Computer-Based Training Module: Erosion In Piping Systems October 2006

Effective December 6, 2006, this report has been made publicly available in accordance with Section 734.3(b)(3) and published in accordance with Section 734.7 of the U.S. Export Administration Regulations. As a result of this publication, this report is subject to only copyright protection and does not require any license agreement from EPRI. This notice supersedes the export control restrictions and any proprietary licensed material notices embedded in the document prior to publication.

Introduction to Navigation
‡ Module can be navigated in a linear fashion ± Click Page Down or Enter. ‡ By following hyperlinks for more information ± The file must be viewed in ³Slide Show´ mode for the hyperlinks to work ± Click on a hyperlink to go directly to related information in the training, clicking page down or enter will take you back to where you left off. ‡ Click on the camera picture to view a related photograph, page down, or enter will return to the original page.

© 2006 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Introduction
‡ Mechanical damage is commonly found in piping systems. There are various mechanisms possible. They are normally combined under the category of ³erosion´ or ³erosive damage.´

‡ ‡

© 2006 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Examples of Erosive Damage

Pump impellor damaged by cavitation.

Turbine blades damaged by solid particle erosion.

© 2006 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

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© 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. and Describe where damage is typically found. 5 .Purpose This module will: ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Introduce the subject Describe the four common mechanisms that cause damage in piping systems Discuss how these mechanisms cause damage. Inc. All rights reserved.

Purpose .. Inc. A short quiz is provided at the end of this module. ‡ ‡ © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. materials and countermeasures. This module will not treat damage in machinery. All rights reserved. pumps. e. 6 . steam turbines.Continued ‡ Discuss inspection approaches.g.

Description ‡ Erosion is the damage of materials caused by physical processes such as high-speed. impinging flows or solid impacts on the surface. Inc. ‡ ‡ © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. For more information on corrosion ± go to corrosion. This is contrasted to corrosion which involves a chemical or electrochemical process. All rights reserved. 7 .Erosion .

Erosion ± Description . © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute.Continued ‡ Erosion occurs in a variety of power-plant systems ± see sample photographs. Inc. the cause of the damage must be identified as there may be substantial differences between mechanisms. ‡ To successfully manage problems caused by erosion. 8 . All rights reserved.

Erosion Mechanisms ‡ The four most common erosion mechanisms in power plants are: ± Cavitation erosion ± Flashing erosion ± Droplet impingement ± Solid particle erosion ‡ These will be introduced © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. All rights reserved. 9 . Inc.

All rights reserved. Inc.Photographs of Damage Cavitation Erosion Flashing Erosion photo courtesy of Florida Power & Light Droplet Impingement photo courtesy of EDF © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. Solid Particle Erosion photo courtesy of Bruce Power 10 .

Summary Table Cavitation Erosion Fluid Conditions Surface Noise Vibration Flashing Erosion Water U/S 2phase D/S Smooth ± polished Yes Droplet Impingement Solid Particle Erosion Single or two phase Variable No Water Very rough Yes Two-Phase Very rough No Damage rate Non-linear Non-linear Non-linear Linear D/S = Downstream U/S = Upstream © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. Inc. 11 . All rights reserved.

Inc. All rights reserved.see Liquid droplet impingement -. © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute.see.see Flashing erosion -. 12 .Types of Erosion Damage For more information: ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Cavitation erosion -.see Solid particle erosion -.

Other Related Mechanisms ‡ There are other types of damage that may be experienced: ± Corrosion and erosion may occur simultaneous (see next slide) ± Erosive effects may also be combined ± Other erosion mechanisms. 13 . All rights reserved. Inc. © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute.

Inc. 14 . All rights reserved.Photograph of Corrosion and Erosion Damage Elbow Damaged by Erosion and FAC photo courtesy of Public Service Electric & Gas © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute.

Other Erosion Mechanisms ‡ Wire drawing ± high speed liquid flow normally encountered in valve internals. 15 . Steam cutting ± high speed steam flow normally occurring in valve seats or when leaks occur in heat exchangers. All rights reserved. ‡ © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. Inc.

16 . Inc. All rights reserved.Photographs of Damage Caused by Steam Cutting Steam cutting in a flange Steam cutting in a steam trap body © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute.

EPRI Report 1011231. EPRI Report TR-108943-V2. All rights reserved. Inc. 17 . ‡ ‡ © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute.For More Information ‡ CHUG website ± User experience ± Past presentations on erosion.

True False Question 2 There are materials that are more resistant to cavitation erosion than carbon steel. True False © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. All rights reserved.Quiz Question 1 Droplet impingement and solid particle erosion are similar in many ways. 18 . Inc.

Quiz - Continued
Question 3 In order for cavitation to occur the downstream pressure must be less than the local vapor pressure. True False Question 4 In order for flashing to occur the downstream pressure must be less than the local vapor pressure. True False

© 2006 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Quiz - Continued
Question 5 Data sets are available to describe cavitation in: a) Valves b) Orifices c) Valves and orifices d) Elbows e) Nearly every situation Question 6 Models to calculate the rate of droplet impingement are commonly used to determine susceptibility of components in piping systems. True False
© 2006 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Quiz - Continued
Question 7 Flashing erosion and droplet impingement often occur in high pressure drop situations. True False Question 8 Solid particle erosion has been found to have a) A damage rate that is linear with time. b) A damage rate that varies linearly with velocity c) A damage rate that is independent of the particle size d) A well understood damage mechanism e) All of the above
© 2006 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Quiz - Continued
Question 9 Noise and vibration associated with a valve indicate that cavitation erosion is occurring. True False Question 10 The critical velocity for damage caused by droplet impingement is much greater than the critical velocity for solid particle erosion. True False

© 2006 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Training Complete! © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. 23 . Inc. All rights reserved.

24 . © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute.1 . they differ in more ways than they are similar.True While droplet impingement and solid particle erosion are both mechanical damage mechanisms. All rights reserved. Please try again. Inc.

Inc. All rights reserved.1 . Return to quiz. © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. 25 .False Correct! Droplet impingement and solid particle erosion differ in many ways including material response and velocity dependence.

Inc.True Correct! There are materials more resistant than carbon steel available including Inconel.2 . © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. Return to quiz. All rights reserved. 26 .

Thus. Inc. Please try again.2 . partial material solutions to cavitation are possible. © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. 27 .False Incorrect! There are materials more resistant to cavitation than carbon steel. All rights reserved.

The point of lowest pressure is known as the vena contracta. Please try again. 28 .3 .True Incorrect! It is not the downstream pressure that matters. it is the lowest pressure within the restriction. © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. All rights reserved. Inc.

© 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. Inc. All rights reserved.e. 29 .. Return to quiz. the pressure at the vena contracta) within the restriction that dictates whether or not cavitation will occur.False Correct! It is the lowest pressure (i.3 .

True Correct! It is necessary that the downstream pressure be lower than the vapor pressure if flashing is to occur. Return to quiz.4 . © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. Inc. All rights reserved. 30 .

False If the downstream pressure is above the vapor pressure. © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. 31 . Inc.4 . Please try again. All rights reserved. flashing will not occur.

All rights reserved. there are other geometries that have data. © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. Inc. Please try again. 32 .5-A Incorrect! While cavitation information is available for valves.

All rights reserved. Please try again. Inc. there are other geometries that have data. © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute.5-B Incorrect! While cavitation information is available for orifices. 33 .

© 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. Please try again. there are other geometries that have data.5-C Incorrect! While cavitation information is available for valves and orifices. All rights reserved. Inc. 34 .

© 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. 35 .5-D Incorrect! While cavitation information is available for elbows. Please try again. All rights reserved. there are other geometries that have data. Inc.

Inc. All rights reserved. © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute.5-E Correct! There is information available for most geometries. Return to quiz. 36 .

© 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. Inc. Please try again. Models to predict droplet impingement are not normally used.True Incorrect. 37 . All rights reserved.6 .

6 . All rights reserved. Inc. 38 . Return to quiz. © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute.False Correct! There are no commonly used models to predict droplet impingement.

