting system are as follows: · gas inlet strainer · · · · · pilot gas filter solenoid-operated pilot valve starter motor shutoff valve lubricator starter motors . A typical pneumatic starting system requires approximately 2600 scfm.
A shutoff valve is located downstream of the strainer to shut off the gas supply to the starter motor. .Pneumatic Starting System Gas Inlet Strainer The gas inlet strainer is located at the gas turbine skid upstream of the shutoff valve. A pilot supply line branches off from the main gas supply to the starting system. The strainer is a Y-shaped fitting that houses a removable cylindrical "strainer" screen. This line provides pneumatic pressure to the solenoid-activated pilot valve.
The filter prevents foreign matter from entering the solenoid-operated pilot valve.Pneumatic Starting System Pilot Gas Filter A pilot gas filter assembly. is installed in the pilot supply line upstream of the pilot valve. The pressure-reducing orifice creates a pressure drop in the pilot supply line. This pressure drop ensures that the pilot valve will operate properly in the event of excessive gas pressure. . consisting of a 10-micron filter and a pressurereducing orifice.
allowing the shutoff valve to open.Pneumatic Starting System Starting System: Pilot Valve The pilot valve is a three-way. When the solenoid is energized. pilot gas pressure closes the starter motor shutoff valve. . solenoidoperated valve that is powered by 24-volt DC from the electrical system and actuated by the control system. A pilot relief valve protects the filter and pilot valve from excessive pressure. The pilot valve opens and closes the starter motor shutoff valve. When the solenoid is de-energized. pilot gas pressure is vented.
The starter motor shutoff valve is installed upstream of the lubricator. .Pneumatic Starting System Starter Shutoff Valve: The pilot-actuated starter motor shutoff valve controls gas flow from the supply line to the two starter motors.
injects lubricating oil into the gas flow. In addition. (Contd. the lubricator bowl has an oil level sight glass.Pneumatic Starting System Lubricator A lubricator. A sight dome is used to check oil flow. located downstream of the starter motor shutoff valve. The purpose of the lubricator is to provide atomized lubricating oil to the starter motor vanes.) .
Pneumatic Starting System
The figure shows a starter motor and the clutch, called a sprag or sprag clutch assembly. The clutch in this installation is in the housing that is mounted on the engine gearbox drive. The pawls , driving or holding links of a ratchet that permit motion in one direction only, are forced inward by small springs to engage the sprag clutch ratchet. At a preset engine speed, the pawls are thrown
Gas Turbine Fuel Systems
The purpose of a fuel system is to supply an exact amount of clean fuel to the engine under all operating conditions. The amount of fuel is based on turbine speed and load requirements. The fuel pressure required for a gas turbine is primarily a function of the compression ratio of the compressor section. For example, the lower the compression ratio, the lower the fuel pressure requirement; the higher the compression ratio, the higher the fuel pressure requirement.
Gas Turbine Fuel Systems
Gas Turbine Fuel Systems: Purpose
Almost any combustible fluid, either gaseous or liquid, can be used for turbine fuel. Some gas turbines operate on both liquid fuel and fuel gas. Both fuel gas and liquid fuel must be clean for efficient turbine operations. However, fuel requirement specifications differ among manufacturers. The following information on fuel gas and liquid fuel requirements is provided to illustrate the differences in specifications.
Gas Turbine Fuel Systems
Fuel Gas Requirements
The figure lists typical fuel gas requirements for gas turbine engines. These requirements are: · lower heating value
· supply pressure · gas temperature · fuel quality
The following page shows specifications for liquid fuel.
Gas Turbine Fuel Systems
Liquid Fuel Requirements
The figure lists typical liquid fuel requirements for gas turbine engines. These requirements are: · · · · fuel temperature fuel viscosity pour point fuel quality
NOTE: Always check the turbine manufacturer's fuel specifications to ensure that the fuel meets the specifications for the gas turbine you are operating. The main components of a fuel gas system and liquid fuel system are given next. We will begin with the fuel gas system.
Gas Turbine Fuel Systems Fuel Gas System: Components The main components of a typical gas turbine fuel gas system are as follows: · fuel shutoff valve (SOV) · vent valve · pressure control valve (PCV) · pressure indicator controller (PIC) · pressure safety valve(s) (PSV) · instruments and alarms · filter separators · control system · fuel gas heater (optional depending on gas dew point) .
· control system .Gas Turbine Fuel Systems Liquid Fuel System: Components The main components of a typical liquid fuel system are: · manifold · nozzles · pumps · filters · pressure switches · fuel control valves Contd · solenoid-operating valves.
.Lubrication & Lube Oil The purpose of a gas turbine lubricating oil system is to provide clean and cool oil to engine parts that are subject to friction.
Lubrication & Lube Oil Lube oil: · reduces friction · cushions · cools · cleans · seals .
The oil films slide against each other to prevent metal-tometal contact.Lubrication & Lube Oil The primary purpose of any lubricant is to reduce friction between moving parts. . A lubricating oil system provides oil films as surface coatings on moving parts.
. As the shaft rotates. friction in the engine is fluid friction instead of metal-to metal friction. a layer of oil prevents the journal from physically touching the bearing. oil pressure will actually lift the journal of a shaft off the bearing on which it is resting. For example.Lubrication & Lube Oil Reducing Friction When the oil film is unbroken.
The oil: · prevents metal-to-metal contact · absorbs shock. for example shock imposed on gear teeth as they mesh .Lubrication & Lube Oil Lube oil acts as a cushion between moving parts.
Lube oil cools the internal parts of an engine by absorbing heat. Oil also cleans internal engine parts. The oil carries this heat away from the engine. The heat is removed from the oil when the oil goes through the oil cooler. .Lubrication & Lube Oil Cooling & Cleaning One of the laws of thermodynamics states that heat is transferred from a hot substance to a cooler substance.
A very small space exists between the two parts of a seal. To perform these functions lube oil must meet certain requirements. This space is sometimes filled with lube oil.Lubrication & Lube Oil Seal Formation Lube oil is also used to form seals. Mechanical seals are installed in an engine between the moving and nonmoving parts. . A thin film of oil between sealing surfaces makes a mechanical seal more leak resistant.
toxic. . or both. The last part of this lesson focuses on the operation of a lube oil system as a complete system.Lubrication & Lube Oil Service Procedures: · Wear proper protective clothing and gloves because all lubricating oils contain additives that are irritating to the skin.
the following procedures should be followed: · Maintain cleanliness. . · Use a 10-micron or smaller filter when servicing with bulk oil. · Do not allow foreign matter to enter the system.Lubrication & Lube Oil Service Procedures: When servicing the lube oil system.
