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Multiple Approaches towards

Sustainable Development
Seminar, IRRI, Los Banos; 30 September 2005
Jose Ireneu dos Remedios Furtado
BSc (Hons.), PhD, FRSA, FWAAS, Hon. Professor (Mauritius)
Visiting Professor, Imperial College London
Jose.Furtado@imperial.ac.uk / Tel: (020) 7594-7308 / RSM 4-07
Multiple Approaches towards
Sustainable Development
A.What is the Nature of the Challenge
confronting our Future?
B.
C.What is Sustainable Development?
D.
E.How can Sustainable Development be
effectively approached?
(A) What is the Nature of the
Challenge confronting our
Future?
Photo-oxidation
Ozone
depleting
substances
Epidemic
Scarcity
BIODIVERSITY BIODIVERSITY
LOSS LOSS
Climate
Change
Ozone
Depletion
Unsustainable
Forestry
Agriculture
Intensificatio
n
Urbanization
Water
Degradation
& Scarcity
Land Degradation
Desertification
Industrialization
UV Burns
Pollution
Salinization
Nutrient exhaustion
Global
warming
Carbon
Aerosols
Erosion
Salinization
Scarcity
Epidemics
Ecosystem
changes
Food
security
Nutrient
enrichment
Habitat loss/
fragmentation
UV burns
Genetic erosion
Pestilence
Carbon / Nitrogen /
Sulfur gases
Extreme events:
Floods, Storms
Pollution
Habitat
fragmentation
Weather changes
CAUSES OF FAILURE IN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
•Deprivation of a Livelihood & Security 3 Courses of
actions for Human survival:
- Exploitation of already limited Natural Resources
- Degradation of Environmental systems ·
- Flow of Productive assets: ·
Rural Urban areas ·
Developing Industrialized countries ·
Deprivation of a
Livelihood & Security
•Enforced displacement of peoples for various reasons
•Migration of peoples:
Rural Urban areas ·
Developing Industrialized countries ·
Displacement of
Peoples & their
Migrations
•Urban peoples Marginalization of Rural people ·
•Industrialized countries Marginalization of Developing ·
countries
Marginalization of
Peoples
•Access to the Rich, the Powerful & the Urban elite ·
Exclusion to the poor, disadvantaged & rural masses
Enclosure of Natural
Resources
Specifications Causes
Sustainable Development:
Market / Institutional Failures
• Attenuated property rights: Poor enforcement Non-
capture of full benefits (some CPR, most Open Access)
• Social externalities: User costs partly borne by others (e.g.
Upstream – Downstream)
• Imperfect / Asymmetrical information: Different
production capacity (e.g. ‘Transfer pricing’ – buyers & sellers)
• Monopolistic competition: Market manipulation for
profits Inefficiency / Corruption (e.g. MNC, Exclusivity)
• Distorted capital markets: High interest rates 
Increase capital costs NR mining
• Inter-generational equity: Limitations of poor in
competitive markets
Generalized Global & Local Crises affecting Sustainability
Crises Causes Specification
“State”
Globalization

↑ International trade

↑ Information flows

↑ Mobility of people across borders
Internal
Flaws

↑ Administrative ineffectiveness

↑ Government & Market failures

↑ Centralization of authority

↑ Public / Community exclusion

↑ Inequality in access to freedom & wealth

↑ Corruption of government (Executive, Legislative, Judiciary)
“Market”

↑ Trade liberalization

↑ Emerging “Mafia”

↑ Open access ‘property’ rights – Money flows & exchange

↑ Open access environment – Oceans, Freshwater, Atmosphere

↑ Profit motive / Excessive greed
“Science”

↑ Erosion of traditional knowledge

↑ Weakening of traditional cultures & beliefs

↑ Complexity of modern economies

↑ Inadequate local capability for research & development (R&D)

↑ Expensiveness & complexity of R&D

↑ Embedded propaganda in economic forecasts / Political ‘spin’

↑ Emerging & Uncertain natural & human hazards
Population
Growth
Mortality Inheritance
Rituals
Resource Use
Natural
Resources
Production
Social Beliefs / Values / Policy
Social Institutions
Wealth
Appeasement
Investments
Technology
Control
Livelihood
Sustainable Development – Traditional Society
Conservation
Rural
Livelihoods
Urban
Settlements
Urban
Subsidies
Urban
Migration
Food / Raw
materials
Armed
Forces
Public
Subsidy /
Taxation
Security /
↓Tax base
Sustainable Development – Feudal Societies
↑Urbanization / Industrialization
↑Rural abandonment
↑Urban subsidies
↑Militarization
↑Taxation
↓Tax base
↑Resource dependency
Rise & Fall of ‘Metropolitan’ Civilizations / Empires
e.g. Babylonian, Egyptian, Persian,
Greek, Roman, Inca, Mongol /
Moghul, Spanish, French, British,
Soviet, ?American
Failures due to:
• Systems collapse
• Ignorance of impacts
& externalities
• Decreasing ‘sinks’ (i.e.
carrying capacity)
• Declining renewable
natural resources(e.g.
forest s, fisheries,
biodiversity)
• Social inequalities
• Severe natural
hazards (e.g. floods,
drought s, met eorites,
pest ilence, epidemics)
Systems enlargement &
dependencies to find
solutions
↑Political power
↑Networks / Alliances
↑Trade & Transport
↑Colonization / Slavery
Centralization
↑Economic power
G/B G/B
Technology & Knowledge leading Human
Evolution in the Cosmos
1 = Agrarian societies (E
1
) use Technologies (T
1
) to harness Geosphere / Biosphere (G/B) resources, & innovate
controlling & investing values & mythologies, the Noosphere (N
1
)
2 = Transnational industrial societies (E
2
) use Technologies (T
2
) (including the Cybersphere) to harness Geosphere /
Biosphere (G/B) resources & affect other societies without equivalent Noosphere (N
2
) values & controls
3 = Globalized mixed industrial societies (E
3
) use Technologies (T3) including the Cybersphere to harness Geosphere /
Biosphere’s (G/B) resources & exceed its ‘carrying capacity’, & need to evolve an equivalent Noosphere (N
3
)
N
1
N
2
N
3
E
2
E
1
E
3
T
2
T
1
T
3
Human Actions
Mineral extraction
Forestry
Land clearance
Agriculture
Grazing
Fish ponds
Water diversion
Industrialization
Commerce
Urbanization
Fuel consumption
Recreation
Tourism
Intended Effects / Improved Quality of Life
Food production / Fibre production
Housing / Water supply / Sanitation
Consumer goods / Enjoyment
Culture / Knowledge
Unintended Effects / Environmental Costs
Deforestation / Habitat destruction
Soil degradation / Desertification
Pollution / Eutrophication / Acid precipitation
Global warming / Climate change
Biodiversity loss / Natural disasters
Human Actions affecting Biosphere Sustainability
Source: Lubchenco, J. et al., 1991. The sustainable biosphere initiative: An ecological research agenda. Ecology, 72: 371-412
Natural
Resources
(e.g. Land,
Water)
Highly Managed
Ecosystems
e.g. Plantations,
Irrigated fields,
Canalized rivers
Natural
Ecosystems
e.g. Forests,
Wetlands
Goods & Services:
Goods (e.g. Industrial products)
Services (e.g. Hydropower,
Shipping channels)
Amenities (e.g. Recreation)
Goods & Services:
Goods (e.g. Wildlife / Fish)
Services (e.g. Water control,
Fertility, Groundwater recharge)
Amenities (e.g. Species, Landscapes)
Short-term
Benefits:
Economic
Social
Long-term
Benefits:
Economic
Social
Biodiversity
Positive Impacts
(e.g. Clean water)
Negative Impacts
(e.g. Polluted water)
Natural Resources & Ecosystem Benefits & Impacts
Human needs: (a) Economic security (e.g. Shelter, Food, Drinking water, Consumable goods);
(b) Social security(e.g. Protection from natural hazards, like floods); and (c)
Ethical security (e.g. Upholding the rights of other people & species to resources)
Migration or
Expulsion
Weakened
States
Decreased
Economic
Productivity
Ethnic
Conflicts
Coups
d’Etat
Deprivation
Conflicts
Decreasing
Quality &
Quantity of
Natural
Resources
Population
Growth
Unequal
Resource
Access
Increased
Scarcity of
Natural
Resources
Sources and Consequences of Natural Resources Scarcity
for Sustainable Development
Source: TF Homer-Dixon, JF Boutwell and GW Rathjens, 1993. Environmental change and violent conflict. Scientific American, 268: 38-45
Basic causes of conflict = Differences in / about (1) Knowledge or
Understanding, (2) Values, (3) Distribution of benefits & costs, and
(4) Personalities & Circumstances of interested parties
Environmental Sustainability
Gross & Genuine savings, 1997
Africa
East Asia
Europe & C.Asia
Developing countries
0 10 20 30 40 50
Percent of GDP
Gross
savings
Genuine
savings
(B) What is Sustainable
Development?
Sustainable Development
• = Balance between Efficiency + Equity
(Access & Inclusion) + Ecological
Resilience

• = Realization of Freedoms, Choices &
Responsibility in Transforming all 5
Forms of Assets or Capital

• = Consciousness [Investment + Control]
Systems Stability + Diversity +
Complexity + Resilience (i.e. Control of
Humanitarian crises, Inequalities &
Poverty)
4. Re-organization
•Accessible building
materials
•Accessible energy &
nutrients
1. Exploitation
•R-strategy
•Pioneer species / Opportunism
2. Conservation
•K-strategy
•Climax species /
Consolidation
3. Decomposition &
Release
•Physical hazards (e.g. fires,
storms)
•Biotic hazards (e.g. pests,
diseases)
Extent of Interconnectedness
between Variables
Weak Strong
C
h
a
n
g
e

i
n

A
c
c
u
m
u
l
a
t
e
d

C
a
p
i
t
a
l

(
N
u
t
r
i
e
n
t
s

&

C
a
r
b
o
n
)
Low
High
Ecosystem Organization & Renewal Processes
Source: C.S. Holling, 1995
Ecosystem Functions, Flows and Adaptation in Relation to Capital & Connectedness
Accumulated
Capital
Connectedness
Weak Strong
High Renewal (A):

System changes sensitive to stresses

Carbon (Building materials), External
energy (Power), & Nutrients (Catalysts
& sustenance) access
(Rapid flows)
Conservation (K):

K-strategy: Consolidation / Banking
(Risk-averse)

Climax species / professions
(Slow flows)
Low Exploitation (r):

r-strategy: Opportunistic / Gambling
(Risk-prone)

Pioneer species / professions
(Slow flows)
Release (W):

Hazards / Risks: Physical (Fires,
Storms) & Biotic (Pests, Diseases)

Carbon, Energy, Nutrients
(Rapid flows)
Source: Folke, C, L Pritchard Jr., F Berkes, J Colding and U Svedin, 1998. The Problem of Fit between Ecosystems and Institutions. IHDP Working Paper No. 2: 38 pp.
Bonn: International Human Dimensions Programme
5 Ecosystem Principles for Development
1. Ecosystems = Biota Abiotic Environment
2. Ecosystems powered by 5 Resources:
vExternal Energy Acquired + Flows + Dissipated
vMaterials (e.g. Nutrients) Cycled ·
vSpace Colonization, Livelihood, Organization ·
vTime Life-history + Events ·
vInformation Control + Investments ·
3. Ecosystems conserve Energy + Matter
4. Ecosystems grow by Organizational Efficiency,
Complexity & Scale: Strong systems capture Weak
5. Ecosystems store Information in Physical,
Chemical & Biotic structures: Baryon number
(Genetic constitution), Spin (Environment) & Charge
(Association)
The Role of Biodiversity in Ecosystem Functions and their Uses
Regulation Function Production Function Carrier
Function
Information Function
Providing support for
economic activity and
human welfare through:

Protection against harmful
cosmic influence

Climate regulation

Watershed / Catchment
protection

Erosion prevention / Soil
protection

Human / Industrial waste
storage & recycling

Organic matter / Mineral
nutrients storage & recycling

Genetic / Biological
diversity maintenance

Biological control

Providing a migratory /
nursery / feeding habitat
Providing basic
resources, such as:

Oxygen

Food, drinking water &
nutrition

Water for industry,
households, etc.

