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Rajesh Gupta, Gaurang Gupta, Amir Hussain, Dharmendra

Kastwar, Hars Ranjan
Department of Electrical Engineering Department of Electrical Engineering
M. N. National Institute of Technology M. N. National Institute of Technology
Allahabad, India Allahabad, India
` Generation of power from PV module and its supply to the
load or interface to the grid through various converter
stages require accurate modeling of the various
characteristics of the PV system.
` Integration of distributed power generation resources such
as solar PV module require a simulation tool that can
accurately model both the fast power system dynamics and
slow power generation dynamics of solar PV module.
` PSCAD/EMTDC is a simulation tool that has been
extensively used for the Power System studies. However
lacks the valid simulation model of solar PV module.
Objective Objective
` This paper presents the modeling of
photovoltaic (PV) module in PSCAD/EMTDC.
` The validity of the PV model developed has
been verified using the set of data collected
experimentally.
` In order to extract maximum power from the
PV module a boost converter has been used
and controlled through the Hill Top algorithm.
VI characteristic equation of a PV cell :
I = I
PV
± I
D
- I
sh
- =

sh
s s
o PV
R
R I V
1
ĮKT
R I V q
exp I I I

¼
½
»
¬
­
«
¹
º
¸
©
ª
¨
!
Cell generated Current:
where,
I
sc
is the nominal short circuit current
K
i
is current temperature coefficient
T is the temperature of the cell in Kelvin
T
n
is the nominal temperature
G is the solar insolation in W/m
2
Diode Saturation Current:
where,
I
o,n
is the cell reverse saturation current
E
g
is the band gap energy
´ ) . J
n
n i sc PV
G
G
T T K I I ÷ =
¦
¦
¦
¦

¦
¦
'
+

'

¦
'
+

'

=
T
1
T
1
ĮK
qE
exp
T
T
I I
n
g
3
n
n o, o
Diode reverse saturation current:
where,
V
oc
is the nominal open circuit voltage across the module.
V
t
is the thermal voltage (Vt = (N
s
.kT)/q)
N
s
is number of series cell
1
ĮV
V
exp
I
I
t
oc
sc
n o,