This can result in improper lubrication of the engine.If a hand pump is used to service lube oil. · Do not mix incompatible lubricants.Lubrication & Lube Oil Service Procedures: . · Record the amount of oil serviced. . use that pump for one specific lube oil only.
auxiliary.Lubrication & Lube Oil Operation: The lube oil supply is stored in the lube oil reservoir. to the lube oil system. and pre/post lube oil pumps draw oil from the lube oil reservoir under pressure. . Main. The oil then flows The oil filter removes contaminant particles that are suspended in the oil. from the pump to the lube oil filter. The temperature control valve regulates the oil temperature.
temperature indicator. From the oil supply manifold. the oil flows to the oil feed manifold. . and the generator bearings.Lubrication & Lube Oil Operation: After passing through the filter. alarm switch. the hydraulic pump. lube oil is distributed to the turbine rotor bearings. An oil pressure gauge. and shutdown switch monitor oil temperature and pressure in the oil supply manifold. the reduction gear bearings.
Lubrication & Lube Oil Operation: After lubricating the bearings and gears. . Lube oil system operation will vary from manufacturer to manufacturer. but the components are basically the same. the lube oil is returned to the lube oil reservoir.
Lubrication & Lube Oil Components: A typical gas turbine lube oil system consists of the following components: · · · · · · lube oil reservoir oil pumps oil filters oil coolers control devices instruments and alarms End Show Contents .
control. The lube oil reservoir also provides the oil for starting. accessory drive systems. positioning inlet guide vanes. and trip oil circuits. .Lubrication & Lube Oil Oil Reservoir: The purpose of the lube oil reservoir is to contain an ample supply of lubricant for the gas turbine. gearbox. and driven equipment.
and switches. A sealed float device operates level transmitters (LT). and high oil temperature will initiate shutdowns of most gas Reservoirs may have both a level sight glass and a level indicator to turbine engines. Low oil pressure. The switches activate high (LSH) and low (LSL) level alarms and shutdowns. indicators (LI).Lubrication & Lube Oil Reservoir Component Functions Lube oil temperature is usually measured in the reservoir. low oil level. Proper lube oil temperature is necessary for most gas turbines. . indicate oil level.
The purpose of the pressure regulator (PCV) is to control the lube oil system pressure by returning excess lube oil to the reservoir.Lubrication & Lube Oil Reservoir Component Functions The lube oil reservoir is vented to the atmosphere to maintain an even pressure in the tank. A flame arrestor is often installed in the vent to prevent a source of ignition from entering the reservoir. System protection is provided by a pressure relief valve (PSV) located at the discharge of each pump. .
The lube oil pumps take suction from the oil reservoir and discharge into a common header.Lubrication & Lube Oil Lube Oil Pumps: The purpose of lube oil pumps is to provide lube oil under pressure for lubrication of the engine and associated equipment. .
Lubrication & Lube Oil Lube oil system pumps are classified as: · main · auxiliary · emergency All three types use oil from the lube oil reservoir. .
.Lubrication & Lube Oil Lube Oil Pumps Types: The three most common types of lube oil system main pumps are the following: · vane · gerotor · gear These pumps are positive displacement pumps because they send a fixed quantity or constant volume of oil to the pump outlet during each revolution.
When the spaces between the vanes.Lubrication & Lube Oil Sliding Vane Pump Pumping action in the sliding vane lube oil pump takes place as the rotor drive shaft and the eccentric rotor drive the sliding vanes. the oil is forced out of the pump. This oil is carried to the outlet port as the rotors turn. The space between each pair of sliding vanes fills with oil as the oil passes the oil inlet port. and the inner walls of the pump case reduce to minimum clearance. the eccentric rotor. .
intake to Several elements can be mounted on a single shaft inside the pump case. .Lubrication & Lube Oil Gerotor Pump Components The figure shows the pumping element of a gerotor pump. The gerotor pump operates on a principle similar to that of the vane pump. The gerotor pump uses a lobe shaped drive gear inside an elliptically The right side ofto move oil from an a complete pumping shaped idler gear the figure shows element.a discharge port.
· As the space reaches maximum volume. it is closed to the intake port and is in position to open to the discharge port.Lubrication & Lube Oil Gerotor Pump Operation Gerotor pump operation is shown in the lower portion of the figure. . · From 0° to 180° of pump rotation. the space between the lobes and the openings increases from a minimum to a maximum volume.
the space reaches minimum volume.Lubrication & Lube Oil Gerotor Pump Operation: At the 270° point of rotation. · At 360° again. This action takes place in each of the seven interlobal spaces between the inner six-lobe gerotor and the outer seven-lobe gerotor. repeating the cycle as rotation continues. The space is closed to discharge and begins to open to the intake port. the space decreases in volume. . forcing oil out the discharge port.
The most commonly used lube oil pump is the gear pump shown in the figure on the following page.Lubrication & Lube Oil Gerotor Pump Operation The inner drive gear in the figure has six lobes (teeth). . until a minimum clearance forces the oil out through the discharge port. This extra lobe allows oil to fill the one open space as it passes the intake port. The outer idler gear has seven openings. The oil moves through the pump as the pump rotates.
The gear lube oil pump is usually engine driven by the accessory gears. that rotate in a pump case. .Lubrication & Lube Oil Gear Pump Components & Operation A gear pump usually consists of two close-fitting gears. the drive and idler gears. The pump case provides minimum space between the gear teeth and the inner walls of the case.
The idler gear seals the pump inlet from the outlet and prevents the oil from reversing flow. the gears take in oil. . The gears rotate in a direction that forces the oil to move between the gear teeth and the pump inner case until the oil is delivered to the pump outlet port.Lubrication & Lube Oil When the pump is rotating.
the drive and idler gears. When the pump is rotating.Lubrication & Lube Oil Gear Pump Components & Operation A gear pump usually consists of two close-fitting gears. The pump case provides minimum space between the gear teeth and the inner walls of the case. the . that rotate in a pump case. The gear lube oil pump is usually engine driven by the accessory gears.
The idler gear seals the pump inlet from the outlet and prevents the oil from reversing flow. .Lubrication & Lube Oil The gears rotate in a direction that forces the oil to move between the gear teeth and the pump inner case until the oil is delivered to the pump outlet port.
Lubrication & Lube Oil Auxiliary Pump: Purpose & Function The purpose of an auxiliary lube oil pump is to supply lube oil: · during gas turbine startup · during gas turbine shutdown or cool down · anytime the main lube oil pump cannot supply lubricating oil .
Lubrication & Lube Oil When gas turbine engine start-up begins. . The auxiliary oil pump operates for a preset time before the starter engages. The auxiliary lube oil pump operates until the gas turbine engine accelerates to approximately 90% of its normal operating speed. oil is delivered to the lube oil system by the AC-powered auxiliary lube oil pump.
the auxiliary lube oil pump is again started by the control system when engine speed slows to approximately 80% speed. The figure shows a typical vertical. centrifugal pump. . The auxiliary oil pump continues to operate throughout the shutdown and cool-down cycles.Lubrication & Lube Oil Auxiliary Pump: Purpose & Function During gas turbine engine shutdown.
This type of pump uses an impeller to move the oil through the system. A vertical.Lubrication & Lube Oil Unlike the pumps discussed up to this point. . centrifugal pumps are not positive displacement pumps. centrifugal pump is sometimes used as an auxiliary and an emergency lube oil pump.
