Computer-Based Training Module: Erosion In Piping Systems October 2006

Effective December 6, 2006, this report has been made publicly available in accordance with Section 734.3(b)(3) and published in accordance with Section 734.7 of the U.S. Export Administration Regulations. As a result of this publication, this report is subject to only copyright protection and does not require any license agreement from EPRI. This notice supersedes the export control restrictions and any proprietary licensed material notices embedded in the document prior to publication.

Introduction to Navigation
‡ Module can be navigated in a linear fashion ± Click Page Down or Enter. ‡ By following hyperlinks for more information ± The file must be viewed in ³Slide Show´ mode for the hyperlinks to work ± Click on a hyperlink to go directly to related information in the training, clicking page down or enter will take you back to where you left off. ‡ Click on the camera picture to view a related photograph, page down, or enter will return to the original page.

© 2006 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Introduction
‡ Mechanical damage is commonly found in piping systems. There are various mechanisms possible. They are normally combined under the category of ³erosion´ or ³erosive damage.´

‡ ‡

© 2006 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Examples of Erosive Damage

Pump impellor damaged by cavitation.

Turbine blades damaged by solid particle erosion.

© 2006 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Inc. and Describe where damage is typically found. All rights reserved. 5 . © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute.Purpose This module will: ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Introduce the subject Describe the four common mechanisms that cause damage in piping systems Discuss how these mechanisms cause damage.

Purpose . ‡ ‡ © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. All rights reserved. 6 .g. e.Continued ‡ Discuss inspection approaches. pumps. A short quiz is provided at the end of this module. materials and countermeasures.. Inc. steam turbines. This module will not treat damage in machinery.

7 . For more information on corrosion ± go to corrosion. impinging flows or solid impacts on the surface.Erosion . Inc.Description ‡ Erosion is the damage of materials caused by physical processes such as high-speed. ‡ ‡ © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. This is contrasted to corrosion which involves a chemical or electrochemical process. All rights reserved.

the cause of the damage must be identified as there may be substantial differences between mechanisms.Erosion ± Description . ‡ To successfully manage problems caused by erosion. Inc. All rights reserved. © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute.Continued ‡ Erosion occurs in a variety of power-plant systems ± see sample photographs. 8 .

Inc.Erosion Mechanisms ‡ The four most common erosion mechanisms in power plants are: ± Cavitation erosion ± Flashing erosion ± Droplet impingement ± Solid particle erosion ‡ These will be introduced © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. All rights reserved. 9 .

Photographs of Damage Cavitation Erosion Flashing Erosion photo courtesy of Florida Power & Light Droplet Impingement photo courtesy of EDF © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. All rights reserved. Inc. Solid Particle Erosion photo courtesy of Bruce Power 10 .

11 .Summary Table Cavitation Erosion Fluid Conditions Surface Noise Vibration Flashing Erosion Water U/S 2phase D/S Smooth ± polished Yes Droplet Impingement Solid Particle Erosion Single or two phase Variable No Water Very rough Yes Two-Phase Very rough No Damage rate Non-linear Non-linear Non-linear Linear D/S = Downstream U/S = Upstream © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. All rights reserved. Inc.

see Flashing erosion -.see Solid particle erosion -. 12 . All rights reserved.Types of Erosion Damage For more information: ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Cavitation erosion -.see Liquid droplet impingement -.see. Inc. © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute.

All rights reserved. Inc. 13 . © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute.Other Related Mechanisms ‡ There are other types of damage that may be experienced: ± Corrosion and erosion may occur simultaneous (see next slide) ± Erosive effects may also be combined ± Other erosion mechanisms.

Inc.Photograph of Corrosion and Erosion Damage Elbow Damaged by Erosion and FAC photo courtesy of Public Service Electric & Gas © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. 14 . All rights reserved.

Other Erosion Mechanisms ‡ Wire drawing ± high speed liquid flow normally encountered in valve internals. All rights reserved. 15 . ‡ © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. Steam cutting ± high speed steam flow normally occurring in valve seats or when leaks occur in heat exchangers. Inc.

All rights reserved. 16 .Photographs of Damage Caused by Steam Cutting Steam cutting in a flange Steam cutting in a steam trap body © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. Inc.

EPRI Report 1011231. All rights reserved. Inc.For More Information ‡ CHUG website ± User experience ± Past presentations on erosion. 17 . EPRI Report TR-108943-V2. ‡ ‡ © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute.

18 . True False © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. All rights reserved.Quiz Question 1 Droplet impingement and solid particle erosion are similar in many ways. Inc. True False Question 2 There are materials that are more resistant to cavitation erosion than carbon steel.

Quiz - Continued
Question 3 In order for cavitation to occur the downstream pressure must be less than the local vapor pressure. True False Question 4 In order for flashing to occur the downstream pressure must be less than the local vapor pressure. True False

© 2006 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Quiz - Continued
Question 5 Data sets are available to describe cavitation in: a) Valves b) Orifices c) Valves and orifices d) Elbows e) Nearly every situation Question 6 Models to calculate the rate of droplet impingement are commonly used to determine susceptibility of components in piping systems. True False
© 2006 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Quiz - Continued
Question 7 Flashing erosion and droplet impingement often occur in high pressure drop situations. True False Question 8 Solid particle erosion has been found to have a) A damage rate that is linear with time. b) A damage rate that varies linearly with velocity c) A damage rate that is independent of the particle size d) A well understood damage mechanism e) All of the above
© 2006 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Quiz - Continued
Question 9 Noise and vibration associated with a valve indicate that cavitation erosion is occurring. True False Question 10 The critical velocity for damage caused by droplet impingement is much greater than the critical velocity for solid particle erosion. True False

© 2006 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

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23 .Training Complete! © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. Inc. All rights reserved.

24 . Inc.True While droplet impingement and solid particle erosion are both mechanical damage mechanisms. Please try again. they differ in more ways than they are similar. All rights reserved.1 . © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute.

False Correct! Droplet impingement and solid particle erosion differ in many ways including material response and velocity dependence. All rights reserved. 25 . Inc. © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. Return to quiz.1 .

Inc. © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute.2 .True Correct! There are materials more resistant than carbon steel available including Inconel. Return to quiz. 26 . All rights reserved.

All rights reserved. © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. 27 . Please try again. Thus.2 . partial material solutions to cavitation are possible. Inc.False Incorrect! There are materials more resistant to cavitation than carbon steel.

3 . The point of lowest pressure is known as the vena contracta. Inc. All rights reserved. it is the lowest pressure within the restriction. 28 . © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. Please try again.True Incorrect! It is not the downstream pressure that matters.

All rights reserved. © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute.. the pressure at the vena contracta) within the restriction that dictates whether or not cavitation will occur.3 . Inc.e. Return to quiz.False Correct! It is the lowest pressure (i. 29 .

True Correct! It is necessary that the downstream pressure be lower than the vapor pressure if flashing is to occur. All rights reserved. 30 . Return to quiz.4 . © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. Inc.

