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Anatomy of the Ear

Perry C. Hanavan, Au.D. Audiologist

Major Divisions of the Ear
Peripheral Mechanism Central Mechanism

VIII Outer Middle Inner Cranial Ear Ear Ear Nerve

Brain

Question
What is the purpose of the pinna? A. Cosmetics B. Sound collector C. Same side localization D. A and B E. A, B and C

Senteo Question
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Outer Ear Virtual Tour of the Ear Pinna Pinna Preauricular Tags Preauricular Pits EAM External Auditory Meatus Cerumen Q-tips Microtia Anotia Atresia Function EAM resonance .

Pinna .

Another name for pinna? A. . External auditory meatus B. Ear lobe D.. None of the above Senteo Question To set the properties right click and select Senteo Question Object->Properties. Auricle E. External auditory canal C..

Function of Outer Ear ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Collect sound Localization Resonator Protection Sensitive (earlobe) ‡ Other? .

Pinna ‡ The visible portion that is commonly referred to as "the ear" ‡ Helps localize sound sources ‡ Directs sound into the ear ‡ Each individual's pinna creates a distinctive imprint on the acoustic wave traveling into the auditory canal .

‡ Protects the eardrum ‡ Resonator ± Provides about 10 decibels (dB) of gain to the eardrum at around 3. ± Sensitivity to sounds greatest in this frequency region ± Noises in this range are the most hazardous to hearing . ± Size and shape vary among individuals.000 to 4. and ear canal is that sounds in the 2.External Auditory Meatus ‡ Extends from the pinna to the tympanic membrane ± About 26 millimeters (mm) in length and 7 mm in diameter in adult ear.000 Hz region are amplified by 10 to 15 dB.300 Hertz (Hz). ‡ The net effect of the head. pinna.

Outer Ear Resonance ‡ Influence of pinna (p) ‡ Influence of ear canal (m) ‡ Combine influence (t) ‡ At 3000 Hz. the final amplification (t) is 20 dB .

Cerumen should be routinely removed from the ear canal? A.. .. False Senteo Question To set the properties right click and select Senteo Question Object->Properties. True B.

Cerumen ‡ The purpose of wax: ± Repel water ± Trap dust. microorganisms. and other debris ± Moisturize epithelium in ear canal ± Odor discourages insects ± Antibiotic. antiviral. antifungal properties ± Cleanse ear canal . sand particles.

Embryological Development ‡ External Ear Development .

Outer Ear Hearing Disorders ‡ Outer ear ‡ CHARGE ‡ Down Syndrome ± Ears small and low set ‡ Fetal Alcohol Syndrome ± Deformed ears ‡ DiGeorge syndrome ± Low set ears .

External Ear Care Hazardous to health: ‡ Ear candling ‡ Swabs ‡ Foreign objects .

Interpret sounds D. . Amplify sounds C. Cause middle ear infections in young children B. None of the above To set the properties right click and select Senteo Question Object->Properties. Analyze sounds Senteo Question E..Middle Ear The function of the middle ear is to? A..

it isn¶t part of the hearing mechanism C. No. I don¶t know Senteo Question To set the properties right click and select Senteo Question Object->Properties. it is a part of the inner ear B... No. Yes D.Middle Ear The Eustachian tube is a part of the middle ear? A. .

There are three layers of tympanic membrane tissue D. Which is not true? A.. The stapes is the smallest bone in the human body   Middle Ear Senteo Question . The acoustic reflex occurs from soft sounds E. There are two middle ear muscles B. There are three ossicles C..To set the properties ri ht click and select Senteo Question Object->Properties.

Middle Ear Virtual Tour of the Ear Middle Ear Cavity Tympanic Cavity Tympanic Membrane Ossicles Middle Ear Muscles Eustachian Tube Mastoid Ossicles Middle Ear Muscles Mastoid Eustachian Tube Function Amplifier Cholesteatoma Temporal bone fractures Otitis Media PE tubes Otosclerosis .