Clothing / Fabric

Building / Construction
materials

Manufacturing materials

Energy / Fuel

Minerals

Medicinal resources

Biochemical resources

Genetic resources

Ornamental resources
Providing space and a
suitable substrate, inter
alia, for:

Habitation

Agriculture, forestry, fishery,
animal husbandry

Industry

Engineering projects, such as
dams, roads, etc.

Recreation

Nature conservation
Providing aesthetic,
cultural and scientific
benefits through:

Aesthetic information

Spiritual / Religious
information

Cultural / Artistic inspiration

Educational / Scientific
information

Potential information
Source: de Groot, R. S., 1992. Functions of Nature: Evaluation of nature in environmental planning, management and decision making.
Groningen: Wolters-Noordhoff BV
Local, National & Global Environmental Benefits
of Sustainable Land Management
ECOLOGICAL SERVICES
HABITATS
AMENITY
Recreation
Tourism
Land Races Varieties Crop Germ Plasm
Plant remedies
Pharmaceutical
discoveries
Wildlife Species Diversity
Pest
regulation
Pollination
Soil formation
Water Quality & Flow
Land Use Disturbance
Regulation
Microclimate Global Climate
Change
Transboundary
impacts
Nutrient
cycling
Other NTFPs
LOCAL

NATIONAL GLOBAL
WORD\AGRICULTURE-RURAL\CHARTS\LU-BENEFITS01.PPT
Object of
Change
Subject / Tendency of Change
Self-Assertive (‘Hard’) Integrative (‘Soft’)
Novelty (‘Hard’)
(e.g. Fine arts, Discovery)
Confirmed (‘Soft’)
(e.g. Amendment,
Revision)
Competitive
Ideas / Tools / Things
Cooperative
People / Feelings / Empathy
Subject & Object of Change & Development
Innovative
Inventive
Creative
Imaginative
Transforming
Modifying
Adaptive
Sensitive
Existential
Perturbation @ Lower / Higher Scales  Niche emergence  olon t on +
tur t on  omp t t on + l t on 
pt t on + nt r t on ss t mo l t on
tr ns orm t on  ro u t v us ]
© Jose I dos R Furtado
Society
Beliefs
Values
Knowledge
Organization
Governance
Institution
Leadership
Participation
Ownership
Linkages
Distribution
Conflict resolution
Management
Norms & Standards
Scales
Economy
Goods & Services
Markets / Price
Trade / Barter
Value-added
Infrastructure
Technology
Environment
Biodiversity
Ecosystem dynamics
Production
Decomposition
Storage
Flows & Cycles
Control & Regulation
Control
Stewardship
Impacts +/-
Impacts +/-
Production Investments
Natural Resources Use, Conservation & Impacts
Forms of Human Capital for Social & Economic Development
Forms Specifications
Technology /
Infrastructure
[Technological
Capital]

Object-embodied physical facilities: Equipment, Artifacts

General Specific purpose

Stones / Machines Fully automated Programmable · ·
machines

Use: Amplifies human power & capability
Human
Resources / Skills
[Cultural Capital]

Person-embodied with implicit abilities

Tacit individual knowledge & wisdom (e.g. values, culture)

Operational, Understanding, Assessment & Creative skills

Use: Enable function & use of technology & organizations
Information /
Knowledge
[Human Capital]

Explicit data Information Knowledge · ·

Documented, Recorded & Codified

Promotes factual awareness, use, optimisation, & scientific
research and technology development (R&D)

Use: Enables learning, integration, & conservation of time &
resources
Money / Barter
[Financial or
Economic Capital]

Monetary or non-monetary forms of exchange (e.g. money, credits)

Valued in terms of commodity, production or trade

Transferred physically or electronically

Use: Generates new knowledge, technologies, organizations & trade
Organization /
Institutions
[Institutional or
Political Capital]

Organizational structure & functions, procedures, methods &
practices

Networks Institutions (Formal or Non-formal)

Governance / Management based on traditions, systems & projects

Coordinates actions & resources to achieve desired goals

Use: Harnesses human knowledge, skills & resources for social goals
Environment /
Natural
Resources
[Natural Capital]

Extraction / Conversion of natural resources (e.g. energy, minerals,
biota), environment (e.g. land, water, atmosphere), space, & time