© 2006 Electric Power Research Institute.True Correct! Flashing and impingement are often associated with high-pressure drops and the resultant high-velocity.7 . All rights reserved. 39 . Return to quiz. Inc.

© 2006 Electric Power Research Institute.False Incorrect! High pressure drops are often associated with flashing and droplet impingement. All rights reserved.7 . Inc. Please try again. 40 .

© 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. Inc. 41 . All rights reserved.8-A Correct! The damage rate for solid particle erosion varies linearly with time. Return to quiz.

Inc. Please try again.8-B Incorrect! The damage rate for solid particle erosion varies with velocity to a power slightly greater than 2. All rights reserved. 42 . © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute.

All rights reserved. © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. Inc. Please try again. 43 . Below this value damage does not occur.8-C Incorrect! The damage rate is independent of particle size above a critical value.

Inc. All rights reserved. © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute.8-D Incorrect! The damage mechanism of solid particle erosion is not well understood although there appears to be different mechanisms for ductile and brittle materials. 44 . Please try again.

45 . All rights reserved. Inc. © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. Please try again.8-E Incorrect! More than one of the above statements are not true.

9 . Inc. All rights reserved. 46 . Please try again. © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute.True While noise and vibration may indicate that cavitation is occurring. cavitation erosion will only occur if the collapsing bubbles impinge upon a surface.

47 .9 . All rights reserved. Inc. cavitation erosion will only occur if the collapsing bubbles impinge upon a surface. Return to quiz.False Correct! While noise and vibration may indicate that cavitation is occurring. © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute.

Inc. The critical velocity for damage to ductile materials is about 1% of this value. Return to quiz.10 . 48 .True Correct! The critical velocity for droplet impingement on steel is about 300 feet per second (100 meters per second). All rights reserved. © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute.

False The critical velocity for damage for solid particle erosion is about 3 feet per second (1 meter per second). Please try again. Inc. © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. All rights reserved. 49 . The critical velocity for droplet impingement is much greater than this value.10 .

Corrosion
‡ ‡ ‡ Corrosion may be defined as material attack which is chemical or electrochemical in nature. Coping with corrosion has been a continuing activity for power plant operators. Corrosion damage may be widespread or localized.

© 2006 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Examples of Corrosion Mechanisms
‡ Widespread attack ± General corrosion ± Flow-Accelerated Corrosion (FAC). Localized attack ± Galvanic corrosion (between dissimilar metals) ± Crevice corrosion ± Cracking ± Pitting.

‡

© 2006 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

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FAC vs. Erosion
‡ ‡ FAC is the most important damage mechanism active in steam and feedwater related systems. FAC and erosion may be distinguished by: ± Surface morphology ± Extent of damaged area ± Chemistry dependence ± Material dependence.

© 2006 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

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FAC vs. Erosion - Continued
‡ Surface morphology ± FAC damaged surface has distinctive features. ± Single-phase FAC exhibits a scalloped or ³orangepeel´ surface. ± High-quality, two-phase flow exhibits a characteristic pattern known as tiger-striping. These features are not found in surfaces damaged by erosion.

‡

© 2006 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

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54 . Inc.Photographs of FAC Damage Single-phase FAC showing scalloped surface photo courtesy of Pacific Gas & Electric Two-phase FAC in a crossover line showing µtiger striping´ photo courtesy of EDF © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. All rights reserved.

‡ © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. Chemistry ± the rate of damage due to FAC may be controlled by the water chemistry.Continued ‡ Damaged area ± damage caused by erosion is often localized while FAC-caused damage is normally widespread. Inc. 55 . All rights reserved. Erosion .FAC vs. Such dependence is not present with erosive mechanisms.

Continued ‡ Materials ± FAC is effectively inhibited by small amounts of chromium in the material (i.e. Inc.1% or larger). This is not true of erosive mechanisms. All rights reserved. Thus FAC does not damage stainless or alloy material.FAC vs.. ‡ © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. Erosion . 56 . Cr ~ 0. while erosive attack commonly does.

EPRI 1013249. EPRI report TR-106611-R1 is a complete review of the subject.Information on FAC ‡ Further information on FAC are contained in the Computer-Based Training module for FAC. ‡ © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. 57 . All rights reserved. Inc.

