Pemuliaan Tanaman Menyerbuk Silang

(Breeding Methods in Cross Pollinated Crops)
Team MK. Rekayasa Tanaman II

Agroteknologi Fak. Pertanian UNPAD

Overview
• Genetic structure of cross pollinated crops • Plant Features Promoting Cross Pollination • Breeding methods
      

Product of crosspollination

-

Mass Selection Recurrent Selection Synthetic Cultivars Composite cultivars

Learning objectives:

- Able to explain genetic structure of cross-pollinated crop • Able to explain breeding methods in cross pollinated crops • Able to make appropriate scheme of particular method to breeding important cross-pollinated crops

Self pollinating crops vs Cross pollinating crops .

which is maintained in gene flow among individuals within the populations.  .  .  • Each individual receives a blend of pollen from a large number of individuals having different genotypes.self-incompatibility. • Such populations are characterized by a high degree of heterozygosity with potential genetic variation.mechanical obstructions • --- make plant dependent upon foreign pollen for normal seed set. .self-sterility.imperfect flowers.Genetic structure of cross pollinated crop • Due to  .  .

Plant Features Promoting crosspollination Monoecy ? Dioecy ? .

Genetic structure of cross pollinated crops • Each individual derives its genes from two other individual (genetically different). • Each individual in the population is heterozygous at many loci • Each individual in the population is genetically different from any other individual (except hybrid cultivar) • The heterozygous nature of individual plant is exploited • The genes are reshuffled (susunan berubah) each generation and regrouped into new genetic combinations .

• Increase the gene/allele frequency such that favorable genes (desirable genotypes predominate) • Maintain genetic variability for future improvements.Genetic structure of cross pollinating crop • Focus on the improvement of plant populations. • Follow Hardy-Weinberg (Law of genetic equilibrium) • . more emphasis is given to quantitative inheritance.

shg genotipe keturunan sulit diprediksi– uji yg layak untuk tanaman menyerbuk silang: uji daya gabung .Cross pollinating crops: heterozigot.Progeny test vs Combining ability test (Uji Daya gabung) . sehingga evaluasi dilakukan dengan Progeny test (Uji keturunan) .Self pollinating crops: homozigot – genotipe keturunan relatif dapat diduga.karena diserbuki oleh tanaman lain yg heterozygot.

specific genotip pada pasangan persilangan tertentu dibandingkan dg penampilan pasangan persilangan lain. combining ability): penampilan suatu • • .Uji Keturunan pada Tanaman menyerbuk silang • DGU (daya gabung umum. general combining ability): Penampilan rata-rata  ataupun total suatu genotip dalam sejumlah persilangan dengan galur uji (tester) • • DGK (daya gabung khsusu.

umumnya untuk seleksi awal pembentukan inbred. .Progeny test (lanjutan) • Test cross: (self pollinating crops: to cross with recessives genotype) – In cross pollinating crops: cross inbred/galur with another inbred/hybrid/known population – especially for specific combining ability (DGK) • Top cross: Test inbred with open pollinated variety especially for general combining ability (DGU).

Contoh perhitungan DGU dan DGK: Female parents 5 6 7 8 Progeny means Male parents 1 9 10 11 14 11 2 17 16 20 15 17 3 12 12 10 6 10 4 14 10 15 17 14 13 12 14 13 Test Means 13 Progeny means .

For parent 2 (male) GCA = mean of parent 2 – test mean = 17 – 13 = +4 parent 2 has general ability (GCA2) of +4 SCA = lihat hasil pasangan persilangan yang memiliki nilai tertinggi----.pasangan tetua 7 x 2. .

.

other traits may be still heterozygous .Breeding Methods in Cross Pollinated Crops Petal’s color.

bila tanaman diserbuki sendiri (inbreeding) dapat mengakibatkan terjadinya depresi inbreeding (penurunan rata-rata karakter/vigor tertentu). • • Inbreeding akan meningkatkan level homosigositas dan menurunkan heterosigositas.Genetic consequences of self pollination on cross pollinating crops • Pada tanaman menyerbuk silang.  .