Valued in terms of commodity, production, scarcity or trade

Transformed physically by knowledge, skills, technology &
institutions

Use: Harnesses NR for human livelihood, recreation & luxury
(C) How can Sustainable
Development be effectively
approached?
What Development Goal
is desired? How can it be
Achieved?
(Policies, Programmes, Actions,
Knowledge, Learning)
What Ecosystem Conditions
prevail?
•Ecosystem structure & function
(Environmental, Social &
Institutional, & Economic
Conditions)
What Ecosystem Conditions
are desired?
•Visions of desirable future
ecosystem alternatives
(Ecosystem structure & function)
What Development Options
are feasible?
•Ecologically sustainable
•Economically viable
•Socially acceptable
(Policy reforms, Action programs,
Negotiations & Conciliations,
Trade-offs)
What Development
Outcomes are achieved?
•Effective policies
•Development programme
•Adaptive learning
Figure : Sustainable Development Policy and Programme
Sequences
Figure : Development and Environmental
Ingredients for Sustainable Development
C a r e f o r t h e n e e d s o f t h e p r e s e n t g e n e r a t i o n
w i t h o u t c u r t a i l i n g o p t i o n s f o r t h e n e x t g e n e r a t i o n
C r i t e r i a : H e a l t h ,
W e l l - b e i n g ,
S o c i a l e n v i r o n m e n t a l s e c u r i t y ,
A v a i l a b i l i t y o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l g o o d s
A n a l y s i s o f D e m o g r a p h i c , E c o n o m i c ,
T e c h n o l o g i c a l , S o c i a l & C u l t u r a l D e v e l o p m e n t s
c a u s i n g E n v i r o n m e n t a l D e g r a d a t i o n
C o n t r o l o v e r D e v e l o p m e n t
( S o u r c e - o r i e n t e d P o l i c y )
S u s t a i n a b l e S o c i e t a l D e v e l o p m e n t
P r e s e r v a t i o n o f i n t e r & i n t r a - e c o s y s t e m s d i v e r s i t y
( S p e c i e s r e l a t i o n s , F u n c t i o n s , C o m m u n i t i e s )
C r i t e r i a : E c o s y s t e m s t r u c t u r e ,
E c o s y s t e m p r o c e s s e s ,
M i n e r a l c y c l i n g ,
D e l i v e r y o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l g o o d s
A n a l y s i s o f L i m i t s o f A d v e r s e E f f e c t s .
P e r t u r b a t i o n s & L o s s e s o f S t a b i l i t y o f U s e r
F u n c t i o n s o f t h e E n v i r o n m e n t
S e t t i n g L i m i t s t o R i s k s
( E f f e c t s - o r i e n t e d P o l i c y )
E n v i r o n m e n t a l C a r r y i n g C a p a c i t y
E c o l o g i c a l S u s t a i n a b i l i t y o f H u m a n A c t i o n s / D e v e l o p m e n t
( S u s t a i n a b l e U s e o f B i o s p h e r e )
E c o l o g i c a l B o u n d a r y C o n d i t i o n s
Environment
as ‘Source’
(Minimize extraction)
e.g. Total Material
Requirement
Environment
as ‘Sink’
(Minimize impacts)
e.g. Fate, Fugacity
ECONOMY &
DEVELOPMENT
(Enhance efficiency)
e.g. GDP/capita,
Wealth distribution
Social Well-being:
(Maximize welfare)
• Health & Education
• Wealth & Assets
• Social cohesion
• Social capital
• Subjective factors
Politics: (Promote effectiveness)
• Organization / Institutions / Leadership
• Representation / Participation / Democracy
• Transparency / Information / Learning
• Governance / Justice / Accountability
• Innovation / Competitiveness / Investment
Analytical Framework for Sustainable Development
© Jose I dos R Furtado
Transformation Satisfaction
Waste discharge
Effective Control / Management
Democratization
Social synergy
Human Capital
(Values, Cultures, Skills,
Institutions)
Natural Capital
(Environment, Resources)
Human-made Capital
(Technology, Finance
Infrastructure)
Habitats, Goods &
Services for Humans
Strategic Policies,
Plans & Management
Equitable Distribution of
Benefits & Opportunities
Economic
Development
Extraction /
Harvest
Restoration / Investment
Technological Efficiency
Sustainable
Development
& Livelihoods
Sustainable Development and Livelihoods in terms of
Capital Transformation & Accumulation
Sustainability = Sum of all forms of capital without any reduction in capital
Codified
Knowledge
Synthetic
Assets
Human
Assets
Socio-
Economic
Outputs
Well-
being
Natural
Assets
Socio-
Political
Assets
Infrastructure (e.g. buildings,
physical networks), Technology,
& Finance
Tacit knowledge, Skills,
Competencies, & Abilities
Networks, Trust,
Organization, Institutions
Natural Resources &
Ecological services
Consumption of material
goods & services
Natural amenities &
Ecological functions
Social networks, Shared
values, & Trust
Contribution of Knowledge for Capital Transformation (5) for
Socio-Economic Outputs to meet Human Needs
Tacit & Codified
Knowledge
Application
through
Enterprises
Traditions,
Beliefs, & Culture
Adapted from:
WDR, 2003. Sustainable Development in a Dynamic World.
Transforming Institutions, Growth, and Quality of Life. 250 pp.
World Development Report 2003.
Washington, DC: World Bank
Sustainable Development Properties
• Poverty reduction: Monetary scale, Knowledge scale,
Consciousness scale
• Governance: Democratic, Pluralistic, Decentralized, Just,
Equitable, Human Rights
• Modernization: = Socio-cultural transformations and
changes:


Based on:
• Understanding Human nature, Culture, Tradition & Consciousness
• Preferred Culture & Value system
• Vital participation of subject (“developee”) & Third party (“developer”)
• Replicable interventions, projects, collaborations, etc. by Third party
• Delivery of resources (Equipment, Finance, Know-how, Skills, Political
clout, Values, Life-styles, etc.)
• Technical experts, Advisers, Trainers, Change facilitators, etc.
Change Processes for Sustainable Development
Ø Resource Transfers: “Haves” “Have Nots”
Ø Transformations: Dependence Independence Inter- · ·
dependence
Ø Freedom of Choice: Limited Increasingly Individualistic ·
Ø Exposure to Natural Hazards: Susceptibility Controlled ·
Systems
Ø Knowledge Environment: Certainty Uncertainty + Ambiguity ·
+ Contradictions
Ø Information & Knowledge Base: Static Growing · ·
Diversifying
Ø Socio-cultural Architecture: Simple Complex Systems ·
Ø Management of Variables: Tangible Intangibles ·
Ø Nature of Processes: Linear + Predictable Dynamic + Chaotic ·
Ø Interventions: Short-term + Time-bound Long-term + Open- ·
ended
Strategic Approaches for Sustainable Development

From To
Approach
• Developing &
implementing fixed
plans, ideas & solutions
• Operating an adaptive system that
continuously improves governance to
promote coherence between responses to
different challenges
Responsibility
• State alone responsible
for development
• Society as a whole responsible for
development
Decision-
making
• Centralized & controlled
decision-making
• Sharing results & opportunities, transparent
negotiation, cooperation, & concerted
action
Focus
• Focus on outputs (e.g.
projects, laws)
• Focus on outcomes (e.g. project impacts,
legal changes)
Planning
• Sectoral planning • Integrated planning
Dependency
• Dependence on external
assistance
• Domestically driven & financial
development
Learning
• Discrete projects • Process accommodating monitoring,
learning & improvement

Source: OECD/DAC, 2001. The DAC Guidelines: Strategies for Sustainable Development: Guidance for
Development Co-operation. 75 pp.
Development Assistance Committee (DAC)
Paris: Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development