© 2006 Electric Power Research Institute.False If the downstream pressure is above the vapor pressure.4 . flashing will not occur. 31 . All rights reserved. Inc. Please try again.

there are other geometries that have data. Please try again. 32 .5-A Incorrect! While cavitation information is available for valves. All rights reserved. Inc. © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute.

Please try again. Inc. All rights reserved. © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. 33 .5-B Incorrect! While cavitation information is available for orifices. there are other geometries that have data.

Inc. © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. there are other geometries that have data. All rights reserved. Please try again.5-C Incorrect! While cavitation information is available for valves and orifices. 34 .

Inc. Please try again. 35 . © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. there are other geometries that have data.5-D Incorrect! While cavitation information is available for elbows. All rights reserved.

© 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. 36 . Inc.5-E Correct! There is information available for most geometries. Return to quiz. All rights reserved.

True Incorrect. 37 . Please try again. © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. All rights reserved.6 . Models to predict droplet impingement are not normally used. Inc.

© 2006 Electric Power Research Institute.False Correct! There are no commonly used models to predict droplet impingement. Return to quiz. 38 . Inc.6 . All rights reserved.

7 . 39 . © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute.True Correct! Flashing and impingement are often associated with high-pressure drops and the resultant high-velocity. Inc. Return to quiz. All rights reserved.

40 .7 .False Incorrect! High pressure drops are often associated with flashing and droplet impingement. All rights reserved. Please try again. Inc. © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute.

Inc.8-A Correct! The damage rate for solid particle erosion varies linearly with time. All rights reserved. Return to quiz. 41 . © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute.

All rights reserved. © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. 42 . Please try again. Inc.8-B Incorrect! The damage rate for solid particle erosion varies with velocity to a power slightly greater than 2.

43 . Below this value damage does not occur.8-C Incorrect! The damage rate is independent of particle size above a critical value. All rights reserved. © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. Please try again. Inc.

44 . Please try again.8-D Incorrect! The damage mechanism of solid particle erosion is not well understood although there appears to be different mechanisms for ductile and brittle materials. Inc. All rights reserved. © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute.

45 . © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. Inc.8-E Incorrect! More than one of the above statements are not true. Please try again. All rights reserved.

Inc. Please try again. All rights reserved. © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute.9 .True While noise and vibration may indicate that cavitation is occurring. 46 . cavitation erosion will only occur if the collapsing bubbles impinge upon a surface.

All rights reserved. © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. Inc.False Correct! While noise and vibration may indicate that cavitation is occurring. Return to quiz. 47 . cavitation erosion will only occur if the collapsing bubbles impinge upon a surface.9 .

Return to quiz. Inc.True Correct! The critical velocity for droplet impingement on steel is about 300 feet per second (100 meters per second). All rights reserved. 48 . The critical velocity for damage to ductile materials is about 1% of this value.10 . © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute.

False The critical velocity for damage for solid particle erosion is about 3 feet per second (1 meter per second).10 . 49 . The critical velocity for droplet impingement is much greater than this value. Inc. © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. Please try again. All rights reserved.

Corrosion
‡ ‡ ‡ Corrosion may be defined as material attack which is chemical or electrochemical in nature. Coping with corrosion has been a continuing activity for power plant operators. Corrosion damage may be widespread or localized.

© 2006 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Examples of Corrosion Mechanisms
‡ Widespread attack ± General corrosion ± Flow-Accelerated Corrosion (FAC). Localized attack ± Galvanic corrosion (between dissimilar metals) ± Crevice corrosion ± Cracking ± Pitting.

‡

© 2006 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

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FAC vs. Erosion
‡ ‡ FAC is the most important damage mechanism active in steam and feedwater related systems. FAC and erosion may be distinguished by: ± Surface morphology ± Extent of damaged area ± Chemistry dependence ± Material dependence.

© 2006 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

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FAC vs. Erosion - Continued
‡ Surface morphology ± FAC damaged surface has distinctive features. ± Single-phase FAC exhibits a scalloped or ³orangepeel´ surface. ± High-quality, two-phase flow exhibits a characteristic pattern known as tiger-striping. These features are not found in surfaces damaged by erosion.

‡

© 2006 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Inc. 54 . All rights reserved.Photographs of FAC Damage Single-phase FAC showing scalloped surface photo courtesy of Pacific Gas & Electric Two-phase FAC in a crossover line showing µtiger striping´ photo courtesy of EDF © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute.

‡ © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. Erosion . Such dependence is not present with erosive mechanisms. All rights reserved. Inc. Chemistry ± the rate of damage due to FAC may be controlled by the water chemistry.Continued ‡ Damaged area ± damage caused by erosion is often localized while FAC-caused damage is normally widespread. 55 .FAC vs.

Continued ‡ Materials ± FAC is effectively inhibited by small amounts of chromium in the material (i. Inc. Erosion . while erosive attack commonly does. All rights reserved. ‡ © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute.e. Cr ~ 0..FAC vs.1% or larger). This is not true of erosive mechanisms. 56 . Thus FAC does not damage stainless or alloy material.

57 . EPRI report TR-106611-R1 is a complete review of the subject. All rights reserved. EPRI 1013249. Inc. ‡ © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute.Information on FAC ‡ Further information on FAC are contained in the Computer-Based Training module for FAC.

Inc. 58 . Particular areas of concern are downstream of valves and orifices.Introduction ‡ Cavitation is a phenomenon that occurs in a large number of technically important areas including: ± Ship propellers ± Hydraulic turbines ± Centrifugal pumps ± Piping systems. All rights reserved. ‡ © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute.Cavitation .

Inc. these bubbles collapse. All rights reserved. 59 . If the fluid pressure then increases. © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. The fluid then locally vaporizes forming small bubbles (also known as cavities).Cavitation ± Mechanism ‡ ‡ ‡ Cavitation occurs when a flowing liquid stream encounters an area in which the local static pressure falls below the vapor pressure.

All rights reserved.Continued ‡ The collapse of the bubbles causes noise and vibration. ‡ ‡ © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute.Cavitation ± Mechanism . The damage rate caused by cavitation is non-linear with time (i. 60 . Inc. the damage rate varies with time). Cavitation may occur because of flow curvature ± see.e.. and if close to a solid surface will cause damage to the surface.

All rights reserved. Inc.Unsteady Pressure and Vibration © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. 61 .

‡ © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute.Mechanism ‡ The next slides shows a schematic of the cavitation process at a flow restriction. Inc. All rights reserved. The following slide shows a schematic of the damage rate as a function of time. 62 .Cavitation .

Inc.Schematic of Cavitation Process 100 90 Pressure 80 0 apor Pressure 60 50 Bubbles form Bubbles collapse 0 0 0.5 2 © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. All rights reserved.5 1 istance 1. 63 .

Time Note ± the letters A-E refer to the stages of damage ± see. © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute.Schematic of Cavitation Damage Rate vs. 64 . Inc. All rights reserved.

Cavitation ± Damage ‡ ‡ Cavitation damage to surfaces is called cavitation erosion. All rights reserved. Inc. Vibration and noise are associated with cavitation. 65 . and the vibration often causes more problems than the cavitation erosion ± e. © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute.. ± Cracked welds ± Broken pipe hangers ± Damaged valve actuators.g.