¹
¹
º
¸
©
©
ª
¨
!
` The output of the solar module depends upon:
1. Cell Temperature 2. Solar Insolation level
` Cell Temperature affects voltage to a large extent keeping current almost
constant.
` Solar insolation affects the output current, keeping voltage almost constant.
Effect of Variables Effect of Variables
A new component is developed in PSCAD named PV Module.
The PV characteristics are modeled using FOTRAN
programming.
The inputs to the components are taken Temperature, Solar
Insolation and feedback voltage and current, i.e., Vout and Iout.
The calculated current I, and voltage TEST are the output of the
component.
1. Specify all the datasheet parameters of the PV Module.
2. Define the external parameters, i.e., Cell Temperature T and Solar
Insolation level G.
3. Calculate values of I
pv
, I
o
and I
o.n
using the corresponding equations.
4. Initialize V = 0, I = I
pv .
5. Increment V in steps of 0.05 and calculate I.
6. Store the value of V and I in a array.
7. If I > 0, pass the value of V and I to Step 4 else goto Step 7.
8. Plot the curve I vs V using array formed in Step 5.
1. As Cell temperature decreases, the open circuit voltage increases keeping the
short circuit current almost constant.
2. As Insolation level increases, the short circuit current increased keeping the
open circuit voltage almost constant.
` The PV module has only single maxima and changes with the
change in temperature and insolation level.
` This peak power is tracked by adjusting the impedance of the
load.
` A DC/DC Boost converter can act as a interface between the
module and the load and can effectively change the impedance
to achieve MPPT.
PV
Module
MPPT
ystem
L
O
A
D
` This algorithm works by increasing or decreasing the
duty cycle of a boost DC-DC converter and observing
its impact on the PV module output power.
` The power output is compared with its previous value
and accordingly, the sign of ³slope´, which is a
program variable, (slope א{1,-1}), is either
complemented or remains unchanged.
` The PWM output duty cycle is changed accordingly.
Start
Slope = 1
Sense module's
Voltage V(k), Current I(k)
Calculate Power
P(k) = V(k).I(k)
P(k) > P(k-1)
Duty Ratio = Duty Ratio + slope*step size
Yes
Complement Slope
No
PV
MODULE
L
O
A
D
A
V
Current
Sensor
MPPT
Controller
Voltage
Sensor
L
C
Cout
Duty Cycle Variation Switching Signal
Output voltage across PV Output Voltage Across Load
Insolation: 800
Temp : 30 deg
Power Across the Module
Power Across the Load
` The duty cycle of the Boost Converter
continuously varied until a maximum power point
is tracked.
` The output voltage is amplified accordingly
compared to input PV voltage.
` The power across the entire system remained
constant and it is the maximum power that can be
extracted from the PV module in given conditions.
Insolation Temperature Load PV voltage Output Voltage Output Power PV Power
800 30 5 4.8864 1.234 4.808 4.94
800 30 25 5.734 23.81 22.684 23.361
800 30 50 11.81 47.87 45.87 48.01
800 30 100 17.4 72.11 52.06 56.5
600 30 5 0.913 3.64 2.68 2.78
600 30 25 4.29 17.89 12.76 13.09
600 30 50 8.55 35.98 25.82 26.99
600 30 100 14.93 63.76 40.614 43.98
600 20 5 0.911 3.677 2.669 2.773
600 20 25 4.29 17.89 12.707 13.073
600 20 50 8.85 35.87 25.755 26.94
600 20 100 15.29 42.36 65.17 46.05
800 20 5 1.21 4.87 4.74 4.93
800 20 25 5.72 23.76 22.59 23.18
800 20 50 11.85 47.92 45.95 48.06
800 20 100 18.02 76.28 58.2 63.2
1000 20 5 1.52 6.06 7.39 7.71
1000 20 25 7.13 29.69 35.28 36.33
1000 20 50 14.58 59.11 69.76 72.98
1000 20 100 18.98 80.42 64.68 70.16
1000 30 5 1.52 6.1 7.45 7.75
1000 30 25 6.86 29.1 33.93 34.85
1000 30 50 13.79 57.44 65.99 68.88
1000 30 100 18.17 75.14 56.47 61.39
Output PV Power Vs Load Resistance
at 30 deg
` Simulation was performed at different insolation level
keeping the temperature constant.
` Plots shows the output powers at different insolation level at
constant temperature.
` Clearly the power increases as insolation level increases.
utput PV Power Vs oad Resistance
at 20 deg
` In order to verify the validity of the algorithm, the
schematic was simulated for close loop, i.e., when the
MPPT controller was active and for the open loop
when the duty cycle of the boost converter was fixed.
` Results, clearly shows that the power extracted from
the PV module was greater for the case of close loop
compared to the open loop cycle.
‡ This paper presented the modeling of a PV module in PSCAD/EMTDC
and design of the MPPT controller which has been verified by
comparing its VI characteristics with the actual data set collected
experimentally.
‡ Further, the VI characteristics of the PV model has been studied with
the variations in insolation level and temperature and found to be in
close approximations to the ideal characteristics.
‡ The application of the PV model has been shown through the MPPT
using DC-DC boost converter based on the Hill Top algorithm in the
PSCAD/EMTDC environment.
‡ It is shown that the MPPT algorithm extracts the maximum power from
the PV model under all conditions of insolation level and temperature.
‡ Also the results are shown for the operation of the converter under
open loop and close loop control at different insolation and it has been
observed that more power is extracted when the MPPT controller is
used.
The model of the PV module developed in the
PSCAD/EMTDC can be used for the simulation
studies of the PV supported grid interface
applications. This includes multi-string PV system,
distributed PV system etc.
Thank You

`

Generation of power from PV module and its supply to the load or interface to the grid through various converter stages require accurate modeling of the various characteristics of the PV system. Integration of distributed power generation resources such as solar PV module require a simulation tool that can accurately model both the fast power system dynamics and slow power generation dynamics of solar PV module. PSCAD/EMTDC is a simulation tool that has been extensively used for the Power System studies. However lacks the valid simulation model of solar PV module.

`

`

In order to extract maximum power from the PV module a boost converter has been used and controlled through the Hill Top algorithm.Objective ` This paper presents the modeling of photovoltaic (PV) module in PSCAD/EMTDC. ` ` . The validity of the PV model developed has been verified using the set of data collected experimentally.

VI characteristic equation of a PV cell : I = IPV ± ID .Ish I ! I PV « ¨ q.

V  I R s ¸ » V  I R s  I o ¬exp© ¹  1¼  KT R sh º ½ ­ ª - = .

 Cell generated Current: I PV G ! ?I sc  K i .

T  Tn A Gn where. n © ¹ exp ¬ © T  T ¹¼ ¹ T º K ª n ª ¬ º¼ ­ ½ 3 where. Isc is the nominal short circuit current Ki is current temperature coefficient T is the temperature of the cell in Kelvin Tn is the nominal temperature G is the solar insolation in W/m2  Diode Saturation Current: « qE g ¨ 1 1 ¸» ¨ Tn ¸ © I o ! I o. Io.n is the cell reverse saturation current Eg is the band gap energy .

n ! I sc ¨ Voc exp© © V ª t ¸ ¹ 1 ¹ º where. Voc is the nominal open circuit voltage across the module.kT)/q) Ns is number of series cell . Vt is the thermal voltage (Vt = (Ns . Diode reverse saturation current: I o.

Effect of Variables ` The output of the solar module depends upon: 1. keeping voltage almost constant. Solar Insolation level ` ` Cell Temperature affects voltage to a large extent keeping current almost constant. Solar insolation affects the output current. . Cell Temperature 2.