Provisioning Services
Products obtained from
ecosystems: e.g.
Food, Water, Bio-fuels, Fibre,
Bio-chemicals, Genetic resources
Regulating Services
Benefits obtained from
ecosystem processes: e.g.
Water, Climate, Waste &
Disease regulation
Cultural Services
Non-materials benefits
provided by ecosystems: e.g.
Spiritual & Religious, Aesthetic
& Recreational, Inspirational,
Educational, Sense of belonging,
Cultural heritage
Supporting
Services
Services needed
for provision of
ecosystem
Services: e.g.
Soil formation,
Nutrient cycling,
Primary
production,
Organic
decomposition
Security
Shelter, Safe environment,
Hazard prevention & control
Productive Livelihood
Resource access & production,
Gainful employment, Earnings,
Investment, Exchange, Control
Health
Adequate Nutrition & Drinking
water, Clean air, Disease
control, Energy for comfort
(warmth / cooling)
Socio-Cultural Richness
(associated with ecosystems):
Aesthetic & recreational values,
Cultural & spiritual values,
Organizations & Institutions,
Learning, & Creativity
Freedoms,
Choices &
Capabilities
Beliefs & Values,
Ideas & Thoughts,
Opinion &
Expression,
Assembly &
Association,
Participation &
Elections,
Equality,
Movement,
Education & Skills,
Ownership &
Exchange,
Equity & Justice
Linkage of Ecosystem Services to Human Well -being
Ecosystem Services
(RS de Groot 1992)
Human Well-being
(Amartya Sen 1999)
Source: Adapted from: MA, 2003. Ecosystems and Human Well -being: A Framework for Assessment. Report of the Conceptual
Framework Working Group of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. 48 pp. Washington, DC: Millennium Ecosystem Assessment
Matrix of Policy Instruments for Environmentally
Sustainable Development
Goal Range of Policy Instruments
Enforce
Regulations
Use
Markets
Create MarketsEngage
the Public
Resource
Management
&
Pollution
Control

Standards






Bans






Permits /
Quotas

Reduce subsidies


Environmental
taxes


User fees


Deposit-refund
systems


Targeted subsidies

Property rights



Decentralize



Tradable permits /
rights



International off-
set schemes

Public participation

Consultations

Information
disclosure /
transparency

Informal
negotiations

Community
pressure

NGO / CSO
involvement

Public-Private
partnerships
The Policy Matrix for Effective Reforms
Source: World Bank. 1997. Five Years after Rio: Innovations in Environmental Policy. Washington, D.C.
USING
MARKETS
CREATING
MARKETS
ENVIRONMENTAL
REGULATIONS
ENGAGING
THE PUBLIC
(Subsidy reduction,
taxes, user fees,
performance bonds,
targeted subsidies)
(Property rights and
decentralization,
tradable permits,
international offset
systems)
(Standards, bans,
quotas)
(Information
disclosure, public
participation)
WATER
FISHERIES
LAND
MANAGEMENT
FORESTS
SUSTAINABLE
AGRICULTURE
BIODIVERSITY/
PROT. AREAS
MINERALS
AIR POLLUTION
WATER
POLLUTION
SOLID WASTE
HAZARDOUS
WASTE
Natural
Resources &
Environment
Conditions Enabling Effective
Policy Changes
• Incentives: Proper incentive systems
• Law & Order: Strong legal frameworks
• Participation: Public participation
• Partnerships: Cooperation between Public-
Private-Civil sector
• Technology: Technological innovation capacity
• Capability: Financial & Institutional capacity
• Information: Information for assessment,
monitoring, feedback & corrective measures
Sustainability Steps in International Development

Linkages = Population + Economic growth + Social equity + Human
development + Environmental sustainability
Ø Poverty Environment
Ø Population growth Natural resources degradation · ·
Ø Energy production Pollution Sustainable livelihoods · · · ·
Ø Trade (Regulations & Competitiveness) Environment · ·
Ø Capital formation Socio-economic + Bio-physical environment ·
Ø Ecological dynamics Environmental goods & services ·
Ø Wealth creation Dynamics of 5 forms of Capital / Assets [Natural + ·
Human + Socio-Political (Institutional) + Physical
(Technological) + Economic (Financial)]
Ø Information (Knowledge) Institutions (Participation & · ·
Governance) Infrastructure · ·

Sustainability = Transformation of Capital from 1 Form to Another


Social & Environmental problems due to lack of Inter-connectedness ·


Sustainable Development Planning & Indicators = Important
Opportunity
Capability
Security
Empowerment
Income &
Consumption
Health
Education
Vulnerability
Participation
in Decisions
Natural Resource
Base
Access to Traditional
Medicines
Access to Clean
Water & Sanitation
Air Quality
Ecological Fragility
Climate Change
Resource Rights
Poverty Dimensions
Development Areas
Determinants
Figure : Links between Poverty, Environment & Development
(Modified from “Poverty and Environment”, a background paper to the World Bank’s Environment Strategy, 2000.)
Poverty
Reduction
Structure Human Physical
e.g. Governance,
Finance, Pensions
e.g. Knowledge,
Education, Health
e.g. NR, Power,
Transport, Comm.
Opportunity
State, Finance,
Accountability
Social capital,
Labour flexibility
NR Management,
Infrastructure
Capability
Laws, Regulation,
Efficiency
Culture, Services,
Quality
IT, Urban
development
Empowerment
Reforms, SME’s,
Ownership
Experimentation,
Innovations
Partnerships,
Participation
Security
Growth, Pensions,
Safety nets
Competitiveness Technology
acquisition
Comprehensive Development Framework
Matrix of Dimensions
Millennium Development Goals
(Adopted September 2000 as part of the UN Millennium Declaration)
1.POVERTY & HUNGER: Eradicate extreme poverty & hunger (1/2 between
1990 & 2015)
2.MATERNAL HEALTH: Provide access to reproductive health services to all
(by 2015) & Reduce maternal mortality (3/4 between 1990 & 2015)
3.PRIMARY EDUCATION: Achieve universal primary education (by 2015)
4.DISEASE EPIDEMICS: Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria & other epidemic
diseases
5.EQUALITY & EMPOWERMENT: Promote gender equality & empower
women
6.ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY: Ensure environmental sustainability
by implementing national strategies (by 2005) so as to reverse environmental
resource loss (by 2015)
7.CHILD MORTALITY: Reduce infant & child mortality (2/3 between 1990 &
2015)
8.DEVELOPMENT PARTNERSHIPS: Develop a global partnership for
development
"We will spare no effort to free our fellow men, women, and children from abject and de-humanizing
conditions of extreme poverty, to which more than a billion of them are currently subjected."
For more about these millennium goals, see www.developmentgoals.org .
Seven Steps to Achieving Millennium Development Goals (MDG)
Steps Specification