Inc. Particular areas of concern are downstream of valves and orifices.Cavitation . All rights reserved. ‡ © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute.Introduction ‡ Cavitation is a phenomenon that occurs in a large number of technically important areas including: ± Ship propellers ± Hydraulic turbines ± Centrifugal pumps ± Piping systems. 58 .

Inc. © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. The fluid then locally vaporizes forming small bubbles (also known as cavities). All rights reserved.Cavitation ± Mechanism ‡ ‡ ‡ Cavitation occurs when a flowing liquid stream encounters an area in which the local static pressure falls below the vapor pressure. these bubbles collapse. 59 . If the fluid pressure then increases.

60 . Inc. ‡ ‡ © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. All rights reserved.Continued ‡ The collapse of the bubbles causes noise and vibration.e. Cavitation may occur because of flow curvature ± see. the damage rate varies with time).. The damage rate caused by cavitation is non-linear with time (i.Cavitation ± Mechanism . and if close to a solid surface will cause damage to the surface.

All rights reserved. 61 .Unsteady Pressure and Vibration © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. Inc.

Inc.Mechanism ‡ The next slides shows a schematic of the cavitation process at a flow restriction. The following slide shows a schematic of the damage rate as a function of time.Cavitation . ‡ © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. 62 . All rights reserved.

Inc. 63 .5 2 © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. All rights reserved.5 1 istance 1.Schematic of Cavitation Process 100 90 Pressure 80 0 apor Pressure 60 50 Bubbles form Bubbles collapse 0 0 0.

All rights reserved. © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. 64 . Time Note ± the letters A-E refer to the stages of damage ± see.Schematic of Cavitation Damage Rate vs. Inc.

± Cracked welds ± Broken pipe hangers ± Damaged valve actuators. and the vibration often causes more problems than the cavitation erosion ± e. Vibration and noise are associated with cavitation. 65 . © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute..g. All rights reserved.Cavitation ± Damage ‡ ‡ Cavitation damage to surfaces is called cavitation erosion. Inc.

All rights reserved. Inc. © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. A commonly used set of definitions is shown on the next slide. 66 . but are often used.Degrees of Cavitation ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ For convenience workers have defined several levels or regimes of cavitation. These divisions are often somewhat arbitrary. Different regimes are used for different purposes.

All rights reserved. © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute.Cavitation Regimes Regime Incipient Description Cavitation is just beginning. Critical Cavitation is occurring at a steady state value. choked or sonic velocity) flow. Inc. 67 . For information about using regimes in design see. Supercavitation or Flashing The flow through the obstruction has reached critical (i.e..

. bubble and collapse production) is occurring. Noise does not necessarily indicate that damage is occurring.e. © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. All rights reserved. 68 . If the bubbles collapse away from solid surfaces no damage will occur.Cavitation ± Noise and Damage ‡ ‡ ‡ Noise does indicate that cavitation (i. Inc.

Also described as intermittent light popping or as bacon frying.Cavitation ± Noise Regime Description of Noise High-pitched hissing or sizzling. All rights reserved. 82 dba Typical noise levels for a standard trim valve. © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute.¶ Noise Level Incipient 85 dba Critical 120 dba Supercavitation Humming or hissing. Inc. Metallic rattling or shot-blasting often likened to the sound of flowing gravel ± known as µcrepitation. 69 .

Inc. 70 . © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. All rights reserved. Cavitation damage is normally localized.Morphology ‡ ‡ ‡ Surfaces damaged by cavitation are very rough with a texture similar to a new cement block. See photograph of damage on next slide.

Inc. 71 .Cavitation Damage in a Plug Valve More Photos Cavitation Damage in the Body of a Plug Valve © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. All rights reserved.

All rights reserved. ‡ ‡ © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. Inc. Cavitation erosion will be accompanied by noise and possibly vibration. Often. 72 . butterfly or gate valves used for throttling will cavitate.Where to Look for Damage ‡ Cavitation erosion normally takes place ± In solid liquid flows ± Downstream of large pressure drops such as valves or orifices.