These divisions are often somewhat arbitrary. but are often used. 66 . © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. Inc.Degrees of Cavitation ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ For convenience workers have defined several levels or regimes of cavitation. All rights reserved. Different regimes are used for different purposes. A commonly used set of definitions is shown on the next slide.

Critical Cavitation is occurring at a steady state value.e. Supercavitation or Flashing The flow through the obstruction has reached critical (i.Cavitation Regimes Regime Incipient Description Cavitation is just beginning. For information about using regimes in design see. Inc. All rights reserved. choked or sonic velocity) flow. © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute.. 67 .

e.. bubble and collapse production) is occurring.Cavitation ± Noise and Damage ‡ ‡ ‡ Noise does indicate that cavitation (i. 68 . Inc. Noise does not necessarily indicate that damage is occurring. All rights reserved. © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. If the bubbles collapse away from solid surfaces no damage will occur.

69 .Cavitation ± Noise Regime Description of Noise High-pitched hissing or sizzling.¶ Noise Level Incipient 85 dba Critical 120 dba Supercavitation Humming or hissing. © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. 82 dba Typical noise levels for a standard trim valve. Metallic rattling or shot-blasting often likened to the sound of flowing gravel ± known as µcrepitation. Also described as intermittent light popping or as bacon frying. All rights reserved. Inc.

Cavitation damage is normally localized. © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. 70 . All rights reserved. See photograph of damage on next slide. Inc.Morphology ‡ ‡ ‡ Surfaces damaged by cavitation are very rough with a texture similar to a new cement block.

71 . All rights reserved.Cavitation Damage in a Plug Valve More Photos Cavitation Damage in the Body of a Plug Valve © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. Inc.

‡ ‡ © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. 72 . Inc.Where to Look for Damage ‡ Cavitation erosion normally takes place ± In solid liquid flows ± Downstream of large pressure drops such as valves or orifices. Often. Cavitation erosion will be accompanied by noise and possibly vibration. All rights reserved. butterfly or gate valves used for throttling will cavitate.

73 . ‡ © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute.Inspection Considerations ‡ Cavitation damage may be detected using conventional inspection techniques ± usually UT or RT. Inc. All rights reserved. ultrasonic methods should use 100% scans or finer grids than are normally used for FAC inspections. As the damaged area is likely small.

Design Options to Reduce Cavitation ‡ ‡ ‡ There are various options to reduce the severity of cavitation. There is a tremendous amount of literature available on the subject. ‡ © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. Material and repair considerations ± see. For information on reducing cavitation in: ± Valves ± see ± Orifices ± see ± Other components ± see. Inc. 74 . All rights reserved.

All rights reserved. ‡ © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute.Calculation Approach ‡ ‡ There are well established methods to calculate the occurrence of cavitation.. Inc.g. Knowledge of both the local conditions (e. 75 . the inlet pressure) and the component are necessary for accurate calculations. The approach is normally to compare the local system properties to the cavitation propensity of the component being considered.

All rights reserved.Calculating Cavitation in Valves ‡ ‡ There is a great deal of information available on this subject. Inc. © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. Detailed procedures for calculating cavitation in valves may be found in: ± EPRI Reports TR-103198-T1 and TR-103198-T2 ± NUREG/CR-6031 ± Valve manufacturers¶ methodologies ± For details. 76 .

Inc. ). ± There are methodologies available to design orifices in series to eliminate cavitation. © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute.Calculating Cavitation in Orifices ‡ ‡ Methods are available to calculate cavitation in orifices..e. All rights reserved. 77 . ± These correlations are normally based on the hole/pipe diameter ratio (i. For single-holed orifices: ± There are correlations available to predict cavitation.

± Manufacturers often have design information.Continued ‡ For multiple holed single orifices: ± Correlations are available for some geometries. All rights reserved. 78 . For proprietary orifice/restrictor designs. ‡ ‡ © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. Inc. For more details ± see.Calculating Cavitation in Orifices . the manufacturer should be able to supply necessary design information.

design data are available in these sources. © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. tee).. All rights reserved. 79 .Calculating Cavitation in Other Geometries ‡ ‡ There is a great deal of literature available on this subject especially in textbooks on the subject. For common geometries (e. elbow.g. bend. Inc.

J. Report 1011231. Hydraulics of Pipelines: Pumps. 1993.Information Sources ‡ Textbooks such as: ± Hammitt. Cavitation and Multiphase Flow Phenomena. Valves. ± Tullis. © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. e. Cavitation.. Paul ³Cavitation Guide for Control Valves. 1980. Paul. Transients. All rights reserved.g. 80 . ‡ ‡ EPRI Reports. Tullis. USNRC.. 1989. Inc. Frederick G.´ NUREG/CR-6031.

four cavitation regimes can be considered: ± Incipient ± light. 81 .Four Regimes ‡ For purposes of design. All rights reserved. and drop off in performance ± flow no longer increases with pressure drop ± see next slide. Inc. intermittent noise present ± Critical ± light. © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. steady noise ± Incipient Damage ± pitting damage begins ± Choking ± very heavy damage.

Non-Ideal Behavior of a Valve 0 2 20 Flow ull cho ed low 0 ho ing egins 0 0 20 0 re 60 re ro 80 00 Ideal ehavior Actual ehavior © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. 82 . All rights reserved. Inc.

Using Regime Information ‡ ‡ When designing a control valve. © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. All rights reserved. Inc. ± Maximum acceptable noise level ± Allowable vibration level. 83 . the maximum degree of cavitation allowable should be established. Some of the factors that should be considered are: ± Operating time. and ± Cost of the valve.

© 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. 84 . then the valve should not operate beyond ³incipient.´ If noise is acceptable..Some Design Guidance ‡ ‡ ‡ If noise is not acceptable. All rights reserved. Inc.´ Valves that operate in the choking regime should only operate there for short periods of time (e. then the valve should not operate beyond ³incipient damage. relief valves).g.

This regime is known as supercavitation and damage to the valve will normally not occur. ‡ © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. All rights reserved. if at all. the bubbles will collapse downstream of the valve. on the flat portion of the curve presented above). 85 .e. Inc.Supercavitation ‡ When a valve operates beyond choking (i..

the entire pipe section is filled with vapor for several diameters downstream of the restriction. Inc.Supercavitation . noise and vibration may occur downstream of the valve. ‡ © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute.Continued ‡ When supercavitation occurs. Note in this regime. 86 . and flashing erosion. flashing is occurring. All rights reserved.

in regions of flow mixing. and in fittings. These occur at locations in turbo-machinery. This is called ³flow-curvature´ or ³re-circulation cavitation.Introduction ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Cavitation may occur in elbows and tees. All rights reserved.´ It is caused by the generation of bubbles in areas of low pressure in secondary or recirculating flows. 87 . Inc. © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute.Flo Curvature Cavitation .