Economic Growth

Promote fast, sustainable growth that benefits the poor &
reduces inequality

Participation

Strengthen the participation of the poor people in political
processes & local decision-making

Reduce Vulnerability

Reduce the vulnerability of the poor to economic shocks,
natural disasters, ill health, & violence

Invest in People

Invest in people through education, health care, & basic
social services

Eliminate Social
Exclusion

Promote gender equity & eliminate other forms of social
exclusion

Effective
Partnerships

Forge effective partnerships between civil society,
governments, & international agencies

Public Debate

Encourage public discussion of the MDG’s & the means
for achieving them
Source: World Bank, 2002. Perspectives on Development. Winter 2001/2002. Washington, DC: World Bank
Towards a Comprehensive Agenda
•Quality with Quantity

•Equity & Sustainability with Growth

•Micro with Macro

•Interactions with Complementarities support
Selectivity & Scaling-up
Transformation
Production
Eco-efficiency
Conservation
etc.
Lifestyles
Urban-Rural
linkages
Landscape
changes
etc.
Social security
Innovations
Distribution
Equality
etc.
Trade-offs
Integration
Sustainability
Sustainable Development and Resource Management
© Jose I dos R Furtado
(Area / Concentration)
Environmental Capital
& Throughputs
Earth resources, Biodiversity,
Ecosystem services
Investments / Returns
Costs & Benefits
Supply & Demand
Economic Capital
& Prosperity
($ / Risks)
Knowledge / Freedoms
Livelihoods / Security
Solidarity & Organization
Social Capital &
Welfare
(QOL)
Sustainable Development:
Decision-making / Choice Constraints
• System complexity
• Imperfect information / High uncertainty
• Significant unknown downside risks
• Balancing several objectives: e.g. Efficiency vs.
Conservation
• Accountability to conflicting ‘interest’ groups
• Coordinated actions Implementation
Decision-makers Dodge / Defer decisions
Inaction -ve Social capital: e.g. ‘Free-riding’,
Racketeering (‘Mafia’)
Sustainable Development: Assessment
Approaches
• Reflection: Insights + Artistic expression
• Science: Information & Knowledge base
• Action: Global + Regional + Local levels
• Toolkits: No ideal tools Tools need
development:


Strategic assessment
Strategic assessment: Risks + Score cards


Tactical assessment
Tactical assessment: Life cycle analyses


Financial assessment
Financial assessment: Total economic
valuations
Sustainable Development: Appraisal Tools
Ideal Tools:
• Sensitivity: Take into account local / global changes
• Coverage: Cover triple bottom line – Economic / Social /
Environmental
• Stages: Fit all stages of Design / Use / Re-use / Disposal
• Interventions: Fit all forms of intervention
Econ Soc
Env
Sustainable Development: Classes of Techniques
Classes of Techniques:
• Cost-Benefit Analysis:
– Uses shadow pricing to combine triple bottom line
– Favoured in ‘green’ tax calculations,
– Some costs expensive to compute
– Indirectly connected to national situation
– Opaque Open to controversy
• Life-Cycle Assessment:
– Material flows for each triple bottom line
– Favoured in ‘green’ regulations
– Data dependent on local processes
– Indirectly relates to national situation
• Scorecards:
Sustainable Development: Accounting
Financial + Economic Accounting
• + Legal constraints: Health & Safety
• + Social constraints: Social audits; ‘Human face’
• + Social & Environmental impacts: 5-Forms of
capital; 3-Bottom line; Corporate social responsibility (CSR)
• + Ethical responsibility: Stakeholder involvement;
Governance
• + Transcendental & Spiritual relations: Openness;
Social caring; Yoga / Meditation / Chi-kung
Pressures
(e.g. pollution, natural
resource extraction)
Drivers
(e.g. industry, transport)
State
(e.g. air, water, soil
quality)
Responses
(e.g. clean production,
public regulations, taxes
& information)
Impact
(e.g. health, biodiversity,
economy)
DPSIR Framework for Sustainable Development Indicators
Segnestam, L., 2003. Indicators of Environment and Sustainable Development. Theories and Practical Experience. Environment Department Papers No. 89: 53 pp.
(Environmental Economics Series) Washington, DC: World Bank
Sustainable Development: Quality Indicators
• Governments have similar problem
100-150
Statistical
Trends
100-150
Statistical
Trends
Priority
Policy Action
Headline Indicators
Headline Indicators
‘Traffic light scale’
Headline
time series
Ranking
SD Profile
Sustainable Development: Headline Indicators
Key Issue Axes
Benchmark Values
Sustainable Development: Benchmark Indicators - Example
Sustainable Development: EES-NR Performance - Example
Sustainable Development: EMS Performance - Example
Research & Development
Education & Training
Media & Communications
Thematic Areas
----------------------------
Operational Means
Environmental /
Natural Resource
Conservation
Socio-Economic
Livelihood &
Productivity
Culture,
Governance
& Institutions
Support Systems:
• IT / Information & Knowledge exchange networks
• Clearinghouses / Interactive directories
• Technology transfer / Personnel exchange
Problem Areas:
• Change / Disaster management (preparedness, adaptation)
• Conflict resolution / Post -conflict rehabilitation
• Mobilizing the disadvantaged / Competitiveness
Collaborative Framework for Sustainable Development
Knowledge
= Capital stock
Know what? Know where?
Know when? Know how?
Learning
= Interest + Income
> Education + Training
Self-consciousness
Develops intelligence
Dignity + Honour + Pride
Human & Social character
Preparation with life skills
Coping with contradictions
Development
Challenges
‘Know-in-Action’
‘Noosphere’ (Teilhard de Chardin)
Generation + Storage + Processing
+ Communication of Information
Transmission
Mechanisms
•Embedded in Language & Culture
•Influenced by different media forms
•Lacks meaning or Results -oriented
•Bipolar stereotypes: Theory -Practice, etc.
Intuitive Perception
of Human spiritual
& material development
Dependent Factors : (a) Love,
Intimacy & Nurture; (b) Intellectual
plasticity, flexibility & adaptability;
(c) All-inclusive process Cognition
+ Culture; (d) Situational context =
Cultural, Social & Political diversity;
(e) Mess (‘Swamp’) > Clear bipolarity
Dependent Factors : (a) Problem
identification; (b) Cause -Effects
analysis; (c) Alternative solutions /
scenarios; (d) Priority setting; (e)
Harnessing Imagery / Vision + Power /
Leadership + Creativity + Social
relationships + Scarce resources 
Survival + Growth + Sophistication
Experiential Understanding
of Human spiritual &
material development
Development
Applications
Knowledge, Learning & Development Linkages
© Jose I dos R Furtado
Experiential Strands for Learning about
Sustainable Development – IC
1. Effective Governance & Economics
(Management)
2. Innovative Science & Technology Policy
(Research, Development & Extension)
3. Design Engineering & Manufacture (Enterprise
& Commerce)
4. Artistic & Literary Creativity (Reflective Arts)
Resource Systems
Types – Natural / Synthetic
Renewable / Non-renewable
Quantity / Quality / Life-cycle
Transformation Systems
Mining / Harvest / Culture
Processing / Transformation / Storage
Product types / quality, Wastes
Conservation Systems
Uses / Protection / Ethics
Intra- / Inter-Generations
Economic / Ecological / Social
Distribution Systems
Products / Information / Markets
Impacts - Benefits / Costs
Waste management / recycling
Imperfect information / rules / regulations + Interest group / Institutional differences in each
component within each system Tension fields / Conflicts Socio-political resolution
Resource Transformation / Conservation Dynamics
Sustainability Implications for Rice-based
Systems
CGIAR +
Natural / Environmental Capital
Biodiversity, Pests & Diseases
Land use, Water, Soils, Nutrients, GHG
Economic / Financial Capital
Rural livelihoods
Credits & Inputs supply
Market access
Physical / Technological Capital
Agricultural machinery
Physical infrastructure
Genetic engineering
Political / Institutional Capital
Policies, Plans, Programmes
Decentralized organization & budgets
Stakeholder & Public participation
Social / Human Capital
Food security
Health & Nutrition
Knowledge & Skills
Farm crop: Rice
Other Products
Sustainable Agricultural & Rural Development Assets / Factors
Climate Change
& Variability
Rice
Ecosystems
Diversity
Land &
Water
Quality
HYV Rice &
Chemicals use
Poverty
Consumption
life-styles
Macro-policy
drivers
Proximate
Bio-physical
causes
Socio-
Economic
causes
Rice Ecosystems Diversity: Ecological, Socio-economic &
Political Causes of Loss
Rainfall
changes
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Economic
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Urbanization
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CGIAR System Research Priorities 2005-2015
Priority
Areas
Elaboration
1 Sustaining biodiversity for current & future generations

Conservation of plant & animal genetic resources for agriculture

Staple crops

Conservation of neglected & under-utilised genetic resources having high income potential

Conservation of indigenous livestock & their wild relatives

Conservation of aquatic animal genetic resources
2 Producing more food at lower cost through genetic improvements

Maintaining and enhancing yields & yield potential of food staples

Tolerance to selected abiotic stresses

Bio-fortification

Genetic enhancement of selected high-value species
3 Creating wealth among the rural poor through high-value commodities
& products

Productivity increases in Fruit and Vegetables

Post-harvest value & employment creation

Income increases from livestock in low- & high productivity areas:
(i) Protecting rural livelihoods in low productivity areas
(ii) Meeting the opportunities for livestock growth in high potential areas

Managing intensification in livestock production

Managing aquatic ecosystems:
(i) Sustaining & managing aquatic ecosystems for food & livelihoods security
(ii): Enhancing supply, nutrition & incomes from managed aquatic systems
(iii): Enabling growth in fish & seafood production & marketing

Sustaining & realizing the value & benefits of forests & trees
4 Combining poverty alleviation & sustainable management of water,
land, & forest resources

Integrated land, water & forest management at landscape level

Agro-ecological intensification in low-potential areas

Agro-ecological intensification in high-potential areas

Improving water productivity at the farm and field level

Ensuring access by the poor to forest & tree resources

Policies & governance of environmental resources
5 Improving policies & facilitating institutional innovation to support
sustainable reduction of poverty & hunger

Science & technology policies and institutions

Globalization, trade & domestic markets

Rural institutions

Dynamics of rural poverty

Policies & institutions for improvement of nutrition and health
Source: CGIAR, 2005. CGIAR System Research Priorities for 2005-2016. Draft.
Science Council Secretariat, FAO
Rome: Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research

Direct and Indirect Impact of CGIAR Priority Research on the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)

CGIAR Priority Areas Millennium Development Goals
(MDG)
1 2 3 4 5
1 Reduce extreme poverty
and hunger
+ ++ ++ ++ ++
2 Achieve universal primary
education

3 Reduce gender disparity in
education
++ ++ ++ ++
4 Reduce child mortality + + + + +
5 Improve maternal health + + + + +
6 Combat HIV/AIDS,
malaria & other diseases
++ ++
7 Ensure environmental
sustainability
++ ++ + ++ ++
8 Develop a glob al
partnership for
development
+ + ++ ++

Five priority areas for CGIAR research based on priority setting:
1. Sustaining biodiversity for current & future generations;
2. Producing more food at lower costs through genetic improvements;
3. Creating wealt h among the rural poor through high -value commodities & products;
4. Combining poverty alleviation & sustainable management of water, land, & forest resources;
5. Improving policies & facilitating institutional innovation to support sustainable reduction o f poverty & hunger.

Source: CGIAR, 2005. CGIAR System Research Priorities for 2005 -2016. Draft. Science Council Secretariat, FAO
Rome: Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research

C:\Agriculture -Rural\IRRI\Agr-SD-MDG-Impacts-Priority-Research-CGIAR.doc

Problem Analysis & Solution

Greater Effort Using Existing Models, Frameworks or
Technologies ….