. The emergency lube oil pump is similar to the auxiliary oil pump.Lubrication & Lube Oil Emergency Pump: Purpose & Function The purpose of an emergency lube oil pump is to supply lube oil during an emergency shutdown if the auxiliary lube oil pump is inoperative or is unable to maintain sufficient lube oil pressure. The main difference is that the auxiliary lube oil pump is operated by an AC motor and the emergency lube oil pump is operated by a DC motor. The next topic discusses how these pumps function within the operation of a typical lube oil system.
Lubrication & Lube Oil Lube Oil Pumps: Operation The figure shows a basic gas turbine lube oil system. The main lubricating oil pump takes suction from the lube oil tank and supplies oil under pressure to the temperature control valve. After lubricating engine parts. the lube oil is returned to the oil Contd. . reservoir. filter and supply manifold.
When the engine reaches sufficient speed for the main (engine driven) oil pump to provide adequate lube oil pressure. After lube oil pressure has been established. . the pre/postlube oil pump is automatically shut down. supplies lube oil under pressure during the engine start and shutdown cycles. or pre/postlube oil pump. the engine begins to rotate.Lubrication & Lube Oil An auxiliary oil pump.
Lubrication & Lube Oil Lube Oil Pumps: Operation This pump draws oil from the reservoir and sends it to the lube oil filter and oil supply manifold for distribution to the lubrication points. At engine shutdown. . Oil pressure is regulated by the relief valve (PSV) during pre/postlube auxiliary oil pump operation. system. the postlube oil The postlube oil pump operates for a preset time after pump is activated by the control shutdown to provide postlubrication and to cool the engine.
Lubrication & Lube Oil Lube Oil Filters: Purpose The purpose of lube oil filters is to remove particles that collect in the oil. resulting in excessive wear and bearing failure. These particles can lodge in the close spaces between bearings and seals. . Contaminants in lube oil will increase the friction between moving parts.
Lubrication & Lube Oil Lube Oil System: Contaminant Sources Contaminants in lube oil systems are primarily from the following sources: · small particles of carbon from the breakdown of oil · metallic particles from engine wear and corrosion · airborne contaminants entering through bearing seals · dirt and other foreign matter introduced into the reservoir during servicing .
) . Disposable filters are heavily pleated. Disposable filters are smaller than cleanable screen (wire mesh) filters.Lubrication & Lube Oil Lube Oil Filters: Types The most common types of lube oil system oil filters are the disposable filter and the cleanable screen filter (wire mesh). Disposable filters are capable of filtering particles as small as 5 microns. ( Contd.
The duplex has two filter cases. the engine must be shut down to replace the filter elements. . When a simplex oil filter is used.Lubrication & Lube Oil Lube Oil Filters: Types of Assemblies Two types of lube oil filter assemblies are used in gas turbine lube oil systems: · simplex · duplex The simplex has only one filter case.
.Lubrication & Lube Oil Lube Oil Filters: Simplex Assembly A simplex lube oil filter assembly usually consists of the following: · filter case · plumbing · differential pressure gauge · differential pressure alarm switch The filter case is shaped like a cylinder and contains replaceable filter elements. Each filter element is a pleated paper cartridge designed to filter particles that are larger than 5 microns.
Lubrication & Lube Oil Lube Oil Filters: Duplex Filter Assembly Many gas turbine engines have a duplex lube oil filter assembly instead of a simplex oil filter. The oil flow can be diverted to the clean filter case. The operation of the lube oil system is the same except that the engine does not need to be shut down to replace a dirty filter element. Each case contains replaceable filter elements. . The duplex oil filter has two filter cases.
Lubrication & Lube Oil Lube Oil Coolers: Purpose & Types The purpose of the lube oil system oil coolers is to maintain a specified lube oil temperature. heat exchangers. One of the laws of thermodynamics states that heat can only be transferred from a hot surface to a colder surface. The two most common types of oil coolers Oil coolers are are: · oil-to-water · oil-to-air . The specified temperature must be maintained under differing oil heat loads that take place with differing operating conditions.
They should be inspected for oil and water leaks during each routine and off-line maintenance inspection. The oil-to-air cooler uses air to cool the oil.Lubrication & Lube Oil Lube Oil Coolers: Oil-to-Water Cooler The oil-to-water cooler uses water to cool the oil. . The heat exchanger transfers heat from the lube oil to the water and keeps the oil at the proper Lube oil coolers require minimal operating checks and maintenance. The figure shows an oil-to-water cooler. temperature. The oil-towater cooler is discussed first.
overpressure. Thermal shock is prevented by starting the flow of oil system has through the for maintenance. Pulsations of fluids through oil coolers can cause vibrations that may damage the cooler and shorten its operating life. and hydraulic hammer.Lubrication & Lube Oil Lube Oil Coolers: Flow High bearing header lube oil temperature may indicate that the oil cooler tubes are fouled and in need of cleaning. must be gradually filled with flow is started. . Lube oil coolers can be damaged by thermal shock. the system If the lube cooling water been down oil cooler before the hot lube oil fluids as air is vented from the system.
An oil-to-air lube oil cooler keeps lube oil temperature within operating limits by using an oil-toair heat exchanger with an electrically operated fan.Lubrication & Lube Oil Lube Oil Coolers: Oilto-Air Cooler The oil-to-air cooler and thermostatic valve arrangement is similar to the oil-to-water cooler. The primary difference is that the actual heat exchanger resembles the radiator cooler used for water cooled reciprocating engines. .
Lube oil under pressure from the oil pump either bypasses the oil coolers or enters one of the coolers through the transfer valve. the temperature control valve will open port B to port A and the Contd oil will bypass the oil coolers. ..Lubrication & Lube Oil Lube Oil Coolers: Operation The figure shows a diagram of an oil-to-air cooler subsystem. If the oil temperature is less than approximately 60°F.
Information about Solar lube oil system instruments and alarms begins on the next page with the level indicator. .Lubrication & Lube Oil Solar Instruments & Alarms The figure shows a typical Solar lube oil schematic.
. they are labyrinth or carbon. The purpose of oil seals is to prevent oil from leaking from the bearing housing. There are two types of oil seals.Seals To prevent leakage of oil from a narrow flow path. bearing assemblies usually contain oil seals. Both types are often used in the same seal assembly.
It also controls compressed air from the compressor section and hot gases from the turbine section that leak along the shaft. teeth in the shaft. Also provided is a vent and a drain for removal of gas and liquids. A labyrinth seal assembly consists of grooves in the seal and. .Seals Types: Labyrinth Seal The labyrinth seal is a controlledleakage device that allows minimal leakage across the seal. Air from the gas path outside the bearing housing bleeds inward through the grooves in the labyrinth seal. in some cases.
Lube oil enters at the top of the bearing housing and drains out the bottom. The figure shows a typical compressor rear bearing housing arrangement. ( Contd.Seals Types: Labyrinth Seal in Bearing Housing Seal dams formed by the teeth and grooves in the labyrinth seal allow a metered amount of air from the engine gas path to flow inward.) .
This prevents lube oil from leaking through the seals. .Seals Labyrinth Seal in Bearing Housing: Labyrinth seals are installed in both ends of the bearing housing with bleed air pressure against the outer surfaces of the seals. The air flows between the teeth and grooves of the seals into the bearing housing.
