This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
0 Module 11 TCP/IP Transport and Application Layers
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
TCP/IP Transport Layer TCP/IP Application Layer
© 2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.
All rights reserved. 3 . Cisco Systems.TCP/IP Transport Layer © 2003. Inc.
All rights reserved. 4 .Introduction to Transport Layer Five basic services: Segmenting upper-layer application data Establishing end-to-end operations Transporting segments from one end host to another end host Ensuring data reliability Providing flow control © 2003. Cisco Systems. Inc.
5 .Reliability © 2003. Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. Inc.
Flow Control Avoids the problem of a host at one side of the connection overflowing the buffers in the host at the other side Ensures the integrity of the data © 2003. Inc. Cisco Systems. 6 . All rights reserved.
All rights reserved. Cisco Systems. 7 . © 2003.Session Establishment One function of the transport layer is to establish a connectionoriented session between similar devices at the application layer. Inc.
Cisco Systems. the sending host sends a signal that indicates the end of the transmission. © 2003. 8 .Session Maintenance and Termination Congestion can occur during data transfer To terminate. which is acknowledged by the receiver. All rights reserved. Inc.
Cisco Systems. All rights reserved.Three-Way Handshake © 2003. Inc. 9 .
Inc. 10 . Cisco Systems.Windowing A method of controlling the amount of information transferred end to end Information can be measured in terms of the number of packets or the number of bytes © 2003. All rights reserved.
Cisco Systems. Inc. 11 . All rights reserved. Larger window sizes increase communication efficiency.Window Size TCP window sizes are variable during the lifetime of a connection. © 2003.
© 2003. All rights reserved. sending back an acknowledgment message when it receives data. 12 . Sender keeps a record of each data packet that it sends and expects an acknowledgment. Inc.Acknowledgment Positive acknowledgment requires a recipient to communicate with the source. Cisco Systems.
TCP Sequence and Acknowledgment © 2003. Cisco Systems. 13 . Inc. All rights reserved.
Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) The protocols that use TCP include: FTP (File Transfer Protocol) HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) Telnet © 2003. Cisco Systems. 14 . Inc. All rights reserved.
Cisco Systems. Inc. All rights reserved. 15 .TCP Segment Format © 2003.
UDP The protocols that use UDP include: TFTP (Trivial File Transfer Protocol) SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) DHCP (Dynamic Host Control Protocol) DNS (Domain Name System) © 2003. 16 . All rights reserved. Cisco Systems. Inc.
UDP Segment Format © 2003. 17 . Cisco Systems. All rights reserved. Inc.
All rights reserved. Numbers above 1024 are dynamically assigned ports numbers. Numbers below 1024 are considered wellknown ports numbers. © 2003. 18 . Inc. Cisco Systems. Most of these are above 1024.TCP and UDP Port Numbers Both TCP and UDP use port (socket) numbers to pass information to the upper layers. Registered port numbers are those registered for vendor-specific applications.
TCP and UDP Port Numbers © 2003. Inc. Cisco Systems. 19 . All rights reserved.
TCP/IP Application Layer © 2003. 20 . All rights reserved. Inc. Cisco Systems.
Cisco Systems.Introduction to Application Layer © 2003. All rights reserved. Inc. 21 .
All rights reserved. 22 . Cisco Systems. Inc.Responsibilities of Application Layer Identifying and establishing the availability of intended communication partners Synchronizing cooperating applications Establishing agreement on procedures for error recovery Controlling data integrity © 2003.
Inc.Application Layer Examples Domain Name System File Transfer Protocol Hypertext Transfer Protocol Simple Mail Transport Protocol Simple Network Management Protocol Telnet © 2003. 23 . Cisco Systems. All rights reserved.
org ± non-profit sites .us ± United States . Cisco Systems. examples of which include the following: .uk ± United Kingdom . Inc.DNS The Domain Name System (DNS) is a system used for translating names of domains into IP addresses. 24 .com ± commercial sites .gov ± government sites . All rights reserved. There are more than 200 top-level domains on the Internet.edu ± educational sites .net ± network service © 2003.
TFTP is a connectionless service that uses User Datagram Protocol (UDP). connection-oriented service that uses TCP to transfer files between systems that support FTP. 25 .FTP and TFTP FTP is a reliable. TFTP is used on routers to transfer configuration files and Cisco IOS images. All rights reserved. Inc. © 2003. TFTP is designed to be small and easy to implement. Cisco Systems.
HTTP © 2003. Inc. All rights reserved. 26 . Cisco Systems.
SMTP E-mail servers communicate with each other using the Simple Mail Transport Protocol (SMTP) to send and receive mail. 27 . Inc. Cisco Systems. © 2003. All rights reserved.
Cisco Systems. Inc. 28 .SNMP The Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is an application layer protocol that facilitates the exchange of management information between network devices. © 2003. All rights reserved.
All rights reserved.Telnet Telnet client software provides the ability to log in to a remote Internet host that is running a Telnet server application and then to execute commands from the command line. Inc. © 2003. Cisco Systems. 29 .