Function of Middle Ear ‡ Conduction ± Conduct sound from the outer ear to the inner ear ‡ Protection ± Creates a barrier that protects the middle and inner areas from foreign objects ± Middle ear muscles may provide protection from loud sounds ‡ Transducer ± Converts acoustic energy to mechanical energy ± Converts mechanical energy to hydraulic energy ‡ Amplifier ± Transformer action of the middle ear ± only about 1/1000 of the acoustic energy in air would be transmitted to the inner-ear fluids (about 30 dB hearing loss) .

Converts mechanical to electrical Senteo Question To set the properties right click and select Senteo Question Object->Properties. Converts acoustic energy to electrical E. Converts hydraulic energy to mechanical C.The middle ear: A. Converts acoustic energy to hydraulic B.. Converts acoustic energy to mechanical D.. .

They are played by striking the head with a special drum stick called a timpani stick. Timpani evolved from military drums to become a staple of the classical orchestra in the 17th century. they consist of a skin called a head stretched over a large bowl commonly made of copper. Today. A type of drum. they are used in many types of musical ensembles including classical orchestra . are musical instruments in the percussion family.Middle Ear Tympanum: Timpani. or kettledrums.

5 mm in diameter ‡ The eardrum vibrates in response to sound pressure waves.Tympanic Membrane ‡ The eardrum separates the outer ear from the middle ear ‡ Creates a barrier that protects the middle and inner areas from foreign objects ‡ Cone-shaped in appearance ± about 17. ‡ The membrane movement is incredibly small ± as little as one-billionth of a centimeter .

. Consists of 3 layers of tissue E. Consists of 5 layers of tissue Senteo Question To set the properties right click and select Senteo Question Object->Properties. Consists of 2 layers of tissue B. . Consists of 4 layers of tissue C. Consists of 1 layer of tissue D.The pars tensa portion of the TM: A..

± Without this function. which opens during swallowing and yawning ± This equalizes the pressure on either side of the eardrum. . causing the eardrum to displace inward or outward ‡ This reduces the efficiency of the middle ear and less acoustic energy will be transmitted to the inner ear. a difference between the static pressure in the middle ear and the outside pressure may develop. which is necessary for optimal hearing.Eustachian Tube ‡ The eustachian tube connects the front wall of the middle ear with the nasopharynx ‡ The eustachian tube also operates like a valve.

.The Eustachian tube: A. . Never opens Senteo Question To set the properties right click and select Senteo Question Object->Properties. Opens when one yawns B.. Opens when one blinks D. Opens when one smiles C. It is always open E.

Ossicles ‡ Malleus (hammer) ‡ Incus (anvil) ‡ Stapes (stirrup) smallest bone of the body .

About 30 dB Senteo Question To set the properties right click and select Senteo Question Object->Properties. .. About 25 dB C.The middle ear amplifies sound: A.. About 15 dB B. About 35 dB D. About 20 dB E.

‡ Malleus and incus vibrate together. ‡ The middle ear enhances the transfer of acoustical energy in two ways: ± The area of the eardrum is about 17 times larger than the oval window ‡ The effective pressure (force per unit area) is increased by this amount. about 1/1000 of acoustic energy in air transmitted to inner-ear fluids (about 30 dB loss).Transformer/Amplifier ‡ Transform the vibrating motion of the eardrum into motion of the stapes. ± The ossicles produce a lever action that further amplifies the pressure ‡ Without the transformer action of middle ear. transmitting the sound waves from the eardrum to the footplate of the stapes (this pushes the oval window in and out)(mechanical energy) .

Transformer/Amplifier ‡ Area ratio ± Thumbtack ‡ Lever ± crowbar .

I don¶t know E.Which provides the most amplification in the middle ear? A. . The area/ratio hypothesis C. The Hanavan principle D. None of the above Senteo Question To set the properties right click and select Senteo Question Object->Properties.. The lever hypothesis B..

the muscles contract. decreasing amount of energy transferred to inner ear ± This protective reflex termed "acoustic reflex" . facial nerve ‡ Middle Ear Muscle Function: ± Help maintain ossicles in proper position ± Protect inner ear from excessive sound levels ‡ When ear exposed to sound levels above 70 dB.Middle Ear Muscles ‡ Tensor tympani ± Attached to malleus ± Innervated by V. trigeminal nerve ‡ Stapedius ± Attached to stapes ± Innervated by VII.