The bearing housing is contained in a cavity. across the seals. The space between the bearing housing and the walls of the cavity is pressurized with bleed air from the engine compression This type of arrangement takes advantage of controlled section. bleed air The bearing housing is vented to the atmosphere.Seals Types: Labyrinth Airoil Seal This figure shows a labyrinth air-oil seal arrangement with a dual labyrinth seal located on each side of the bearings. .
Pressurized air that leaks outward along the shaft prevents gases from leaking into the bearing housing.Seals Types: Labyrinth Air-Oil Seal The controlled leakage of air into the bearing housing prevents oil leakage. This type of air-oil seal prevents the introduction of oil into the gas path. Oil leaking into high velocity combustion gases will damage .
The carbon seal rides on a surface while the labyrinth seal has an air space.Seals Types: Carbon Seals Carbon seals are a blend of carbon and graphite. This causes a preload pressure on the carbon segment and provides a tighter seal. . Carbon seals are usually spring loaded and sometimes pressurized with air. Carbon seals perform the same function as labyrinth seals.
Seals Types: Carbon Seals Carbon seals are used for greater control of the airflow entering the bearing housing. In some engines. Carbon surfaces are usually stationary. called the seal land. A highly polished mating surface. a full contact seal is required to hold back oil that tends to puddle before it drains from the bearing housing. . is attached to the main rotor shaft.
Hydraulic Oil System
The purpose of a hydraulic system is to distribute fluid forces to various moving parts. This fluid is required for the operation of gas turbine electrohydraulic control system components, the fuel system, variable inlet guide vane mechanisms, and the hydraulic components of some starting systems.
Hydraulic Oil System
Solar: Subsystem of Lube Oil System
Solar gas turbines have two separate hydraulic oil systems: · subsystem of the lube oil system · separate servo oil system In the subsystem of the lube oil system, oil is taken from the oil supply manifold by lube oil pump pressure. It is then routed to the variable vane control valve and to the actuator to move the vanes to the maximum open position. gas turbine servo oil system is an electrohydraulic system that The Solar operates as a separate, closed-circuit hydraulic oil system. Information about this system is presented next.
Hydraulic Oil System
Solar Servo Oil System
The servo oil system shares the lube oil reservoir with the lube oil system. The purpose of the servo oil system is to operate the main fuel valve electrohydraulic servo actuator. The actuator is operated by servo oil pressure and is Contd controlled by the engine control . system. This system is closely related to the lube oil system
Hydraulic Oil System
The servo oil system consists of the following:
· pump element · servo oil filter · servo relief valve During engine operation, servo oil pressure is provided by the servo pump element that works with the twoelement, engine-driven lube oil pump.
Hydraulic Oil System
Solar Servo Oil System
Oil is drawn from the lube oil reservoir through the oil line common to all three pump elements. High-pressure servo oil flows from the servo pump outlet port through the servo oil filter to the inlet port of the servo actuator. A servo relief valve is located downstream of the servo oil pump. The servo oil filter is between the servo oil pump and the servo actuator.
The purpose of the relief valve is to protect the pump and other components in the servo oil system against excessive oil pressure.E. Information about a G. .Hydraulic Oil System The oil filter removes particles from the servo oil that are 25 microns or larger. hydraulic oil system is presented next.
Ignition System Purpose & Components The purpose of the ignition system is to supply a spark to ignite the fuel/air mixture in the combustion chambers. A typical ignition system consists of the following components: · igniter plugs or spark plugs · transformers or ignition exciter · ignition leads .
. The exciter is connected to the spark plug by a cable or lead.) Solar gas turbines use a torch ignition system consisting of: · ignition exciter · shielded cable spark plug lead · spark plug The ignition exciter is mounted in a box on the gas turbine base.Ignition System Solar Ignition System Components (Contd.
which charges a storage capacitor. Up to fifteen sparks per second are produced as long as the exciter is energized. When the capacitor charge reaches its discharge value. This power is changed to AC and then is stepped up. . Exciter output is approximately 18. the capacitor discharges through the spark plug cable to the spark plug.Ignition System Solar Ignition System Components The exciter is operated by 24 volt DC power.000 volts.
controlled amount of gas is sent to the tip of the spark plug electrode. . A small.Ignition System Components: Igniter Torch The spark plug is installed in the igniter torch. The spark jumps across the spark plug electrode's air gap and ignites the gas. The igniter torch extends through the combustor outer liner. creating a torch flame. This torch flame flares into the combustion liner to provide positive lightoff of the fuel/air mixture in the combustor.
the term high intensity means that the electrical charge can be lethal.) In ignition systems.Ignition System Ignition System Maintenance Procedures (Contd. ignition systems require special maintenance and handling according to the manufacturer's instructions. Because the electrical charge can be lethal. .
. · To remove the igniter plug. disconnect the transformer input lead.Ignition System Typical maintenance procedures include the following: · Ensure that system power is locked out before performing any maintenance on the system. wait the time specified by the manufacturer (usually 1 to 5 minutes). then disconnect the igniter lead and ground the center electrode to the engine to discharge the capacitor.
Some transformers contain radioactive material.Ignition System Ignition System Maintenance Procedures (Contd. · Before performing a firing test of igniters. ensure that the combustor is free of fuel. A fire or explosion could result.) · Use caution when handling damaged transformer units that are hermetically sealed. .
· Use a new gasket when the plug is reinstalled. Internal damage can occur that is not detectable by inspection or testing. Transformer damage may occur. The gasket provides a good current path to ground. .Ignition System Ignition System Maintenance Procedures · Do not energize the system for troubleshooting when the igniter plugs are removed. · Discard all igniter plugs that have been dropped.
unbalance.Vibration Monitoring System Purpose (Contd. worn internal parts.) The purpose of the vibration monitoring system is to help in preventing abnormal operating conditions. loads. The rotating shafts of any machine or gearbox have a tendency to move axially or radially as a result of speed. . or other reasons.
Vibration is a continuing periodic change in a displacement from a fixed reference. . A bent shaft or improper shaft alignment could be the source of vibration. Excessive vibration is a symptom of other abnormal conditions. Excessive vibration is an abnormal operating condition that can result in equipment damage.Vibration Monitoring System Purpose Axial and radial shaft movement is called vibration.
The figure shows typical vibration detector locations in relation to the rotor. Vibration is one of the critical operating parameters that is monitored by a protection system.Vibration Monitoring System Vibration Monitoring Several protective systems are used to alert operators to abnormal operating conditions that could result in damage to the turbine or other equipment. . A vibration monitoring system is usually a part of the gas turbine's programmable logic control and operator terminal.
Vibration Monitoring System Shaft Movement Vibration monitoring systems are installed on gas turbines and driven equipment to monitor and sometimes record axial and radial shaft movement. Shaft movement is monitored in either displacement (mils). (Contd. or acceleration (g's).) . velocity (length/unit-time).