As the fluid at the extrados has to travel further than the fluid at the intrados. Inc. All rights reserved.Cavitation in an Elbo ‡ ‡ Secondary flows occur when streamlines have to adjust to curve around a bend. 88 . © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. a transverse pressure gradient is established with the higher pressure at the intrados of the elbow.

eventually. 89 . the elbow will choke. Inc. At this point. All rights reserved. If the process continues. This reduced pressure caused by the higher flow may induce cavitation bubbles to form. ‡ © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute.Cavitation in an Elbo ‡ ‡ ± Continued This pressure gradient induces a flow from the inside to the outside of the elbow. the acoustic velocity is reached and the flow rate is a maximum.

© 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. Inc. 90 . All rights reserved.Void Formation in an Elbo Schematic of vapor pocket formed by cavitation in an elbow.

91 . © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. Inc. The next slide shows examples of this type damage. Thus this type of damage should be expected only in low-pressure lines.Recirculation Cavitation ‡ ‡ ‡ This type of cavitation occurs only when the static pressure is relatively near the vapor pressure. All rights reserved.

92 . Inc.Examples of Recirculation Cavitation Elbow and tee damaged by recirculation cavitation © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. All rights reserved.

© 2006 Electric Power Research Institute.Damage To Valve Internals Valve trim damaged by cavitation erosion. All rights reserved. 93 . Inc.

Inc. Cavitation downstream of an orifice photos courtesy of Dominion Virginia Power © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. All rights reserved. 94 .Damage to a Reducer Chrome-moly (P-22) reducer.

Damage Do nstream of an Orifice photo courtesy of Southern Nuclear © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. Inc. All rights reserved. 95 .

96 . Inc. All rights reserved.Damaged Surface Do nstream of an Orifice photo courtesy of Dominion Virginia Power © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute.

This is normally the lowest cost option. there is a more cavitation-resistant style within the same valve type. © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute.e.Valve Countermeasures ‡ ‡ ‡ Increase cavitation resistance within valve type (i. 97 . All rights reserved. Inc. globe valve).. In all cases except butterfly valves.

globe) under the same conditions. All rights reserved. Inc..e. 98 .g. go from butterfly to globe)..Valve Countermeasures .Continued ‡ ‡ Improved valve types (i.g. In general high-pressure recovery valves (e. These terms are defined in the section ³Calculating Cavitation in Valves.´ ‡ © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute.. butterfly. ball) valves will cavitate before low-pressure recovery valves (e.

the use of a valve and orifice combination can be as effective in reducing cavitation to acceptable levels. © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute.Valve Countermeasures ± Continued ‡ ‡ Install anti-cavitation valves see. All rights reserved. the use of this technique is only effective if the range of flows expected is limited to 1:3. Inc. Add orifice or valve in series . 99 . ± However.

Continued ‡ ‡ Add sudden expansion downstream of the valve to keep the collapsing bubbles away from solid surfaces.Valve Countermeasures . 100 . Inc. Similarly. All rights reserved. a target tee-type arrangement may be used to control the surfaces damaged by cavitation erosion. © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute.

± Use several single-holed orifices in series. ± Use a proprietary flow restrictor. Various designs are available ± see photographs.Orifice Countermeasures ‡ Three methods to reduce cavitation damage downstream of orifices are: ± Use a multiple-holed orifice in place of a singleholed orifice ± see photographs. © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. Inc. All rights reserved. 101 .

‡ © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. All rights reserved. 102 . The disadvantages include the greater likelihood of plugging and different choking cavitation characteristics.Multiple-Holed Orifices ‡ ‡ The use of orifices with multiple holes may reduce or eliminate cavitation. Inc. This approach has some advantages over single-holed orifices including better noise and vibration characteristics and requiring less space than using orifices in series.

103 . All rights reserved. ‡ ‡ © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. the pressure drop is controlled by the orifice diameter to prevent cavitation. At each step (or stage). Methods exist to allow calculation of an orifice string to avoid cavitation.Orifices in Series ‡ Multistage orifices eliminate cavitation by breaking down the total pressure drop into a number of smaller steps. Inc.

. © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. Normally these restrictors are used in high-pressure drop lines (e.Proprietary Restrictors ‡ ‡ ‡ Various vendors supply proprietary restrictors to reduce cavitation. letdown lines). 104 . Inc. All rights reserved. Vendors will normally supply design information.g.

All rights reserved. 105 .Multiple-Holed Orifices Photos courtesy of CU Services LLC © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. Inc.

Inc.Proprietary Restrictor Drawings courtesy of CU Services LLC Proprietary restrictor design and installation © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. 106 . All rights reserved.

Inc. 107 . Photos courtesy of Pratt © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. All rights reserved.Another Proprietary Restrictor Upstream end Mockup of downstream end showing impinging jets.

© 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. moving the pressure drop downstream)..Countermeasures ± Other Components ‡ Options available include: ± Changing the material. 108 .e. Inc. target tees. ± Local design changes to eliminate bubbles collapsing near solid surfaces ± e. abrupt expansions.g. ± Changing the location of the major pressure drop (i. All rights reserved..

These types are: ± µcolliding jet¶ and ± µstack arrangement. Inc. although there are many variants to these designs.Anti-Cavitation Valve Types ‡ ‡ ‡ There are valves designed to reduce or eliminate cavitation even under extreme conditions. 109 .¶ © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. All rights reserved. There are two basic types.

110 . Usually. All rights reserved. Inc. the trim is cylindrical in shape and the flow passes through a large number of small holes. © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute.Anti-Cavitation Valve ± Colliding Jet Arrangement ‡ ‡ The flow is split and is made to pass through a number of orifices that expand into a sudden enlargement.

Inc. All rights reserved.Anti-Cavitation Valve ± Colliding Jet Arrangement . the flows are outward toward the valve boundary. In other designs. 111 . © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute.Continued ‡ ‡ Some of these designs have the flows inward where the jets collide with each other in the center.

All rights reserved.Anti-Cavitation Valve ± Stack Arrangement ‡ The flow passes through a large number of parallel paths containing designed obstructions (i. ‡ © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. 112 . there are stacks of discs containing these obstructions. labyrinth passages).e.. Typically. Inc.

These valves can be designed to operate at. Inc. 113 . All rights reserved.Anti-Cavitation Valve ± Stack Arrangement Continued ‡ The resistance of the obstructions in the discs can be tailored to control the valve characteristics as different disks may have different flow passages. or near. ‡ © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. the choking limit with little noise and vibration.

‡ © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. to many jets reduces the amount of noise and vibration. found in conventional valve styles. The following slides present some anti-cavitation valves with a brief commentary. the change from one jet. All rights reserved. 114 .Anti-Cavitation Valves ± General ‡ In either of the above designs. Inc.

Note that there are other designs available designed for different size. etc. 115 .Anti-Cavitation Valves ± General . ‡ © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. pressure drop.Continued ‡ Some of the designs shown allow a conventional globe valve to be back-fitted to become an anti-cavitation type. Inc. All rights reserved. control requirements. pressure level.

Inc. All rights reserved.Cavitrol® III ± Anti-Cavitation Valve Example of a Valve Using Inward. Colliding Jets Drawings courtesy of Emerson Cross Section and Operation of a Cavitrol® III One-Stage Trim Control Valve © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. 116 .