Incus C.. Malleus E. Tensor tympani muscle B. . Stapedial muscle D. Stapes Senteo Question To set the properties right click and select Senteo Question Object->Properties.The VII cranial nerve innervates: A..

The tensor tympani: A.. Innervated by the VII cranial nerve D. Innervated by the trigeminal nerve C.. Innervated by the VI cranial nerve Senteo Question To set the properties right click and select Senteo Question Object->Properties. Innervated by the VIII cranial nerve E. . Innervated by the facial nerve B.

Ligaments of Middle Ear ‡ Function ± restrict and confine the effect of ossicles to act as a lever ± restrict movements to reduce the chance of damage to the inner ear ± prevents distortion to sound .

Mastoid .

. B and C Senteo Question To set the properties right click and select Senteo Question Object->Properties.. . Cancer of the mast cells D. A and B E. Inflammation of the breast C.Mastitis A. Inflammation of the mastoid B.

hammer Senteo Question E. stapes D. Stapes. Hammer. Anvil. incus. anvil. . stapes.. Hammer. Malleus. anvil. incus To set the properties right click and select Senteo Question Object->Properties.The correct order of the ossicles from the TM to inner ear is? A.. hammer. stapes B. anvil C.

Development of Middle Ear ‡ Middle Ear Development .

Middle Ear Disorders ‡ Middle Ear disorders ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± Acute otitis media Otosclerosis Disarticulation Mastoiditis Tympanosclerosis OME TM Perforation TM Retraction Cholesteatoma ‡ Down Syndrome ‡ Treacher Collins Syndrome ‡ BOR Syndrome .

. Down syndrome B. Waardenburg syndrome Senteo Question To set the properties right click and select Senteo Question Object->Properties. BOR syndrome C.The Amy Tan syndrome is: A. Treacher Collins syndrome D. . Measles syndrome E..

All the above E. A and B Senteo Question To set the properties right click and select Senteo Question Object->Properties. .The function of the inner ear: A.. Touch D.. Balance B. Hearing C.

Inner Ear Virtual Tour of the Ear Vestibular semicircular canals Auditory utricle and saccule Cochlear traveling wave Vestibular traveling wave traveling wave pathologies .

Function of Inner Ear ‡ Convert mechanical sound waves to neural impulses that can be recognized by the brain for: ± Hearing ± Balance .

Balance ‡ Linear motion ‡ Rotary motion .

Which is true about the inner ear and balance?
A. The semicircular canals detect linear motion B. The utricle and saccule detect linear motion C. The cochlea detects linear motion D. The utricle and saccule detect rotary motion

Senteo Question
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Cochlea
‡ The cochlea resembles a snail shell and spirals for about 2 3/4 turns around a bony column ‡ Within the cochlea are three canals:
± Scala Vestibuli ± Scala Tympani ± Scala Media

The channel that houses the organ of Corti: A. Scala tympani B. Scala media C. Scala vestibuli D. Semicircular canals Senteo Question E. B and D
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F.Anatomy of the adult mammalian cochlea Barald. Development 2004. et al. K.131:4119-4130 .

Organ of Corti .

Organ of Corti .

Organ of Corti .

IHC Function .OHC vs.

OHC Motility Models .

Afferent Neural Innervations .

Hair Cells ‡ Outer Hair Cells ‡ Inner Hair Cells ‡ OHC movie .

OCH Cilia Theory: Tip-links <<<IHC OHC >>> .

OHC Cilia: Tip-links .

but to drive.Flexoelectric Effect ‡ Quiet sounds are magnified by bundles of tiny. Here. hair-like tubes atop "hair cells" in the ear (stereocilia: when the tubes dance back and forth. ‡ "It's like a car's power steering system. they act as "flexoelectric motors" that amplify sound mechanically. If you did not have this mechanism. These hair bundles add power to the sound. you need to add power to it.medicalnewstoday.³ ± http://www. the incoming sound is like your hand turning the wheel. you would need a powerful hearing aid. " ± " You turn the wheel and mechanical power is added.php .com/articles/147081.

OHC Somatic Motility .

Outer hair cells D.. . None of the above Senteo Question To set the properties right click and select Senteo Question Object->Properties. B and C E.. Brain cells B.Which cells are motile? A. Inner hair cells C.