All rights reserved.Inspection Considerations ‡ Cavitation damage may be detected using conventional inspection techniques ± usually UT or RT. ultrasonic methods should use 100% scans or finer grids than are normally used for FAC inspections. As the damaged area is likely small. Inc. ‡ © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. 73 .

There is a tremendous amount of literature available on the subject. ‡ © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. Material and repair considerations ± see.Design Options to Reduce Cavitation ‡ ‡ ‡ There are various options to reduce the severity of cavitation. 74 . For information on reducing cavitation in: ± Valves ± see ± Orifices ± see ± Other components ± see. All rights reserved. Inc.

All rights reserved. the inlet pressure) and the component are necessary for accurate calculations. The approach is normally to compare the local system properties to the cavitation propensity of the component being considered. Inc.g. ‡ © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute.Calculation Approach ‡ ‡ There are well established methods to calculate the occurrence of cavitation. 75 .. Knowledge of both the local conditions (e.

Inc. 76 . Detailed procedures for calculating cavitation in valves may be found in: ± EPRI Reports TR-103198-T1 and TR-103198-T2 ± NUREG/CR-6031 ± Valve manufacturers¶ methodologies ± For details. © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute.Calculating Cavitation in Valves ‡ ‡ There is a great deal of information available on this subject. All rights reserved.

Calculating Cavitation in Orifices ‡ ‡ Methods are available to calculate cavitation in orifices. ). ± There are methodologies available to design orifices in series to eliminate cavitation. 77 . © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. ± These correlations are normally based on the hole/pipe diameter ratio (i. For single-holed orifices: ± There are correlations available to predict cavitation. All rights reserved. Inc.e..

For proprietary orifice/restrictor designs. ‡ ‡ © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. ± Manufacturers often have design information.Calculating Cavitation in Orifices . Inc. the manufacturer should be able to supply necessary design information.Continued ‡ For multiple holed single orifices: ± Correlations are available for some geometries. All rights reserved. 78 . For more details ± see.

g. For common geometries (e. Inc. design data are available in these sources. bend. tee). elbow.Calculating Cavitation in Other Geometries ‡ ‡ There is a great deal of literature available on this subject especially in textbooks on the subject. © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. 79 . All rights reserved..

1989. Inc. Frederick G. All rights reserved. Transients. Hydraulics of Pipelines: Pumps. 1980.Information Sources ‡ Textbooks such as: ± Hammitt. 1993. Cavitation. Tullis. ‡ ‡ EPRI Reports. © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. Valves. J.. 80 . Cavitation and Multiphase Flow Phenomena. Paul ³Cavitation Guide for Control Valves. USNRC.´ NUREG/CR-6031.. e.g. Paul. ± Tullis. Report 1011231.

Four Regimes ‡ For purposes of design. and drop off in performance ± flow no longer increases with pressure drop ± see next slide. steady noise ± Incipient Damage ± pitting damage begins ± Choking ± very heavy damage. All rights reserved. © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. Inc. intermittent noise present ± Critical ± light. four cavitation regimes can be considered: ± Incipient ± light. 81 .

82 . All rights reserved.Non-Ideal Behavior of a Valve 0 2 20 Flow ull cho ed low 0 ho ing egins 0 0 20 0 re 60 re ro 80 00 Ideal ehavior Actual ehavior © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. Inc.

Some of the factors that should be considered are: ± Operating time. © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute.Using Regime Information ‡ ‡ When designing a control valve. and ± Cost of the valve. 83 . ± Maximum acceptable noise level ± Allowable vibration level. the maximum degree of cavitation allowable should be established. All rights reserved. Inc.

Inc.´ If noise is acceptable. then the valve should not operate beyond ³incipient damage.. then the valve should not operate beyond ³incipient. 84 .Some Design Guidance ‡ ‡ ‡ If noise is not acceptable.g.´ Valves that operate in the choking regime should only operate there for short periods of time (e. relief valves). All rights reserved. © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute.