117 . Note the flow is radially outward. Inc.Valtek Anti-Cavitation Stack Valve Drawings Courtesy of Flowserve Valtek Valtek Anti-Cavitation Stack Valve with ³tiger-teeth¶ flow passages. All rights reserved. © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute.

© 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. Inc. 118 .Valtek Anti-Cavitation Sleeve Valve Drawings Courtesy of Flowserve Valtek Valtek Anti-Cavitation Sleeve Valve with ChannelStream trim. All rights reserved.

© 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. some terms must be defined. These terms are: ± Vena Contracta ± High-Pressure Recovery Valve ± Low-Pressure Recovery Valve ± Cavitation index and cavitation number. Inc. see. 119 . ‡ If you are not familiar with these terms.Calculating Cavitation in Valves ± Basic Definitions ‡ In order to introduce the calculation of cavitation in valves. All rights reserved.

Using Cavitation Parameters
‡ The fluid conditions are related to the valve characteristics through either the cavitation number or the cavitation index. A determination is then made as to: ± If the valve is not cavitating ± If the valve is cavitating, how severe the cavitation is.

‡

© 2006 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

120

Using Cavitation Parameters - Continued

‡ ‡

There are variants to this process, although they differ mainly in the details. Methodologies and correlations are available from: ± EPRI & NUREG reports cited at the end of the cavitation section ± Valve manufacturers¶ data.

© 2006 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Outline of Calculation
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Define problem. Determine local conditions. Calculate the cavitation parameter (index or number). Determine valve performance by comparing the cavitation parameter with the appropriate correlation. State result.

© 2006 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

122

Calculating Cavitation in Orifices ± Basic Definitions

‡ ‡

As orifices have a constant geometry, they are easier to analyze than valves. If you are not familiar with the following terms: ± Vena Contracta ± Cavitation index and cavitation number ± See.

© 2006 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

123

Inc. © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. These correlations are available in various references including NUREG/CR-6031. 1993. 124 . Corrections may be required to account for the diameter and pressure level. USNRC. All rights reserved.Single-Hole Orifices ‡ ‡ ‡ Empirical correlations have been published relating the onset of the various regimes of cavitation.

ratio Do/D ( ) incipience critical choking 0.20 1.39 Note: These values are for one diameter and pressure.62 2. All rights reserved. 125 .Sample Single-Hole Data Sample line from a table of orifice cavitation parameters vs. Inc. © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute.500 2. Corrections may be required for other diameters and pressures.

Inc. All rights reserved.Multi-Holed Single Orifices ‡ ‡ There is less cavitation data than on single-holed orifices. Thus. 126 . an equivalent beta ratio should be determined. These data seem to show that the cavitation response is related to the ratio of the total hole area to the pipe area. from the geometry. ‡ © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute.

Multi-Holed Single Orifices ‡ Using this value of beta. ‡ ‡ © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. single-holed orifice correlations should be applied with corrections for pressure and diameter as recommended. See NUREG/CR-6031 for more information. All rights reserved. Manufacturers¶ data may also be available for some designs. 127 . Inc.

Series Orifices ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Series orifices are an effective way of dealing with a cavitating orifice. 128 . See NUREG/CR-6031 and EPRI 1011231. Inc. Methodology for calculating a series arrangement will now be presented. © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. All rights reserved. Single-holed or multiple-holed orifices may be used in series.

the process is over. If this design is satisfactory. If not. Inc. All rights reserved. 129 . © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. an iterative process must be used to design the orifices.Series Orifices ± Methodology ‡ ‡ ‡ The first step is to size a single orifice and see if it cavitates.

Continued ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Beginning at the downstream end.Series Orifices ± Methodology . 130 . assume a larger beta and recalculate. Inc. proceed upstream until the desired pressure drop is obtained. assume a beta ratio. If the orifice is not cavitating. Calculate the allowable cavitation index. All rights reserved. © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. If the orifice is cavitating.

All rights reserved. ‡ This point is known as the vena contracta. Inc. © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute.Vena Contracta ‡ When a flow passes through a restriction. the point of lowest pressure and highest velocity is found just downstream of the restriction. 131 .

© 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. For a given pressure drop across a valve. Inc. 132 . All rights reserved. a highpressure recovery valve will have a lower pressure at the vena contracta than a low-pressure recovery valve.High-Pressure Recovery Valves ‡ ‡ Valves types may be classified as high or low-pressure recovery (see later slide).

High-Pressure Recovery Valves . 133 . ‡ ‡ © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. Inc. butterfly and gate valves. Examples of high-pressure recovery valves are ball.Continued ‡ The lower pressure at the vena contracta means that they are more susceptible to cavitation than lowpressure recovery valves. All rights reserved. See next slide for a schematic diagram.

134 .6 0.High.and Lo -Pressure Recovery Valves 110 100 Pressure 0 0 0 60 0 0 0.2 0.4 igh Pressure Recover ow Pressure Recover Vapor pressure Cavitation likel © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. All rights reserved. Loca ion 1 1.4 0. Inc.2 1.

Most types of control valves. globe. ‡ ‡ © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. are lowpressure recovery valves. 135 . Inc.g. there will be a higher pressure at the vena contracta than for a high-pressure recovery valve.Lo -Pressure Recovery Valves ‡ Similarly for a low-pressure recovery valve. This means that they are less susceptible to cavitation than high-pressure recovery valves. All rights reserved. e..

Pv W= Pu .Cavitation Coefficient ‡ Cavitation coefficient is defined as: P d . ‡ © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. Inc. This coefficient is commonly used in the United States. 136 . All rights reserved.P d where: = Cavitation coefficient Pd = Mean pressure 10 diameters downstream Pv = Liquid vapor pressure Pu = Mean pressure one diameter upstream.

All rights reserved.P v VV 2 2 where: = Cavitation index = Mass density of the liquid v = Mean pipe velocity upstream.Cavitation Index ‡ Cavitation index is defined as: / Pu . © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. Inc.Pv velocity head Pu . ‡ This index is commonly used in Europe. 137 .

Stage B ± Acceleration ± the fatigue limit of the material is reached and the material is losing pieces of the surface. All rights reserved. © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute.Stages of Damage Stage A ± Incubation ± no damage is apparent visually. 138 . Stage C ± Maximum rate ± the maximum rate of erosion damage is reached as the surface becomes very rough. but the subsurface is being fatigued by repeated impacts. Inc.

Stages of Damage -- Continued

Stage D ± Deceleration ± the surface has been roughened, and the rate of damage remains relatively constant. Stage E ± Terminal or Final Steady State Stage ± this stage may not be reached.

© 2006 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

139

Flashing Erosion - Introduction
‡ ‡ Flashing erosion is related to cavitation erosion. Flashing erosion occurs when a liquid flow passes through a restriction and the local pressure drops below the vapor pressure forming bubbles (or cavities). In contrast to cavitation, these bubbles do not collapse but travel downstream.

‡

© 2006 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

140

Flashing Schematic

100 0
e

0 0 60 0 40 0 0. 1
siti n

a

ess

e

ess

1.