  .The consequences of matings between relatives is that offspring have an increased probability of inheriting alleles that are recent copies of the same DNA sequence that may be lethal. coding for genetic disorders.Inbreeding .

disease resistance.Inbreeding depression Selfing. full/half-sib pollination Reduced height. seed set. etc Increased lodging. Increased homozygosity .

.

.

Mass Selection •Same form as with self-pollinated crops •essentially a form of maternal selection since no pollination control •select desirable plants •bulk seed •repeat cycle •with strict selection breeder will reduce population size •slow genetic gain since lack pollination control •must be able to identify superior phenotypes •Not suitable for quantitative traits .

.

… Percobaan dilakukan dengan membuat plot-plot kecil dan seleksi dilakukan pada masing-masing plot kecil tsb. dengan tujuan untuk mengurangi pengaruh lingkungan yg bervariasi ………….. 1968) ………………………dst ………………….Seleksi Massa Berlapis (Gardner. .

.

Seleksi Massa : pemurnian atau pembentukan populasi baru Populasi campuran atau kultivar tidak murni Musim 1 Bulk (dicampur) Dipilih beberapa tanaman dengan penampilan sama dan biji dicampur untuk ditanaman pada musim 2 Musim 2 Uji hasil pendahuluan bisa beberapa ulangan kultivar asal ulangan Kultivar lokal/ kontrol Pengujian hasil lanjutan untuk daya adaptasi dan penampilan (plot lebih besar dan beberapa ulangan) Musim 3 – 6 Kontrol Musim 7 Perbanyakan benih Untuk dilepas ke petani .

Recurrent selection Key features: Designed to increase the frequency of desirable genes within a population Gradually concentrating desirable alleles in a population The concept of recurrent selection .

add new germplasm Since possible intermating between multiple families add new germplasm Used in Legumes and grasses .Concept of recurrent selection Cyclical and systematic technique in which desirable individuals are selected from a population and mated to form a new population Improvement of a population without losing the variability Parents should be highly diverse Applications: Establish broad genetic base.

.

.

.

.

Buat disain program pemuliaan tanaman untuk tanaman menyerbuk silang: Kelompok 1 : Tebu Kelompok 2 : Bunga Matahari Kelompok 3 : Mentimun Kelompok 4 : Kelapa dalam Kelompok 5 : ubi Jalar Kelompok 6 : Kubis Kelompok 7 : Wortel Kelompok 8 : bawang merah .TUGAS— Presentasi untuk minggu 1. 2.

dll) 1 hal 10. bioteknologi) sesuai tujuan & target pemuliaan sehingga diperoleh kultivar/galur/klon harapan) 1. silang) Ukuran huruf 12 time new roman. Pemul. bukan blog. introduksi. 5-7 halaman dirakit: kultivar OP (Open pollinated) atau kult.Pendahuluan (Men-set breeding goal: menguraikan tipe kultivar yg akan 3.Format Makalah (Mendesign prog. misal melalui demplot. 5.Upaya menciptakan variasi dan menyeleksi karakteristik yang diinginkan (menguraikan ketersediaan plasma nutfah yg ada. penyuluhan ke kelompok tani dll).Proses adopsi dan penyebaran kultivar (secara sederhana menguraikan langkah-langkah dalam melakukan upaya adopsi dan penyebaran kultivar baru.Pustaka (paper/text book. hibrida.5 spasi. tnm meny. wordpress.Pengujian (secara singkat menguraikan bagaimana proses pengujian genotipe-genotipe harapan dilakukan) 1-2 hal 6.1 hal.2 hal. perkiraan preferensi petani/konsumen/user thd tnm yang akan dimuliakan serta tujuan dan target pemuliaannya) ½ . 8. seleksi. 1. 1 hal. 1.½ hal 9.Kesimpulan . upaya /metode menciptakan variasi yang diinginkan (persilangan.Minggu depan dipresentasikan (buat Powerpointnya) .

Hatur nuhun .

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful