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Selection

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Introduction
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Selection is the process by which an organization chooses the person(s) who best meets the selection criteria for the position available

Internal Environmental Influences
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Organizational characteristics can influence the selection process:
Size Complexity Technological volatility

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An organization·s attitude about hiring from within is also a determinant

External Environmental Influences
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Human resource specialists evaluate the effects of the labor market on selection by using a selection ratio:
Selection ratio = Number of applicants hired ·\· Total applicants

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When the selection ratio is close to 1:1, it is a high selection ratio
The lower the selection ratio, the more detailed the selection process The organization can be more selective, but the selection decision will require more time and money

and KSAOs dictated by the job y The system must distinguish between characteristics that are: Needed at the time of hiring. and developed on the job .Selection Criteria y Understanding the characteristics essential for high performance The characteristics are identified during job analysis They must be reflected in the job specification y The goal of any selection system is to: Determine which applicants possess the knowledge. acquired during training. skills. abilities.

Categories of Criteria y Criteria for making selection decisions fall into these broad categories: Education Experience Physical characteristics Other personal characteristics .

Reliability y The main goal of selection is to make accurate predictions about people Selection techniques must yield reliable information y Reliability refers to how stable or repeatable a measurement is over a variety of testing conditions A somewhat unreliable tool can still be useful Measurements that are too inconsistent are useless y Test-retest is a common way to assess reliability Reliability is also determined by using interrater reliability .

Validity y To be useful. measures must also be valid Validity addresses what a test measures and how well it has measured it The primary concern is whether the assessment results in accurate predictions about the future success or failure of an applicant y Three types of validity HR specialists should be familiar with: Content Construct Criterion-related .

interview. or ability to perform a job Content validity is not appropriate for abstract job behaviors . knowledge.Content Validity y Content validity is the degree to which a test. or performance evaluation measures skill.

such as leadership A test has construct validity when it actually measures the unobservable trait that it claims to measure Construct validity can be assumed to exist if a large body of empirical work yields consistent results .Construct Validity y Construct validity is a trait that is not typically observable.

CriterionCriterion-related Validity y Criterion-related validity is the extent to which a selection technique can accurately predict one or more important elements of job behavior Scores on a test or performance in a simulated exercise are correlated with measures of actual on-the-job performance x The test is a predictor x The performance score is a criterion .

CriterionCriterion-related Validity y Criteria relevant to personnel selection include measures such as: Quality or quantity Supervisory ratings Absenteeism Accidents Sales Two popular types of criterion-related validity are predictive and concurrent y The criterion determines if a selection system is legal Choose a measure that reflects the contributions of employees to the effectiveness of the organization .

Predictive Validity y Predictive validity is determined by using the scores from a sample of applicants for a job Administer the test to a large sample of applicants Select individuals for the job Wait an appropriate amount of time and then collect measures of job performance Assess the strength of the predictor-criterion relationship .

Predictive Validity y The drawback of predictive validity: The employer must wait until it has hired a large number of people for whom it has predictor scores It must then wait until it can measure the job performance of the people hired .

performance measures for these employees are collected Test scores are then correlated with the performance measures y The biggest advantage of concurrent validation: It can be conducted relatively quickly. which makes it less expensive than predictive validation .Concurrent Validity y Concurrent validity is also used to determine whether a selection test can predict job performance The test is administered to present employees performing the job At the same time.

which can bias validation in favor of applicants with experience Present employees often balk at completing tests There is a self-selection bias that restricts the range of test scores (the least skilled workers have been terminated. demoted. or transferred) y Concurrent validation should not be used as an alternative to predictive validation simply because it can be done more quickly .Validity Problems y Potential problems with predictive validation: Uses experienced employees.

hiring decisions were based on the subjective likes and dislikes of the boss Selection tools were designed to aid this gut reaction Today. selection is viewed as more than intuition y The selection decision is a series of steps through which applicants pass At each step.The Selection Process y In the past. more applicants are screened out .

Step 1: Preliminary Screening y The first step in most selection processes involves completing an application form Application blanks vary in length and sophistication Nearly all ask for enough information to determine minimal qualifications The application eliminates the need for interviewers to gather basic information Application blanks are subject to the same legal standards as any other selection method They generally limit questions that imply something about the applicant·s physical health .

Step 1: Preliminary Screening y Many organizations add clauses at the beginning or end of their application blanks that help to: Protect the organization against unjustified lawsuits Ensure that applicants and employees understand the terms of their employment y Three of the more common clauses cover: Applicant·s rights as they relate to the organization The scope of the employment contract Grievances .

and the one with the highest score is the preferred choice Applicants who are judged minimally qualified proceed to the next phase of the selection process .Step 1: Preliminary Screening y The weighted application blank is designed to be scored more systematically Current high and low performers are compared on a variety of characteristics that were known at the time they applied for the job Weights are then assigned to the degree of difference on each characteristic The weights are totaled for each applicant.

Step 2: Employment Interview Structure the interview to be reliable and valid Train managers to use good interviewing techniques .

Types of Interviews y Interviews vary along two important dimensions: Structured interviews are more reliable and valid than unstructured interviews Standardization lowers the possibility that biases have been introduced by the interviewer .

S.Types of Interviews y Two types of structured interviews have gained popularity in the U.: Behavioral interview³applicants are asked to relate actual incidents from their past work experience to the job for which they are applying Situational interview³seeks to identify whether an applicant possesses relevant job knowledge and motivation by asking hypothetical questions Questions about past experience have higher validity than future-oriented hypothetical questions .

Training for Interviewing y Training programs can reduce many of the errors found in traditional. unstructured interviews This is especially true when the training is used in conjunction with a structured interview format Validity is enhanced when a trained interviewer takes behaviorally oriented notes during the interview .

such as: Aptitudes Manual dexterity Intelligence Personality .Step 3: Employment Tests y An employment test attempts to measure certain characteristics.

even more so if questions of discrimination arise Despite the cost.Step 3: Employment Tests y Any testing device should be validated before it is used to make hiring decisions Validation studies are expensive. tests can more than pay for themselves through increased efficiency in selection y The type of test ultimately used depends on: Budgetary constraints The complexity and difficulty of the job The size and quality of applicant populations The KSOAs required by the job .

Job Sample Performance Tests y This test requires the applicant to do a sample of the work that the job involves in a controlled situation Programming for computer programmers Driving course for delivery persons Auditions at an orchestra or ballet company y Applicants are often asked to run the machines they would run on the job The quantity and quality of their work is compared with the work of other applicants .

Job Sample Performance Tests y Job sample performance tests have some of the highest validities of all selection tests Their superiority lies in the direct relationship with performance on the job y Face validity should not be confused with actual validity Face validity is how good a test looks for a given situation Many tests that are valid also look valid. but that is not always the case .

Cognitive Ability Tests y The best known cognitive abilities are math and verbal These form the basis the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) and the Graduate Record Examination (GRE) y Verbal and math abilities are also measured by tests developed specifically human resource use: Weschler Adult Intelligence Scale Wonderlic Personnel Test California Test of Mental Maturity (adult level) .

they include: y Choice reaction time y Speed of limb movement y Finger dexterity y .Psychomotor Ability Simulations Psychomotor ability tests are not as popular as they once were.

Polygraph and Honesty Tests y The polygraph is erroneously called a lie detector It records changes in breathing. pulse. blood pressure. objections have been raised May be an invasion of privacy Can lead to self-incrimination May not be reliable and valid . and skin response. then plots the reactions on paper It was a popular selection tool by the mid-1980s because on-the-job crime had increased tremendously y In recent years.

of Energy contractors Private employers whose business involves security and controlled substances It is legal to use the polygraph during an ongoing investigation of dishonesty if the employee¶s rights are safe-guarded . of Defense and Dept.Polygraph and Honesty Tests y The Employee Polygraph Protection Act of 1988 made it illegal for most private organizations to use the polygraph as a selection device Exemptions: y Government agencies Certain Dept.

and providing.Step 4: Reference Checks y When applying for a job. you may be asked for a list of references Rarely does someone knowingly include the name of a reference who will give a negative impression This built-in bias is why references are criticized y Equally important are concerns over the legality of asking for. such information Giving out confidential information could be a violation of the employee·s right to privacy Giving a negative recommendation opens the reference up to a defamation lawsuit .

Step 4: Reference Checks y Fears of being sued have led many managers to refuse to provide references for former employees Many organizations include statements in employee handbooks about reference checking policies Managers often give out only verifiable kinds of information. such as date of employment and job title y Organizations must also be wary of any policy which suggests that all references should be neutral They could be sued for a ´negligent referralµ .

job-related information about their employees Most laws are too new to determine if they will be effective .Step 4: Reference Checks y At present. the legal status surrounding reference-checking and providing recommendations is unclear At least 32 states have passed laws giving managers some immunity for providing good-faith.

everyone who is conditionally offered employment should be required to have one .Step 5: Physical Examinations y The Americans with Disabilities Act indicates that: Physical examinations can be used to screen out unqualified individuals. but only after a conditional offer of employment is made If an organization uses such examinations.

and money hiring middle.to upper-level executives y One of the best-known multiple selection methods used for this purpose is the assessment center . effort.Selection of Managers y The employment tests used vary with the type of employee being hired Organizations frequently spend more time.

Selection of Managers y An assessment center uses a variety of testing methods. including: Interviews Work samples and simulations Paper-and-pencil tests of abilities and attitudes .

12 individuals are evaluated Individual and group activities are observed and evaluated Multiple methods of assessment are used Assessors are usually a panel of line managers for the organization. or outsiders trained to conduct assessments Assessment centers are relevant to the job .Selection of Managers y Assessment centers are similar in a number of areas: Groups of approx. consultants.

such as: Organizational and planning ability Decisiveness Flexibility Resistance to stress Poise Personal style y Rater·s judgments are consolidated and developed into a final report .Selection of Managers y Assessors then evaluate each individual on a number of dimensions.

Selection of Managers y Assessment center reports permit the organization to determine: Qualifications for particular positions Promotability How individuals function in a group Type of training/development needed How good assessors are at observing. and reporting on the performance of others . evaluating.

Selection of Managers y Assessment centers are a valid way to select managers. but they are not without disadvantages Relatively expensive Not a reasonable alternative for smaller organizations Less costly and administratively complicated techniques may be just as effective .

Selection Cost-Benefit Analysis Cost- y Utility: the degree to which using a selection system improves the quality of the individuals being selected Statistical utility: the extent to which a selection technique allows a company to predict who will be successful Organizational utility: a matter of costs and benefits .

Selection Cost-Benefit Analysis Costy Whether a selection system should be developed and used depends on whether it saves more money than it costs A cost-vs-benefits analysis requires estimates of the direct and indirect costs associated with the system x Direct costs: the price of the tests. and so on x Indirect costs: such things as changes in public image . the equipment used. the salary paid to an interviewer.

Selection Cost-Benefit Analysis Costy An organization must also estimate how much money it saves by hiring more qualified employees Higher levels of quality or quantity Reduced absenteeism Putting more money Lower accident rates into selection can reduce the amount Less turnover y Valid selection yield huge benefits that must be spent on can procedurestraining This is especially true where the costs of hiring a poor performer are high .