Either of these measurements may be used as set points to initiate an alarm or shutdown.Vibration Monitoring System One mil equals 0.001 of an inch. . A shaft movement of 5 mils could generate an electrical impulse of one volt.
vibration probes are installed in the bearing housings near the shaft. The probe tips operate on 24-volt DC power to establish a magnetic field between the probe tip and a burnished area on the shaft. As the distance between the probe tip and the shaft changes.) In the gas turbine. . the strength of the magnetic field changes.Vibration Monitoring System Vibration Monitoring Probes (Contd.
and the monitoring systems uses this information.Vibration Monitoring System The probe senses fluctuations in the magnetic field. . The figure illustrates a typical single and double radial probe installation in a bearing.
Vibration Monitoring System Vibration Monitoring Probes: Function In the figure. Axial position probes 1 and 2 monitor shaft axial movement in two places at the thrust collar. four probes monitor the radial movement of a gas turbine shaft and two probes monitor the shaft axial location. (Contd.) . Probes 3Y and 4X measure radial movement at the low pressure end of the compressor.
The probes are placed 90 degrees apart to monitor relatively both horizontal and vertical radial movement. One probe monitors the X axis.Vibration Monitoring System Probes 5Y and 6X measure radial movement at the high pressure end of the compressor. . and the other monitors the Y axis.
and the other is mounted at the thrust collar.Vibration Monitoring System Vibration Monitoring Probes: Function Axial movement is usually monitored by two probes.) . During operation. as shown in the figure. (Contd. One probe is mounted at the end of the shaft. any of the vibration monitors can usually be read on the PLC display.
If vibration increases to the high limit (5 mils. . for example). for example).Vibration Monitoring System At some preset vibration limit (3 mils. the vibration monitoring system will initiate an alarm. another alarm is initiated and the vibration monitoring system will initiate a TRIP signal to shut the unit down before damage occurs.
removable panels for inspection and maintenance. . when needed. access doors. to meet local area classifications. Each compartment contains lighting. and. to improve appearances. high wind loads.Enclosure Purpose: The purpose of an enclosure is to protect the gas turbine/generator set from environmental elements. and to reduce noise. The enclosure is divided into compartments by bulkheads (walls). and to provide an easier means for fire enclosure discussed in this lesson is designed for outdoor installation and The protection and containment.
. Enclosure ventilation systems include: · air inlet · airflow · exhaust Information about the air inlet system is presented first. The purpose of an enclosure ventilation system is to minimize temperatures in the turbine and generator compartments.Ventilation System Purpose: A ventilation system is provided when a gas turbine/generator set is enclosed.
Ventilation System Air Inlet The purpose of an enclosure air inlet system is to: · take in air for ventilation of the enclosure · treat the quality of inlet air to make it suitable for turbine use The main components of an enclosure air inlet system are: · inlet screens · weather louvers · filters · ducting .
They are closed by gravity to provide an airtight enclosure when the fire protection system is activated.Ventilation System Airflow Components The purpose of an enclosure airflow system is to: · minimize temperature in the enclosure compartments · minimize hazards in the event of a fuel system failure The main components of an enclosure airflow system are as follows: · dampers · fans The purpose of dampers is to control the airflow in the enclosure. . Air inlet and outlet dampers are normally open.
.Ventilation System Exhaust Components The purpose of an enclosure exhaust system is to return the heated air to the atmosphere. One or more screens is installed in the outlet ducting to prevent entry of foreign matter. The outlet dampers are the fire dampers. The main components of an enclosure exhaust subsystem are as follows: · · · · fans dampers screens louvers Some enclosures have a cooling air fan installed in the exhaust or outlet duct.
An enclosure fire/rate-of-rise detection system must have the following characteristics: · reliable detectors in the correct locations · means to test the system · effective maintenance and testing procedures .Fire Detection System Purpose: The purpose of a fire/rate-of-rise detection system is to detect a fire or serious heat conditions in the gas turbine/generator set enclosure.
Fire Detection System Requirements: Fire/rate-of-rise detection systems should meet the following requirements: · initiate an immediate alarm on fire or excessive conditions · provide an indication that a fire has been extinguished and another indication if the fire reignites ( Contd. ) .
Fire Detection System Requirements: · be durable and able to resist environmental damage · incorporate an accurate and effective testing system to ensure system integrity · operate without special electrical equipment and require a minimum of power .
Fire Detection System Fire Detection System: Types The following types of fire/rate-of-rise detection systems are discussed in this lesson: · · · · · thermal switches thermocouples pneumatic circuits optical detectors gas detectors .
When the switch heats up. The switches contain a pair of contact points that are normally open. the heatsensitive arms with the contact points expand. .Fire Detection System Thermal Switches Thermal switches are either: · single wire · two wire The single-wire thermal switch fire/rate-of-rise detection system has heat-sensitive thermal switches located at points in the enclosure where temperatures are likely to be highest. The expansion is in the direction opposite the electrical terminal. The contact points close at a preset temperature.
. and the thermal switch completes an electric circuit for the alarm switch. When the circuit is complete. The switch automatically resets when it has cooled. the points close. the alarm switch initiates an alarm signal.Fire Detection System Thermal Switches The sliding piston moves to the end of the switch.
The test circuit tests the entire loop and will indicate an open circuit in the power input lead of the loop. an open circuit can occur and the system will still provide protection at each of the five surveillance points. If an overheat temperature or a fire occurs which closes one of the five thermal switches. . With this type of loop arrangement.Fire Detection System Thermal Switch: Single Wire Circuit The figure shows a single-wire circuit in which 24V DC is applied to both paths of the circuit. A short circuit in the loop will cause a false fire warning indication. a path to ground is completed through the circuit.
The only difference is that an electrical lead is connected to both arms of the thermal switch. The two-wire bi-metallic thermal switch operates the same way that the single-wire thermal switch does. .Fire Detection System Two-Wire Thermal Switch The two-wire thermal switch fire/rate-of-rise detection system remains functional with either an open or a short circuit.
Fire Detection System Thermocouple s Thermocouples are temperature sensing devices.) . (Contd. such as exhaust gas temperature or turbine outlet temperature. primarily used in temperature indicating systems.
The dissimilar metals can be any combination of metals or alloys that will produce the required results such as iron-constantan (Type J) or Chromel-Alumel (Type K).Fire Detection System A thermocouple is the junction of two dissimilar metals that generate a small electrical current that varies with the difference between the temperature of the hot junction and the cold junction. The complete thermocouple circuit consists of a "cold" junction. and a galvanometer-type indicating instrument . a "hot" junction. electrical leads made from the same material as the thermocouple.
When setpoint temperature is reached. . which energizes the alarm circuit. ready for another operation. the gas pressure is sufficient to overcome the check valve and gas flows from the detector tube to the right side of the diaphragm. The gas returns to a low pressure after the heat source is removed. The check valve arrangement and diaphragm force the gas back into the tube. The gas expands when heated. The detector is produced in various sensor tube lengths and alarm temperatures.Fire Detection System Pneumatic Fire Detection System The pneumatic fire detection system uses a gas-filled tube as a detector. This flow forces the diaphragm contacts to the left onto the alarm contacts.
The optical system detects changes in the light spectrum inside of the enclosure.) . ( Contd. Optical flame detectors use infrared and ultraviolet detectors to receive direct or reflected rays from a source of flame or heat.Fire Detection System Optical Fire Detection System The detection systems discussed so far detect temperature increases.