2

© 2006 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

141

Flashing Erosion ± Mechanism
‡ Since the bubbles formed by flashing have a much lower density than the liquid they were formed from, the average liquid velocity must increase. Flashing erosion causes damage, not from the collapse of bubbles, as with cavitation, but from the high liquid velocities.

‡

© 2006 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

142

The term flashing erosion is here to distinguish it from flashing which describes the flow conditions. 143 . For more information on flashing ± see.Flashing Erosion ± Mechanism . Inc. All rights reserved. ‡ ‡ © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. flashing will occur if the downstream pressure is below the vapor pressure.Continued ‡ Note that while cavitation may be prevented.

Inc. the flow is critical or choked. 144 .Flashing Erosion ± Critical Flo ‡ ‡ ‡ When flashing occurs. © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. That is the restriction is passing as much flow as possible for the upstream conditions. All rights reserved. For more information ± see.

Inc. smooth. © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. 145 .Flashing Erosion ± Morphology ‡ ‡ Surfaces damaged by flashing erosion are usually described as being ³smooth´ or ³polished. All rights reserved.´ Note again the difference between cavitation erosion and flashing erosion ± very rough vs.

Damage Caused by Flashing Erosion Flashing damage downstream of a multi-hole orifice Photo courtesy of Southern Nuclear © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. All rights reserved. 146 . Inc.

photo courtesy of Florida Power & Light © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. All rights reserved.Flashing Erosion Damage in a feedwater minimum flow recirculation line. 147 . Inc.

‡ ‡ © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. Flashing erosion will be accompanied by noise and possibly vibration. 148 . perhaps as low as the condenser pressure. Inc. All rights reserved.Where to Look for Damage ‡ Flashing erosion occurs: ± In single-phased systems ± Downstream of large-pressure drops caused by letdown valves or orifices Usually the downstream pressure is low.

Where to Look for Damage ± Continued ‡ It is important to note that cavitation and cavitation erosion may be prevented through design measures. 149 . Inc. ± Vibration and or noise may be present and cause damage. All rights reserved. but« ± Flashing will always occur whenever the pressure downstream of the restriction is less than the vapor pressure. © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute.

© 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. Inc. ultrasonic methods should use 100% scans or finer grids than are normally used for FAC inspections. 150 .Inspection Considerations ‡ ‡ Flashing damage may be detected using conventional inspection techniques ± usually UT or RT. All rights reserved. As the damaged area is likely small.

Inc. All rights reserved. © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. 151 .Countermeasures ‡ Design methods to reduce flashing erosion include: ± Use a sudden expansion or a target tee to keep the fluid away from the wall ± Use a larger diameter downstream to reduce the fluid velocity ± Move the restriction closer to the sink ± The use of a proprietary restrictor may help.

All rights reserved. Materials consideration ± see. 152 . Inc.Countermeasures ± Continued ‡ ‡ These methods are described in more detail in EPRI Report 1011231. © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute.

See also EPRI Report 1011231. All rights reserved. Inc.Calculation Approaches ‡ ‡ Little work has been done in this area. 153 . A suggested approach would be to calculate the downstream velocity and compare with a maximum allowable downstream velocity. ‡ © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. Valve manufacturers often recommend a maximum discharge velocity.

Flashing ‡ ‡ Flashing occurs when a liquid encounters a pressure below the vapor pressure. All rights reserved. LOFT series of tests.g. ‡ © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. Flashing has been extensively studied to predict the rate of depressurization following a loss of coolant accident ± e. Inc. This work was designed to predict the critical flow rate. 154 ..

. Inc. These models are used in Nuclear Safety Codes (e. © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. All rights reserved.Continued ‡ ‡ Various models have been developed to predict the flow rates in these situations. 155 .g. RELAP5. RETRAN).g. TRAC) and system analysis codes (e..Flashing .

If the fluid involved is water. At this point. All rights reserved. Inc. critical flow will occur. ‡ © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. 156 . the flow rate is independent of the downstream conditions. this will occur when the downstream pressure falls below the vapor pressure of the water.Critical Velocity ‡ ‡ If the pressure downstream of a restriction is low enough.

the flow is said to be ³choked. Inc.Critical Velocity ± Continued ‡ When critical velocity occurs.´ ‡ ‡ © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. This condition is also known as ³supercavitation.´ At this time. At this point. 157 . All rights reserved. the speed of the fluid is the acoustic velocity. the flow rate through the restriction is a maximum for the upstream conditions.

All rights reserved.. As the flow is two-phase (i. the flow is traveling at the local acoustic velocity. Inc. 158 .e. © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute.Acoustic Velocity ‡ ‡ When flashing occurs. the acoustic velocity is much less than the acoustic velocity for either the liquid-only phase or the steam-only phase. steam and water) at this point.

All rights reserved. 159 . Inc.Acoustic Velocity of a Water-Steam Mixture © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute.

Droplet Impingement . All rights reserved. 160 . If the droplets are big enough and if the velocity is high enough. Inc. ‡ © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute.Introduction ‡ Droplet impingement erosion occurs when a highvelocity stream of a liquid jet or a two-phase stream containing liquid droplets impacts a surface. damage to the surface will result.

Rain damage to aircraft canopies is another common example. Inc. 161 . Droplet impingement is also known as liquid droplet impingement and liquid impingement erosion. © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute.Continued ‡ ‡ ‡ Damage to steam turbine blades is a common example of damage caused by droplet impingement. All rights reserved.Droplet Impingement ± Introduction .

All rights reserved. Aside from piping systems. Consequently much is known about the details of the processes involved. 162 . ‡ ‡ © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute.Description of Mechanism ‡ Droplet impingement is an important mechanism in a number of technical areas. These details are beyond the scope of this module. Note this mechanism is not similar to solid particle erosion. droplet impingement is a continuing problem in steam turbines. Inc.

Inc. 163 . this value is approximately 300 feet per second (~100 m/s). All rights reserved.Description of Mechanism ± Continued Tests and experience have demonstrated that: ‡ The damage increases with velocity to a power between 3 and 6 ‡ There is a Critical Velocity. © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. below which damage does not occur ± For steels.

Continued ‡ ‡ ‡ Above drop sizes of about 1 mm. 164 . the damage is non-linear with time. All rights reserved. Below this value. damage is not a function of drop size. Inc. As with cavitation. damage decreases with decreasing size. © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute.Description of Mechanism .

All rights reserved.Damage vs. © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. Inc. Time for Droplet Impingement Note ± the letters A-E refer to the stages of damage ± see. 165 .

Through-wall leaks are commonly experienced.Morphology ‡ Surface damage caused by droplet impingement exhibit a very rough irregular surface with a cratered aspect. All rights reserved. 166 . Inc. ‡ ‡ © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. Damage is normally localized to the impact region.

All rights reserved.Droplet Impingement Damage Copper alloy condenser tube damage by droplet impingement Overall View Cross Section photos courtesy of EDF © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. Inc. 167 .

168 . All rights reserved. Inc.Droplet Impingement Damage Comparison of an Eroded Turbine Blade with a Test Sample © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute.

