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Organizational Behavior

Prof. Soofia Waleed

After this lecture you would be able to : 

Define Organizational Behavior (OB) Describe the three goals of OB List how major challenges and opportunities for managers use OB concepts Describe how OB concepts can help make organizations more productive

What frequent or troublesome problems managers face in their work life? .

So we define Organizational behavior as: ³OB is the systematic study of the actions and attitudes the people exhibit within organizations´ .The Field of Organizational Behavior  The study of people is generally referred to as the study of organizational behavior.

.Field of Organizational Behavior   The field of OB seeks to replace intuitive explanations with systematic study: that is use of gathered under controlled conditions and measured and interpreted in a reasonably rigorous manner to attribute cause and effect. The objective is to draw conclusions. So the field of OB ±its theories and conclusions²is based on a large number of systematically designed research studies.

g. volunteering extra job activities. For e. avoiding conflicts. making constructive statements about one¶s work group and organization  Job Satisfaction . helping others in work.What does OB systematically study?     Productivity Absenteeism Turnover Organizational Citizenship Behavior  OCB is discretionary behavior that is not part of employee¶s formal job requirements but that nevertheless promotes the effective functioning of the organization.

Goals of Organizational Behavior Explanation Control Prediction .

Do you think managers have to face a lot of challenges and opportunities? If Yes. what could be those? .

Challenges and Opportunities for OB: A Managerial Perspective        Responding to Globalization Managing Workforce Diversity Improving Quality and Productivity Improving People Skills Improving Customer Service Empowering People Working in Networked Organizations .

     Stimulating Change and Innovation Coping with ³Temporariness´ Helping Employees Balance Work/Life Conflicts Declining Employee Loyalty Improving Ethical Behavior .

Responding to Globalization   Organizations are no longer constrained by national borders. For example: Burger king. Pepsi. World has become a global village. In the process the manager¶s job is changing. McDonald¶s etc.     Increased Foreign Assignments Working with people from different cultures Coping with Anti-capitalism Backlash Overseeing Movement of Jobs to Countries with low-cost labor . ExxonMobil.

if positively managed.Managing Workforce Diversity    Workforce Diversity means that organizations are becoming a more heterogeneous mix of people who are different in terms of gender. age. race and ethnicity Managers have to embrace diversity Diversity. can increase creativity and innovation in organizations as well as improve decision making by providing different perspectives on problems .

improving their organization¶s productivity and the quality of the products and services they offer.Improving Quality and Productivity   Excess products & services translates into increased competition and increased competition is forcing managers to reduce costs while. To achieve these ends. managers are implementing programs such as QM ( Quality Management and process reengineering² programs that require extensive employee involvement. at the same time. .

 QM   It is driven by the constant attainment of customer satisfaction through the continuous improvement of all organizational processes. Concern for continual improvement 3. What is Quality Management? 1. Accurate measurement 5.Cont. Intense focus on the customer 2. Improvement in the quality of everything the organization does 4. Empowerment of employees .

Reengineering involves evaluating every process. . Inefficient processes are thrown out and entire new systems are introduced. It typically redefines jobs and requires most employees to undergo training to learn new skills. Process Reengineering     It asks managers to reconsider how work would be done and their organization structured if they were starting over.

to be a better communicator and to create effective teams and much more.Improving People Skills     People skills are very important to managerial effectiveness OB help managers and potential managers develop these skills Through various theories and concepts of OB managers explain and predict behavior. . They learn variety of ways to motivate people.

courteous. prompt in responding to customer needs and willing to do what¶s necessary to please the customer. So management needs to create a customer-responsive culture i. cultures in which employees are friendly.e. Many organizations have failed because their employees failed to please the customer. knowledgeable.Improving Customer Service    OB can contribute to an organization¶s performance by showing managers how employee attitudes and behavior are associated with a customer satisfaction. accessible. .

Empowering People     Decision making pushed to operating level Workers are given the freedom to make choices about schedules and procedures and to solve work-related problems Managers allowing employees full control of their work What¶s going on????? .

For example: motivating and leading people and making collaborative decisions ³online´ requires techniques different from those used with individuals who are physically present in a single location.Working in Networked Organizations    Computerization and the Internet have linked many organizations with other which could be thousand miles away. The manager¶s job is different in a networked organization. especially when it comes to managing people. .

The challenge for managers is to stimulate employee creativity and tolerance for change.Stimulating Innovation and Change     Today¶s successful organizations must foster innovation and master the art of change or they¶ll become candidates of extinction An organization¶s employees could be impetus for innovation and change or they can be a major stumbling block. OB provides a wealth of ideas and techniques to aid in realizing these goals. .

. Permanent employees are now being replaced by temporary employees The study of OB can provide important insights into helping you better understand a work world of continual change.Coping with ³Temporariness´    Today¶s managers and employees must learn to cope with temporariness. how to overcome resistance to change. and how best to create an organization culture that thrives on change.

creating personal conflicts and stress. Globalization means that the world never sleeps.Helping Employees Balance Work/Life Conflicts     Employees are increasingly complaining that the line between work and non-work time has become blurred. Employees are increasingly recognizing that work id squeezing out personal lives and they are not happy about it. . OB offers a number of suggestions to guide managers in designing workplaces and jobs that can help employees deal with work/life conflicts.

Declining Employee Loyalty    Employee loyalty is declining sharply since 1980¶s Employees perceive that their employees are less committed to them and as a result employees respond by being less committed to their companies. . while maintaining their organization¶s global competitiveness. An important OB challenge will be for managers to devise ways to motivate workers who feel less committed to their employers.

break rules and engage in other forms of questionable practices. expectations of increasing worker productivity and tough competition in the marketplace. . its not altogether surprising that many employees feel pressured to cut corners.Improving Ethical Behavior   In an organizational world characterized by cutbacks. Managers and their organizations are responding to this issue by writing and distributing codes of ethics to guide employees.

. Today¶s managers need to create an ethically healthy climate in which his or her employees can do their work productively and confront a minimal degree of ambiguity regarding what constitutes right and wrong behaviors. workshops and training programs to try to improve ethical behaviors.   Offering seminars. OB discusses the kind of actions managers can take to create an ethically healthy climate and to help employees sort through ethically ambiguous situations.