. two in the turbine compartment and one in the generator compartment. which powers the fire alarm. the detector signals the controller. Three optical fire detectors are shown in the figure.Fire Detection System When a fire or hot object is detected in a compartment. A fire signal is generated only when a fire is detected by both sensors.
they are usually cross-zoned or use a voting system.Fire Detection System Optical Fire Detection System When two optical detectors are installed in one compartment. Both detectors must agree that a fire condition exists before the fire monitoring system will initiate action .
the fire control system performs the following functions: · The alarmed zone is indicated.) .Fire Detection System Operation: When fire is detected by any of the sensors. (Contd. · All ventilation is shut down. specifying the zone. · An audible alarm is initiated.
after a time delay to allow personnel to evacuate the enclosure (usually 10 seconds).Fire Detection System · External audible and visual alarms are initiated. · Generally. the fire extinguisher agent is discharged. . · An emergency shutdown signal is relayed to the gas turbine/generator control system. but not always.
.Fire Detection System Fire Detection System: Operation The alarms will continue until they are manually switched off. The fire extinguishing agent must be recharged and the detection/protection system reset before the gas turbine can be restarted.
Gas Detection System Purpose & Components: The purpose of a gas detection system is to detect the presence of combustible gas in a gas turbine/generator set enclosure. The main components of a gas detection system are as follows: · sensors · detection circuit · protection system Sensors are discussed first. .
L.E. Two sensing elements are used in a sensor. L. .E.Gas Detection System Sensors Two or more sensors are installed in the gas turbine compartment and one or more in the generator compartment near the divider wall where the drive shaft or coupling penetrates the wall.E.L. is the lower explosive limit. The other element is calibrated to detect a high combustible gas concentration of 60% L. One element is calibrated to detect a low combustible gas concentration of 15% or 20% L.L.
). A 15% methane concentration is the highest concentration that can be ignited. . Lower or higher concentrations cannot be ignited.L. A 5% methane concentration with air is the lowest concentration that can be ignited.E.Gas Detection System Sensors The sensors detect the combustible gas concentration with air at the lower explosive limits (L.
The fans continue to operate until the gas detection/protection system is reset and the alarm indication is cleared by the operator. Enclosure ventilation fans that are not already running are started.E. alarm.L.E. alarm. This is the low L.Gas Detection System Detection Circuit Most gas detection systems are calibrated to initiate an alarm when the gas concentration in the enclosure reaches 15% to 20% L.L.L. . For a low L. the combustible gas detection system usually initiates both an audible and a visual alarm.E.
A 60% L. alarm initiates the following actions: · immediate gas turbine/generator shutdown. is a 3% combustible gas concentration.E.L.E. alarm is initiated at 60% L.E. if operating · immediate shutdown of all operating enclosure ventilation fans . a 60% L.Gas Detection System Protection System: A high L.E.L.L.L. On some gas turbine/generator sets.
fire extinguishing agent discharges in both the gas turbine and generator compartments.Gas Detection System Protection System: · immediate closing of all ventilation/isolation dampers · immediate activation of the audible warning device inside and outside the enclosure After a short time delay. usually 10 seconds to allow personnel to exit the enclosure. .
NOTE: Halon is being phased out worldwide. The two systems discussed in this lesson use either Halon or CO2 as the extinguishing agent.Extinguisher Systems Purpose: The purpose of a fire extinguishing system is to discharge concentrations of fire extinguishing agents into the enclosure compartments. New systems will use CO2. A Halon fire extinguisher system is discussed first. .
it leaves no residue and does not require clean-up. Halon is a chemical compound that inhibits combustion by reacting with oxygen in the air. The figure represents a typical halon extinguisher system. so that oxygen is suppressed and no longer able to support combustion. . noncorrosive.Extinguisher Systems Halon Extinguisher System Halon is a colorless. and electrically nonconductive gas. odorless. After discharge.
Extinguisher Systems Halon Extinguisher System: Components The main components of a Halon fire extinguisher system are as follows: · cylinders · valve assembly · pressure switches · discharge pipes and nozzles · heat (thermal) and fire (optical) detectors · audible alarm (horn) · monitor controller .
A minimum of two cylinders is required. Any signal which initiates Halon discharge also trips the turbine. (Contd. One cylinder supplies the initial discharge. on or near the gas turbine/generator package. ) . and the other provides the extended discharge. The number of Halon cylinders in a system depends on the volume of the protected area.Extinguisher Systems Cylinders Halon is stored in cylinders.
This is followed by an extended discharge at a slower rate to maintain the extinguishing concentration and minimize the possibility of re-ignition of combustibles exposed to hot metal surfaces.Extinguisher Systems When Halon is discharged into a compartment. the initial discharge is at a rapid rate The reason for a rapid rate during initial discharge is to build an extinguishing concentration as quickly as possible. .
Halon cylinders should not be exposed to temperatures above 130°F. Halon cylinders are held in the upright position by mounting brackets. The cylinders should be located in an area that does not receive direct sunlight because Halon is extremely temperature sensitive.Extinguisher Systems Cylinders Halon cylinders are manufactured in different sizes from 18 to 600 pounds. . The cylinders are purged with nitrogen and then filled with Halon.
The valve usually contains a differential piston.Extinguisher Systems Cylinder Valve Assembly A valve assembly is an integral part of each Halon cylinder. or pneumatically. The valve is made of brass. electrically. . Differential piston operation allows the valve to discharge Halon when actuated manually. which makes it corrosion resistant.
This pressure keeps the Halon in the cylinder because the piston seals off the . Halon pressure acts on both sides of the piston with equal pressure in areas A and B in the figure.Extinguisher Systems Cylinder Valve Assembly Operation Halon pressure from the cylinder enters the valve assembly and rises through a bleed port that contains a ball check valve.
there is a large pressure difference between the top (B) and bottom (A) areas of the valve. Halon cannot flow to the top of the piston and the pressure in areas A and B are no longer equal . When the ball check valve closes the bleed port.Extinguisher Systems When the vent valve is actuated.
When the pressure is vented. The piston moves upward. and Halon is released into the system. The valve actuators are described next. the discharge port is opened. there is no downward force acting on the piston.Extinguisher Systems Cylinder Valve Assembly Operation The valve is actuated by venting pressure from the top of the piston through the vent valve. The release of Halon is initiated by valve actuators. .
The nozzles are placed to ensure a concentrated discharge in all parts of the protected zone.Extinguisher Systems Discharge Pipes & Nozzles Discharge pipes and nozzles are used to discharge extinguishing agents. . The nozzles discharge the agent into the protected zones. Discharge pipes carry the fire extinguishing agent from the storage cylinders to the discharge nozzles.
Fire Monitor Controller
The last component discussed in the Halon fire extinguishing system is the fire monitor controller. This controller works in conjunction with other gas turbine control systems. The controller uses a microprocessor system to monitor signals from sensors installed in the enclosure. An example of a monitor controller is shown in the figure. The controller illustrated is typical of a monitor controller for an optical fire detection system with two independent types of detectors. A signal is sent to the controller only when both detectors sense a fire simultaneously.