Inc.Droplet Impingement Damage Damage downstream of a leaking valve in an extraction steam line. 169 . photo courtesy of Electrabel/Tractebel © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. All rights reserved.

All rights reserved. ± In extraction lines where the relief valves have failed to shut.g. 170 .Where to Look for Damage ‡ Damage caused by droplet impingement is often found in two-phase lines that experience a large pressure drop accelerating the flow to high velocities. e.. ± Downstream of valves or steam traps that have failed open. ‡ Other locations include at the backside of spargers opposite incoming flows. Inc. © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute.

Inc. 171 . All rights reserved. photo and sketch courtesy of Constellation Energy © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute.Droplet Impingement Damage in a Sparger Leak in sparger with sketch showing location.

Inc. © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. ultrasonic methods should use 100% scans or finer grids than are used for FAC inspections. As degradation caused by droplet impingement is normally quite localized. 172 .Inspection Considerations ‡ ‡ Radiographic or ultrasonic techniques may be used to locate damaged areas. All rights reserved.

target tee.. Improve the local geometry. All rights reserved.g. Use separators to eliminate some of the moisture and hence the damaging drops Repair leaking valves and traps. Inc.Countermeasures ± General Approaches ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Use larger pipe sizes to reduce velocity ± remember damage ~ v3±6. Improve the material ± see. 173 . © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. e.

it is doubtful that useful models yielding detailed results are possible. As key parameters are unlikely to be known (e. droplet size distribution). 174 . All rights reserved. Inc..g. © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute.Calculation Models for Droplet Impingement ‡ ‡ There are no known correlations suitable for predicting droplet impingement in power piping.

© 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. All rights reserved. 175 .Calculation Models for Droplet Impingement ± Continued ‡ ‡ Approximate models for droplet impingement do exist ± see. Inc. As an alternative to a model. velocities at various points of the system may be calculated and compared to the threshold velocity to produce a susceptibility ranking.

Droplet Impingement Models ‡ ‡ There are several models designed to predict the rate of droplet impingement. 176 . © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. Two will be mentioned here: ± ASTM Model developed by Technical Committee G-2 ± Model of Frank Heymann¶s of Westinghouse Steam Turbine division. All rights reserved. Inc.

This model is felt to be accurate to about a factor of 3 for laboratory data. All rights reserved. ‡ ‡ © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute.ASTM Model ‡ ASTM has developed a purely empirical model for predicting the maximum erosion rate and the incubation period. This model is described in the annual ASTM Book of Standards. Inc. 177 . with less accuracy expected for field predictions.

The erosion rate is a function only of the material resistance. Inc. ‡ © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. and the flux of droplets. provided the droplets are greater than 0. 178 .Heymann¶s Model ‡ ‡ Heymann developed a very simplified model designed to predict the rate of erosion.6 mm. This equation may is described on the next slide. the velocity. All rights reserved.

Inc. 179 .Heymann¶s Model ± Continued ‡ The model is written as: N e Re ! 6.047 Where: ± Ne = rationalized erosion rate = ratio of the volume lost per second to the volume of impinging liquid per second ± Re = normalized erosion resistance ± v = velocity in meters per second.41 ™ 10 ‡ 18 v 5. © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. All rights reserved.

As no accuracy limits are stated. this correlation should be used with caution. Inc. © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. this model reduces to: N e ! 1. All rights reserved.047 This correlation is based on steam velocity between 50 and 500 meters per second.Heymann¶s Model for Carbon Steel ‡ For carbon steel.6025 ™10 19 ‡ ‡ v 5. 180 .

181 . Inc. materials are usually considered to behave identically. Material response is completely different for solid particle erosion.Materials Considerations ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ It has been found that materials respond similarly to cavitation erosion and droplet impingement. In fact. work has been done in this area. if any. All rights reserved. © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. Flashing erosion is probably similar but little.

© 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. All rights reserved. Inc. this work has met with limited success. A different approach was taken by Heymann who plotted relative resistance to erosion versus material. In general.Correlating Damage ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Many investigators have attempted to correlate the degree of damage with material properties. This approach is a good screening method. 182 . See more.

All rights reserved. Inc.1 10 1 ali e ro sio n R esista ic hr o e 30 0 er ie s ta er ie s ta ne lw el d ov er la ss in le ss In co in le l ee 00 st st ca ol te el on ar el © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. ne l in le 6 . Resistance of Materials 183 u le r u le ta te l li te 6.or 100 0 .1 oo E P l te R I or e el 2 co In ss .

. All rights reserved. © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. Norem. 300 Series stainless steel will provide more resistance than carbon steel. Inc. Stellite. but less resistance than those on the above list.g. 184 .Recommendations ‡ ‡ Based on information from the literature and from anecdotal sources. the following materials should provide improved resistance to erosion: ± Inconel ± Duplex stainless steel ± Hard facing ± e.

heavier wall fittings. target tee. Inc.Repair Considerations ‡ Some repair options include: ± Replacement in kind ± Replacement with a more resistant material ± Local repair with an overlay or a patch of resistant material ± Local redesign ± e.. © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. 185 . All rights reserved.g.

All rights reserved. 186 . Some of the properties that have been used include: ± Hardness ± Tensile strength ± Ultimate strength © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. Inc.Correlating Damage ‡ ‡ Many workers have attempted to correlate the erosion resistance of material with physical properties.

g.Correlating Damage -. e. EPRI has sponsored work which has been more successful by correlating damage with the fatigue related parameters: ± Fatigue strength coefficient ± Cyclic strain-hardening exponent © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. 187 .. Inc. carbon steels. All rights reserved. Recently.Continued ‡ ‡ These attempts have only succeeded in correlating damage within a narrow class.

Inc.Continued ‡ ‡ Good agreement has been demonstrated for a wide range of materials. ‡ © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. 188 . Details are available in EPRI Reports ± ± EPRI Report TR-108943-V2 ± EPRI Report 1011231 Details are also available in technical papers cited in these references. All rights reserved.Correlating Damage -.

Solid Particle Erosion ± Introduction ‡ Solid particle erosion (SPE) occurs when a fluid stream containing particles impacts a surface causing damage. 189 . As SPE has been extensively studied. ‡ ‡ © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. there is a large body of literature available. sand blasting to clean surfaces).g. All rights reserved.. SPE is commonly encountered and is even used commercially (e. Inc.

Description of Mechanism ‡ ‡ Despite its inherent simplicity. and Particle Impact Erosion © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. ductile target materials behave differently than brittle materials. the detailed mechanism of damage by SPE has not been determined. All rights reserved. 190 . Inc. Solid Impact Erosion. Apparently. the exact damage mechanism depends on the material and the particles involved ± For example. ‡ SPE is also called Particle Erosion.

All rights reserved. non-linear. 191 .Important Note ‡ It is very important to note that SPE and droplet impingement are not at all similar in terms of parametric effects including: ± Materials effects ± Velocity dependence ± power dependence and critical velocity ± Damage rate behavior ± linear vs. Inc. © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute.

Inc. This velocity is quite low. 192 . There is a critical velocity below which SPE does not cause damage to surfaces. © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. All rights reserved. normally about 3 feet per second (~ 1 m/s) for ductile materials.Impact of Velocity ‡ ‡ ‡ Velocity is a key parameter in SPE.