The calculated current I. i.. Vout and Iout. A new component is developed in PSCAD named PV Module. The PV characteristics are modeled using FOTRAN programming. Solar Insolation and feedback voltage and current. and voltage TEST are the output of the component. The inputs to the components are taken Temperature.e.   .

6. 5. Initialize V = 0. Io and Io.e. 7.1. Plot the curve I vs V using array formed in Step 5. 8. Define the external parameters. If I > 0.05 and calculate I. Calculate values of Ipv . I = Ipv . Specify all the datasheet parameters of the PV Module. 4. Store the value of V and I in a array. Increment V in steps of 0. i. 2. . Cell Temperature T and Solar Insolation level G. pass the value of V and I to Step 4 else goto Step 7.n using the corresponding equations. 3..

.

2.1. As Cell temperature decreases. the short circuit current increased keeping the open circuit voltage almost constant. . As Insolation level increases. the open circuit voltage increases keeping the short circuit current almost constant.

.

A DC/DC Boost converter can act as a interface between the module and the load and can effectively change the impedance to achieve MPPT. . This peak power is tracked by adjusting the impedance of the load.PV Module MPPT ystem L O A D ` ` ` The PV module has only single maxima and changes with the change in temperature and insolation level.

-1}). The PWM output duty cycle is changed accordingly. (slope {1. is either complemented or remains unchanged. The power output is compared with its previous value and accordingly.` This algorithm works by increasing or decreasing the duty cycle of a boost DC-DC converter and observing its impact on the PV module output power. which is a program variable. the sign of ³slope´. ` ` .

Current I(k) Calculate Power P(k) = V(k).I(k) P(k) > P(k-1) No Yes Complement Slope Duty Ratio = Duty Ratio + slope*step size .Start Slope = 1 Sense module's Voltage V(k).

Current Sensor A Voltage V Sensor L L O A D PV MODULE C Cout MPPT Controller .

.

Insolation: 800 Temp : 30 deg Duty Cycle Variation Switching Signal Output voltage across PV Output Voltage Across Load .

Power Across the Module Power Across the Load .

.` ` ` The duty cycle of the Boost Converter continuously varied until a maximum power point is tracked. The power across the entire system remained constant and it is the maximum power that can be extracted from the PV module in given conditions. The output voltage is amplified accordingly compared to input PV voltage.

64 17.11 3.06 2.88 61.87 72.89 35.94 46.Insolation 800 800 800 800 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 600 800 800 800 800 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 Temperature 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 30 30 30 30 Load 5 25 50 100 5 25 50 100 5 25 50 100 5 25 50 100 5 25 50 100 5 25 50 100 PV voltage 4.02 1.17 4.92 76.01 56.21 5.36 4.58 18.52 7.76 64.911 4.734 11.47 4.87 23.06 63.361 48.33 72.05 4.06 29.707 25.76 47.87 42.75 34.52 6.85 68.94 23.2 7.2 7.98 1.99 43.85 15.677 17.073 26.8864 5.684 45.74 22.93 23.42 6.72 11.14 Output Power PV Power 4.93 65.09 26.87 52.669 12.755 65.78 13.95 58.76 25.71 36.81 47.69 59.17 Output Voltage 1.29 8.76 3.68 7.29 1.234 23.98 2.614 2.1 29.45 33.773 13.28 6.59 45.16 7.44 75.18 48.28 69.39 .5 2.99 56.89 35.79 18.81 17.29 8.4 0.913 4.808 22.93 0.85 18.55 14.11 80.1 57.39 35.68 12.98 63.82 40.13 14.86 13.98 70.

. Clearly the power increases as insolation level increases.Output PV Power Vs Load Resistance at 30 deg utput PV Power Vs oad Resistance at 20 deg ` ` ` Simulation was performed at different insolation level keeping the temperature constant. Plots shows the output powers at different insolation level at constant temperature.

. when the MPPT controller was active and for the open loop when the duty cycle of the boost converter was fixed. clearly shows that the power extracted from the PV module was greater for the case of close loop compared to the open loop cycle. ` .` In order to verify the validity of the algorithm. i.e. Results. the schematic was simulated for close loop.

the VI characteristics of the PV model has been studied with the variations in insolation level and temperature and found to be in close approximations to the ideal characteristics. ‡ It is shown that the MPPT algorithm extracts the maximum power from the PV model under all conditions of insolation level and temperature. ‡ The application of the PV model has been shown through the MPPT using DC-DC boost converter based on the Hill Top algorithm in the PSCAD/EMTDC environment. ‡ Further. . ‡ Also the results are shown for the operation of the converter under open loop and close loop control at different insolation and it has been observed that more power is extracted when the MPPT controller is used.‡ This paper presented the modeling of a PV module in PSCAD/EMTDC and design of the MPPT controller which has been verified by comparing its VI characteristics with the actual data set collected experimentally.

This includes multi-string PV system. .The model of the PV module developed in the PSCAD/EMTDC can be used for the simulation studies of the PV supported grid interface applications. distributed PV system etc.

Thank You .