Fire Monitor Controller
The controller monitors up to eight zones. One LED (light emitting diode) is provided for each zone. An LED blinks when a fire is present in the corresponding zone. One LED is also provided for each voting zone. A lit LED signals that the voting zone is actuated. The Test/Accept push-button disables an energized alarm or initiates a manual test of a selected detector. The inhibit LED is illuminated in the Test or Reset mode to indicate that the controller outputs are inhibited.
Fire Monitor Controller
When the lamp test switch is depressed, all LEDs and digital displays illuminate. In the reset mode, the lamp test switch indicates a complete system reset. The mode switch is used to select Normal, Reset, or Test mode. The power LED illuminates when power is applied to the fire detection system. The fault LED illuminates on fire detection system malfunction or when the controller is in the Reset or Test mode. The system status display provides a numerical code to report the system status.
CO2 Extinguisher System
A CO2 fire extinguisher system has the same basic components as the Halon system. The CO2 components are shown in the figure. A CO2 system also operates in the same manner as a Halon system. CO2 (carbon dioxide) fire protection systems extinguish fires by reducing the oxygen content of the air in the compartment.
( Contd. )
CO2 Extinguisher System
The oxygen content is reduced from an atmospheric normal of 21% to less than 15%, an amount that will not support combustion. To reduce the oxygen content, a quantity of CO2 equal to or greater than 34% of the compartment volume is discharged into the compartment in 1 minute.
( Contd. This system transfers the CO2 to discharge nozzles located in the various compartments of the gas turbine package.) .CO2 Extinguisher System CO2 Extinguisher System: Description A CO2 fire protection system supplies CO2 from either low pressure storage tanks or high pressure cylinders to a distribution system. Low pressure storage tanks maintain saturated liquid CO2 at 300 psig and 0°F with a refrigeration system.
will trip the electrical control cabinet or by manual turbine. either actuated by switches located on the automatically or manually. The solenoid valves are actuated by an electric signal from the fire detectors.CO2 Extinguisher System Actuator Arrangement A CO2 system may be actuated by several different methods. Pilot-operated selector valves in the CO2 discharge valve are opened when solenoid valves are energized. The system may also be manually Actuation of the system. when the pull lever is actuated. valves located in the control cabinet. . or when another cylinder is discharged.
sufficient CO2 flows from the initial discharge system into the compartment to rapidly build up the CO2 concentration.CO2 Extinguisher System Discharge Systems: Initial Two separate discharge systems are used in a CO2 system: · initial discharge · extended discharge Within a few seconds of actuation.) . ( Contd.
CO2 Extinguisher System This concentration is maintained by the gradual addition of more CO2 from the extended discharge system. compensating for compartment leakage. . CO2 flow rate is controlled by the orifices in the discharge nozzles.
. the likelihood of a fire reigniting is minimized. By maintaining the extinguishing concentration.CO2 Extinguisher System Discharge Systems: Extended The orifices for the initial discharge system permit a rapid discharge of CO2 to quickly build up an extinguishing concentration. Orifices for the extended discharge system are smaller for a relatively slow discharge rate.
CO2 Extinguisher System In addition to their use of similar components. both the Halon and CO2 extinguisher systems operate the same. . The discussion about extinguisher systems continues with a description of the operation of a typical fire extinguisher system.
( Contd. Optical detectors usually have a response time of less than 5 seconds and an 80 degree field of vision. In this system the first line of defense against fire is provided by the optical detectors.) .CO2 Extinguisher System Extinguisher Systems: Operation The figure shows the components found in a typical fire extinguisher system.
an alarm signal from one optical detector will initiate an alarm but no other action. With a voting system. An alarm signal from one optical detector and a thermal detector or from two optical detectors is needed to initiate turbine shutdown and extinguisher release. a voting system is usually programmed into the fire monitor controller.CO2 Extinguisher System When more than one optical flame detector is installed in an enclosure. .
. The sequence of events that occurs when a fire is detected is described next. Thermal detectors initiate an alarm when the temperature in a gas turbine enclosure reaches 450 degrees F.CO2 Extinguisher System Extinguisher Systems: Operation Thermal detectors are installed in a gas turbine enclosure as a redundant detection system to the optical detectors.
an alarm signal is sent to the fire monitor/controller and other gas turbine control systems. All enclosure vent fans stop. .CO2 Extinguisher System Extinguisher Systems: Operation When a fire is detected. and shutdowns. alarms. In a typical fire extinguishing system. This signal initiates the fire extinguisher agent discharge. the following sequence occurs: · · · · Audible and visual alarms start. Gas turbine/generator shuts down. All electrical equipment is de-energized.
Extinguishing agent pressure unlatches the ventilation dampers in the turbine and generator. The high pressure switch signals the control systems that the extinguishing agent has been discharged. Extinguishing agent flows through the valve into the piping. . extinguishing agent is released by actuation of the cylinder valves.CO2 Extinguisher System Extinguisher Systems: Operation After 5 to 10 seconds (time delay).
the extended discharge starts and maintains compartment flooding for approximately 10 minutes. · Thoroughly ventilate the enclosure. . After the initial discharge. After emergency shutdown and the fire is extinguished.CO2 Extinguisher System Extinguisher Systems: Operation Extinguisher agent is discharged into the turbine and generator compartments. the following should occur before inspecting the space for fire damage: · Allow the machine to cool down.
The fire extinguisher system must be serviced. . The ventilation dampers must be latched to restore the fire protection system to service.CO2 Extinguisher System Extinguisher Systems: Operation The fire and heat detectors must be cleaned and tested. refilled and reset.
. Cont d.Control Loops The Speedtronic control system consists of three major control loops: · start-up and shutdown · speed · temperature The output of these control loops is connected to a minimum value select logic circuit.
and start-up control output signals to FSR for fuel control. Only the control segment (e. . start-up.g.Control Loops The minimum value select logic circuit interfaces the speed. or temperature) calling for the lowest voltage output is allowed to pass the gate to the fuel control system as controlling FSR voltage. temperature. speed.. FSR control is the command signal for fuel.
Start-Up & Shutdown Control Loops Proper speed sensing is an important part of the start-up and shutdown sequence control of the turbine.E. gas turbines: · zero-speed detector · minimum-speed relay detector · accelerating relay speed detector Contd. · high-speed relay detector . The graphic shows the speed sensors used on G.
Start-Up & Shutdown Control Loops The following is a basic description of how these sensors function. If speed is zero. . The zero-speed detector provides a signal when the turbine shaft starts rotating. permissive logic allows clutch engagement and the cranking sequence for turbine start-up is initiated.
to be placed in service in the cool-down sequence. The high-speed sensor indicates that the turbine is at operating speed and that the accelerating sequence is complete. or turning device. The acceleration speed relay indicates that the turbine has reached approximately 40% to 50% speed in the acceleration cycle.Start-Up & Shutdown Control Loops Start-Up & Shutdown Control Loops During the shutdown cycle. the zerospeed detector provides a signal to permit the ratchet gear. . A minimum speed detector indicates that the turbine has reached the minimum firing speed before ignition.