Does not Always Result in the Right Solution, Answer
or Outcome to a Real & Perceived Problem!
Leadership Transformation in the 21
st
Century
Common interests
& Consensus
Geography
(e.g. Local, National)
e)Politics
Integrative thinking Early access
(e.g. Education, Wealth)
d)Privilege
Self-realization & Worth Ownership
(e.g. Land, Valuable materials)
c)Class
Openness & Consultations
(e.g. IPCC)
Secrecy
(e.g. CIA, Palace, White House)
b)Influence
Shared responsibility
(e.g. Ozone depletion, Climate
change, Shared waters,
Biodiversity, International
terrorism, disasters & crises)
Control
(e.g. Weapons, Transportation, Trade
routes, Markets, Information)
a)Power
Trust & Mutual respect Discrimination
Basis:
Everyone Someone
In Charge
Horizontal, Network
Followers > Leaders
Vertical, Hierarchy
Leader > Followers
Structure
3
rd
Millennium 1-2
nd
Millennium Characteristics
Due to Information Technology & Knowledge Sharing Source: Harlan Cleveland
Evolution of Development Thought
Gross
Domestic
Product (GDP)
Real GDP
/ capita
Non-monetary
indicators
(HDI)
Poverty
mitigation
Entitlements
&
Capabilities
Freedom
Sustainable
development
Physical
capital
Human
capital
Knowledge
capital
Social
capital
Market
failures
Non-market
failures
New market
failures
Institutional
failures
Programmin
g
& Planning
Minimalist
government
Government &
Market
complementarity
Development Goals:
Capital Accumulation:
State & Market:
Government Interventions:
‘Get Prices Right’ ‘Get Policies Right’ ‘Get Institutions Right’
Outlook for Development in the 21st
Century
Pessimistic Optimistic
Global
integration
Increasing financial
risks
Raising rewards
Knowldege
revolution
Worsening income
gaps
Improving
opportunities for all
Policy change Leaving no viable
models of
development
Greater consensus
on needed actions
Change in
governance
Increase in
corruption and
conflict
Increasing
participation and
democracy
External Factors contributing to Outcomes
Financial
crises
Natural
disasters
Conflicts Man-made
disasters
Examples
from
1997-99
East Asia
Russia
Brazil
Bangladesh
Central
America
Albania
Bosnia
Congo
Rwanda
Sierra Leone
Indonesia
(forest fire)
Impact Short-term
increase in
poverty
Human and
physical loss
Destruction
of social and
human
capital
Long-term
increase in
poverty
Growth
Efficiency
Equity
Participation
Regional
Approach
Collaborative
Approach
Stakeholder
Alliances
Sectoral
Development
Enabling
Environment
NGO/CSO
Involvement
Integrated
Regional
Plan
Central
Planning
Figure : Evolution of Human Development in terms of Growth,
Efficiency, Equity & Participation
FURTADO\ECO-DEVELOPMENT\CHARTS\DEV-EVOL-CYCLES.PPT
Public-Private
Partnerships
Policy Instruments for Development
Instruments Specifications
Stimulation /
Incentives

Subsidies / Financial incentives

Education / Training / Instruction to citizens
Change behaviour of individual & institutions
Technological
Potential

R&D investments for industrial machines, etc.

Environmental-friendly products, services & production
processes
·Technological innovations for different uses
Prices

Taxes / Resource rights or quotas / Emission rights or permits
·Transparent mechanism to stimulate environmentally
friendly products, services & production processes
Investments

Public / Private investments
·Urban & countryside infrastructure & quality
Conditions /
Governance

Government goals & norms

Government laws & regulations
·Socially acceptable behaviour of individuals & institutions
Table : Sustainability Rules and Indicators
Sustainability Natural Capital
No Critical Natural Capital Critical Natural Capital
Very Weak
Sustainability

Savings/Year - Capital asset
depreciation/Year > 0
Perfect Substitution:

All Natural and Man-made Capital
Growth Economy
Weak
Sustainability

Savings/Year - Man-made capital
depreciation / Year - Natural capital
depreciation/Year = Weak Sustainability
Indicator

Weak Sustainability Indicator > 0

Technical change > Population growth rate

Natural capital > Lower stock limit to
ensure ecosystem stability

Weak Sustainability Indicator > 0

Technical change > Population growth rate

Natural capital > Lower stock limit to ensure
ecosystem stability

Critical natural capital depreciation < 0
Strong
Sustainability

Natural capital depreciation < 0

Weak Sustainability Indicator > 0

Weak Sustainability Indicator > 0

Natural capital depreciation < 0

Critical natural capital depreciation < 0

Cultural capital depreciation < 0
Very Strong
Sustainability
Perfect Complementarity:

All Natural and Man-made Capital Assets
Stationary State Economy

Weak Sustainability Indicator > 0

Natural capital depreciation < 0

Critical natural capital depreciation < 0

Natural capital < 0

Cultural capital depreciation < 0

Ethical/Moral capital depreciation < 0
Source: Perrings
Table : Framework for Distinguishing “Sustainable” / “Unsustainable”
Natural Resources Management
Form of
Management
Criteria Influencing Appropriateness
Biophysical Economic Political
Unsustainable

High adverse local /
downstream effects of
extraction / conversion

High biodiversity

High biomass

High utility to local
communities

Low / Temporary
productive / other
potential

No potential stakeholders
ultimately gain from the
conversion
(“Lose-Lose”)
Ambiguous

[Intermediate
characteristics]

[Intermediate
characteristics]

Some stakeholders win,
others lose from the
conversion

(“Win-Lose”)
Sustainable

Low adverse local /
downstream effects of
extraction / conversion

Low biodiversity

Low biomass

Low utility to local
communities

High & Lasting
productive / other
potential

All potential stakeholders
gain from the conversion
(“Win-Win” Potential)
Mandala of Asset Interactions & Transformations for Sustainability
CULTURE
PHILOSOPHY
Environmental Security
Needs Satisfaction
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C
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D
e
g
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a
d
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i
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n
T E C H N O L O G Y
STYLE
CARING
DIGNITY
C
Societal level:
6 Forms of Assets or
Capitals (outer)
6 Social Processes linking
Assets (aster)
6 Secondary forms of
assets (intersections)
Individual level:
6 Processes determined by
3 Project dimensions
corresponding to
3 Axes of
Consciousness = Culture
& Philosophy (Beliefs &
Values) provide driving
force over Space & Time
How to use this mandala: Consider a lotus
flower with its petals representing social
assets & processes derived from individual
consciousness & information, all linked by
the diurnal behaviour of the flower
Source: J.I. Furtado, 1991. Ecological Research, 6(2):