3 and 2.4. All rights reserved. 193 . Inc.Continued ‡ Damage to ductile materials from SPE will occur if the velocity is above the threshold velocity and the particles are greater than about 0. Investigators have found that the damage rate for ductile materials increase with the velocity to the power of between 2.Impact of Velocity . ‡ © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute.004´ (100 microns).

Inc. Surfaces may be rough or polished. 194 . the properties of the particles and the fluid velocity. All rights reserved. ‡ © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. ± Rippled surfaces are possible at small angles of attack on a ductile material.Morphology ‡ Surface damages by SPE exhibit a variable morphology depending on the material. and grooving may occur.

195 .Damage Caused by Solid Particle Erosion Valve Internals Damaged by Solid Particle Erosion photos courtesy of Dominion Virginia Power © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. Inc. All rights reserved.

All rights reserved. 196 . Inc.Damage Caused by Solid Particle Erosion Turbine Blades Damaged by Solid Particle Erosion © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute.

All rights reserved. photo courtesy of Constellation Energy © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. Inc.Solid Particle Erosion in a Steam Generator Blo do n Line Note the rippled surface. 197 .

© 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. Note the critical velocity is small enough that damage occurs even in service water and related systems. 198 . Inc.Where to Look for Damage ‡ Damage caused by SPE is often found in: ± Steam generator blowdown ± the particles are corrosion products from the steam generator. All rights reserved. ± Service water systems ± the particles are silt and/or sand contained in the water.

199 . © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. Inc. ultrasonic methods should use 100% scans or finer grids than are used for FAC inspections. As degradation caused by SPE is normally quite localized. All rights reserved. ultrasonic or visual techniques may be used to locate damaged areas.Inspection Considerations ‡ ‡ Radiographic.

200 . ‡ ‡ © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. All rights reserved. for commonly used piping materials there is a much smaller difference in resistance than compared to the other mechanisms. Depending on conditions.Materials Considerations ‡ It is important to note that the material resistance characteristics of SPE are completely different than other erosive mechanisms discussed in this module. Inc. See figure on next slide.

00 0.e. Inc. high velocit ) © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. All rights reserved.00 1.Material Resistance to Solid Particle Erosion tellite 6 tellite 0 16 0 tainles s tainles s tainles s Inc onel 600 Inc olo 800 Inc onel 6 1 ild teel 0.60 o 0.20 Re la ti e Erosion Re sista nce a re d to S te llite For conditions of severe erosion (i. 201 .20 0. 0 0..80 1.

Probably 300 series stainless is the best replacement material available for piping systems. © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. there is no material solution to problem.Materials Considerations . All rights reserved.Continued ‡ ‡ ‡ Based on these data for severe conditions. Redesign may be necessary in particularly bad situations. 202 . Inc.

All rights reserved.Countermeasures The methods to reduce damage due to SPE include: ‡ Reducing velocity by increasing the pipe size or redesign ‡ Using target tees or similar approaches ‡ Reduce particle loading by ± Cleaning upstream ± Filtering/separation ‡ Using more resistant material. 203 . © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. Inc.

All rights reserved. geometry. More about models. 204 . These models may be useful under certain circumstances. Fluid velocity. particle size. particle material. © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. Inc.Calculation Models and Parametric Trends ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ There are empirical models available to predict the rate of SPE. material are some of the input requirements.

© 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. Inc.For More Information ‡ EPRI Report 1011231 for a treatment of SPE in piping systems. 205 . ‡ EPRI Report TR-108943-V2 has a treatment of SPE in steam turbines. ± This report also contains a number of relevant references. All rights reserved.

the ease of fracture). Target Material Variables ± all material properties including.Parameters The parameters influencing SPE may be conveniently divided into three categories. particle size distribution. Particle Variables including ± particle shape. ‡ Impingement Variables including ± particle velocity. hardness. and friability (i.Solid Particle Erosion . melting point. All rights reserved. work hardening behavior. hardness. and microstructure. particle rotational speed. Inc.e. ‡ ‡ © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. particle concentration. 206 .. angle of incidence.

Parametric Effects ‡ ‡ Velocity ± the erosion rate for ductile materials varies as the velocity raised to a power between 2. Inc. 207 . Critical velocity ± the critical velocity (above which damages occurs) is normally taken to be 3 feet/second (1 meter per second) for ductile materials.4. ± Note that this is a much lower critical velocity than for droplet impingement © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. All rights reserved.3 and 2.

‡ ‡ © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute.Continued ‡ Impact angle ± the amount of damage is a function of impacting angle. The damage profile depends on whether the material is ductile or brittle. Note that intermediate behavior (not shown on the graph) is possible for materials that are not easily characterized. 208 . See chart on next slide. Inc.Parametric Effects . All rights reserved.

Influence of Impact Angle on SPE © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. All rights reserved. Inc. 209 .

0. Inc. Experiments have shown that the damage for ductile materials is essentially linear with time.. All rights reserved.e.Continued ‡ Particle Size ± the size of the erodent particle has little effect on the erosion rate of ductile materials as long as the particle size is above about 100 microns [i. ‡ © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. the erosion rate decreases rapidly with decreasing particle size below 100 microns.Parametric Effects . 210 .004´].

211 .Most Commonly Used Models ‡ Two commonly cited models to predict the rate of solid particle erosion are: ± Finnie ± erosive wear as a consequence of the cutting (i. All rights reserved. ± Hutchings ± erosive wear occurs as a result of material being plowed out by the impacting particles. © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. Inc.e.. micro-machining) of the surface by impacting particles.

Inc.. particle size distribution..g.Practical Limitations of SPE Models ‡ In power plant environments. the available models are not applicable to piping geometries. the information needed to model the impacting particles is normally unknown. Further. ‡ © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. e.g. particle loading. All rights reserved. 212 . e. elbows.

Cavitation Erosion Damage to Pump Impellors © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. Inc. 213 . All rights reserved.

Inc. 214 . All rights reserved.Control Valve Trim Damaged by Cavitation © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute.

215 . All rights reserved.Cavitation Damage in a Globe Valve © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. Inc.

Inc. 216 .Pipe Sho ing Extensive Cavitation Damage © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. All rights reserved.

Inc.Erosion Damage in a Dump Valve Note the damage was caused by leakage. All rights reserved. 217 . photos courtesy of Southern Nuclear © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute.

All rights reserved. 218 . Inc.Droplet Impingement Damage in a MSR Pocket Drain photo courtesy of Constellation Energy © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute.

219 .SPE in a Valve Body Valve was located in the steam generator blowdown system. All rights reserved. photo courtesy of Bruce Power © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. Inc.

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1013570. The report is a corporate document that should be cited in the literature in the following manner: Computer-Based Training Module on Erosion in Piping Systems. . Taylor This report describes research sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI).CITATIONS This report was prepared by EPRI Solutions 1661 Page Mill Rd Palo Alto. CA 94304 Principal Investigator J. Horowitz T. EPRI. Palo Alto. CA: 2006.

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