Temperature Control Loop The next main component discussed is the temperature control loop. The actual firing temperature is most difficult to measure and generally is not measured. . The purpose of the temperature control loop is to limit the turbine firing temperature by regulating fuel flow. Contd.
Air is more dense on cool days. causing the firing temperature to increase for a given speed. Thermocouples mounted in the exhaust provide temperature feedback proportional to the firing temperature.Temperature Control Loop Exhaust temperature is measurable and is proportional to the firing temperature. .
. Protection systems are also provided to prevent abnormal conditions that can damage the Contd. but the control system must prevent overfiring the machine.Protective System The increased firing temperature improves turbine efficiency. turbine. This is accomplished by the control system lowering the temperature control point.
Protective System These control and protective systems are independent systems that back up the primary control systems. The protective systems will trip the machine when overspeed or over-temperature trip conditions occur. The over-temperature system protects the gas turbine against possible damage caused by overfiring. It is a backup system that operates only after failure of the temperature control loops. .
This action moves the metering valve lever from the minimum fuel stop position. The actuator retracts and moves the fuel control linkage toward the maximum fuel position when servo oil pressure builds up. 2) The load/speed sensing control unit (governor) is energized. 3) A signal is transmitted to the electrohydraulic servo actuator. This also allows the acceleration limiter to progressively enrich the fuel and air mixture in accordance with the acceleration schedule.System Operation Start-up Sequence: 1) The start-up sequence of the fuel system is initiated when the start switch is pressed. .
During the start-up sequence when the engine is operating between 0% and 15% speed. the liquid fuel purge solenoid valve is energized and remains open until 10 seconds after 15% engine speed is reached. . The impending high temperature alarm and high turbine temperature shutdown setpoints are temporarily increased approximately 50°F. The electric liquid fuel boost pumps are energized.System Operation Start-Up Sequence: Engine temperature control is offset during start-up. if used.
Pcd.System Operation Start-Up Sequence: The air assist solenoid-operated shutoff valve is energized (opened). The run sequence of fuel system operation is discussed next. the fuel pressure. engine shutdown is initiated and FAIL TO CRANK malfunction is indicated. As the engine accelerates. If 15% engine speed is not reached in 30 seconds after starters begin to crank. and engine oil pressure increases. .
Spark plug starts firing. 3) The torch valve and the fuel valve open. 4) The electric motor-driven main fuel pump starts. if used.) . 6) Fuel flows through the torch valve to the torch. 2) The purge valve closes. 5) The ignition relay and ignition exciter are energized.System Operation Run Sequence: At 15% engine speed plus 10 seconds: 1) The Pcd bleed valve opens and begins to act on the acceleration limiter. (Contd.
approximately 350°F. beginning combustion. When engine temperature reaches setpoint. The torch flame ignites the fuel and air mixture from the fuel nozzles. .System Operation Run Sequence: 7) Torch fuel is atomized by air assist pressure and is ignited in combustion air. the torch valve and ignition are de-energized. This fuel flow is then atomized by air assist pressure. The engine continues to accelerate. 8) Metered fuel from the fuel control valve flows through the fuel valve and the torch bias relief valve to the fuel nozzles.
If high pressure fuel pump suction pressure is lower than the setpoint of the low fuel pressure switch.) . (Contd. engine shutdown is initiated and IGNITION FAIL malfunction is indicated. engine shutdown is initiated and LOW FUEL PRESS malfunction is indicated. 25 seconds after attaining 15% engine speed.System Operation Run Sequence: If turbine temperature has not reached the setpoint in 25 seconds after attaining 15% engine speed. approximately 7 psig.
turbine temperature increases rapidly. engine temperature control warning IMPENDING HIGH ENGINE TEMPERATURE is initiated.System Operation After light-off occurs. . If temperature exceeds setpoint while accelerating to 90% engine speed.
If the temperature topping circuit malfunctions. Fuel flow is reduced to topping flow until turbine temperature decreases to normal. The fuel topping solenoid operates with on-off action if the overtemperature condition persists until 90% engine speed is attained. a further temperature increase will activate a backup shutdown circuit.System Operation Run Sequence: Fuel topping solenoid valve is energized. The fuel topping solenoid is then de-energized. .
Fuel atomizing air is then supplied by Pcd.System Operation Run Sequence: When engine speed reaches 66%. the engine start system and the atomizing air assist shutoff valve are both deenergized. .
) . 2) Offset setpoints are transferred to normal operating values for engine temperature control. (Contd.System Operation System Operation: Run Sequence When engine speed reaches 90%: 1) The electronic load/speed controller (governor) takes control of the electrohydraulic servo actuator and positions the fuel control linkage to accelerate to operating speed.
basedon load.System Operation Run Sequence: 3) The topping control circuit is deenergized. 4) The temperature shutdown timer is armed. speed. (Contd. 5) Fuel is metered to the engine according to the demand of the electronic control system. or temperature.) .
HIGH ENG TEMP alarm is indicated. the engine shutdown timer is deenergized. 10) At approximately 1200°F.System Operation 6) Engine speed increases to operating speed. allowing for transient over-temperatures. engine shutdown is immediate and HIGH ENG TEMP is indicated and engine shutdown is initiated. .155°F. 9) After a 5-second delay. 7) The following events take place if a turbine over-temperature condition occurs when the engine is operating above 90% speed: 8) At approximately 1.
When start/run relays are deenergized: 1) The postlube timer relay begins to time out. (Contd.) .System Operation Shutdown Sequence: Shutdown of the fuel system operation occurs in sequence when the stop switch or emergency stop switch (Local Panel) is pressed.
7) Control power to the electronic load/speed sensing control is stopped.) . (Contd. 3) The purge valve opens to purge the fuel system until engine speed decreases below 15%.System Operation 2) The pre/postlube pump motor is energized. and the governor is deactivated. 4) The fuel bypass valve opens to the filter outlet line. 6) Fuel valve closes to fuel injectors. 5) The Pcd bleed valve opens to cutoff Pcd air and vent the fuel control valve.
the purge valve and the fuel bypass valve close.System Operation 8) Main electric fuel pump. 9) When the fuel supply to the engine is cut off. combustion stops and the engine begins to decelerate. 11) The engine coasts to a stop. if used. and fuel boost pump are both de-energized. . 10) When engine speed decreasesbelow 15%.
3) The postlube cycle is complete. 2) The pre/postlube oil pump is deenergized. 4) The master control switch can be turned off and the engine is ready for restart. .System Operation Shutdown Sequence: 55 minutes after the stop switch is pressed: 1) The postlube timer relay times out.
.Maintenance Overview The maintenance is essential for any equipment to maintain it’s performance.
Maintenance Overview Maintenance Types: Corrective Maintenance [CM]: Reactive Based Maintenance Preventive Maintenance [PM]: A timely Based maintenance .
Maintenance Overview Maintenance Types: Predictive Maintenance [PDM]: Based on condition Mentoring Maintenance [Vibration analysis-oil analysis-Boroscope inspection Proactive Maintenance [PAM]: Root cause preventive maintenance .
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