OHC²With and Without Prestin ‡ No other cells except OHC ‡ Prestin is the motor protein of mammalian OHCs. ‡ It is highly expressed in OHC. . and is not expressed in nonmotile IHC.

OHC²With and Without Prestin About 55 dB difference OHC in Prestin Knockout Mouse .

Traveling Waves ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Traveling wave Basilar membrane Traveling Wave info Cochlear Traveling Wave .

Semicircular canals To set the properties right click and select Senteo Question Object->Properties. .. Saccule Senteo Question E. Utricle D. Basilar portion of inner ear C. Apical portion of inner ear B..High frequencies stimulate this part of inner ear: A.

Inner Ear Etiologies ‡ Genetic ± Connexin 26 ‡ Excessive Noise ‡ Head Trauma ‡ Metabolic ± Diabetes. cisplatin. thyroid dysfunction ‡ Ototoxic ± Gentamiacin. etc. ‡ Disease .

Connexin 26 .

Noise Trauma .

Genetic Senteo Question E. . Noise related C..Persons with diabetes are at greater risk for hearing loss«this would be: A. Acoustic trauma related To set the properties right click and select Senteo Question Object->Properties.. Metabolic B. Ototoxic D.

... Noise related C. Genetic Senteo Question E. Acoustic trauma related To set the properties right click and select Senteo Question Object->Properties.Persons with Connexin 26 are at greater risk for hearing loss«this would be: A. Ototoxic D. Metabolic B.

Developmental
‡ Inner Ear Embryological Development

The hearing nerve is located in: A. Eustachian tube B. External auditory meatus C. Internal auditory meauts D. Organ of Corti E. Tympani

Senteo Question
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The auditory nerve is which cranial nerve: A. VI B. VII C. VIII D. V Senteo Question E. X
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VIII Cranial Nerve Virtual Tour of the Ear Auditory Branch Auditory Branch Vestibular Branch Vestibular Branch Spiral ganglion Acoustic Tumors .

standard ABR latencies will be normal. Thus. unless the tumor affects these high-frequency fibers sufficiently.Standard ABR Cross-section of Internal Auditory Canal Sup. Vest Nerve Facial Nerve HIGHFREQUENCY FIBERS The wave V latency used in the standard ABR IT5 and I-V delay measures is dominated by neural activity from the high-frequency regions of the cochlea. Acoustic Nerve Large Tumor Abnormal Standard ABR Inf. Vest Nerve Small Tumor Abnormal Standard ABR Small Tumor Normal Standard ABR TUMOR .

Acoustic Neuroma ‡ Tumor .

Spiral Ganglion .

Question The Auditory Nerve is: A. V Cranial Nerve B. . VIII Cranial Nerve E. VI Cranial Nerve C.. VII Cranial Nerve D.. IX Cranial Nerve Senteo Question To set the properties right click and select Senteo Question Object->Properties.

Acoustic Neuroma .

. VII cranial nerve tumor B. Vestibular schwannoma C..Another term for acoustic tumor: A. . Ear schwannoma Senteo Question To set the properties right click and select Senteo Question Object->Properties. Facial nerve tumor D.

Central Auditory Mechanism Virtual Tour of the Ear Auditory Path Auditory Path .

Central Auditory Path .

Etiologies .

Nonorganic Hearing Loss ‡ Sometimes referred to as functional. etc. ‡ No physical evidence of hearing loss ‡ Conscious and unconscious ‡ Adults: medical/legal reasons ‡ Children: attention. feigning. psychological. etc. reward. .

F.131:4119-4130 . et al. Development 2004.Development of the otocyst Barald. K.

131:4119-4130 . F. K.Inductive interactions that regulate otocyst induction and ventral patterning Barald. et al. Development 2004.

F.131:4119-4130 . Development 2004. K. et al.Development of the cochlear duct and organ of Corti Barald.

Effects of modulating gene expression on development of the organ of Corti (OC) Barald.131:4119-4130 . F. Development 2004. et al. K.

Generation of stereociliary bundle orientation Barald. et al. Development 2004.131:4119-4130 . F. K.

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W.Six1 expression during inner ear development Zheng. et al.130:3989-4000 . Development 2003.