All rights reserved. the bubbles will collapse downstream of the valve.. This regime is known as supercavitation and damage to the valve will normally not occur. ‡ © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute.Supercavitation ‡ When a valve operates beyond choking (i. Inc. if at all. on the flat portion of the curve presented above).e. 85 .

86 . Note in this regime.Supercavitation . the entire pipe section is filled with vapor for several diameters downstream of the restriction. Inc. All rights reserved. and flashing erosion. ‡ © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute.Continued ‡ When supercavitation occurs. flashing is occurring. noise and vibration may occur downstream of the valve.

Inc. and in fittings. 87 . in regions of flow mixing. These occur at locations in turbo-machinery.Flo Curvature Cavitation . All rights reserved. © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute.Introduction ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Cavitation may occur in elbows and tees. This is called ³flow-curvature´ or ³re-circulation cavitation.´ It is caused by the generation of bubbles in areas of low pressure in secondary or recirculating flows.

All rights reserved. 88 . Inc. © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. As the fluid at the extrados has to travel further than the fluid at the intrados. a transverse pressure gradient is established with the higher pressure at the intrados of the elbow.Cavitation in an Elbo ‡ ‡ Secondary flows occur when streamlines have to adjust to curve around a bend.

the elbow will choke. the acoustic velocity is reached and the flow rate is a maximum. All rights reserved. If the process continues. At this point.Cavitation in an Elbo ‡ ‡ ± Continued This pressure gradient induces a flow from the inside to the outside of the elbow. ‡ © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. eventually. Inc. This reduced pressure caused by the higher flow may induce cavitation bubbles to form. 89 .

Inc.Void Formation in an Elbo Schematic of vapor pocket formed by cavitation in an elbow. 90 . All rights reserved. © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute.

Recirculation Cavitation ‡ ‡ ‡ This type of cavitation occurs only when the static pressure is relatively near the vapor pressure. All rights reserved. The next slide shows examples of this type damage. Thus this type of damage should be expected only in low-pressure lines. Inc. © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. 91 .

Inc.Examples of Recirculation Cavitation Elbow and tee damaged by recirculation cavitation © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. 92 . All rights reserved.

All rights reserved.Damage To Valve Internals Valve trim damaged by cavitation erosion. Inc. 93 . © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute.

Cavitation downstream of an orifice photos courtesy of Dominion Virginia Power © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. 94 .Damage to a Reducer Chrome-moly (P-22) reducer. All rights reserved. Inc.

95 . All rights reserved. Inc.Damage Do nstream of an Orifice photo courtesy of Southern Nuclear © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute.

Inc. 96 . All rights reserved.Damaged Surface Do nstream of an Orifice photo courtesy of Dominion Virginia Power © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute.

globe valve). there is a more cavitation-resistant style within the same valve type.e. © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute.. 97 . Inc. This is normally the lowest cost option.Valve Countermeasures ‡ ‡ ‡ Increase cavitation resistance within valve type (i. In all cases except butterfly valves. All rights reserved.

e.. globe) under the same conditions.Valve Countermeasures . butterfly. go from butterfly to globe). 98 . ball) valves will cavitate before low-pressure recovery valves (e.g.. These terms are defined in the section ³Calculating Cavitation in Valves. In general high-pressure recovery valves (e.Continued ‡ ‡ Improved valve types (i. Inc. All rights reserved..´ ‡ © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute.g.

Valve Countermeasures ± Continued ‡ ‡ Install anti-cavitation valves see.the use of a valve and orifice combination can be as effective in reducing cavitation to acceptable levels. the use of this technique is only effective if the range of flows expected is limited to 1:3. Add orifice or valve in series . © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. All rights reserved. ± However. 99 . Inc.

Inc.Valve Countermeasures .Continued ‡ ‡ Add sudden expansion downstream of the valve to keep the collapsing bubbles away from solid surfaces. 100 . © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. a target tee-type arrangement may be used to control the surfaces damaged by cavitation erosion. Similarly. All rights reserved.

All rights reserved. ± Use a proprietary flow restrictor. © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute.Orifice Countermeasures ‡ Three methods to reduce cavitation damage downstream of orifices are: ± Use a multiple-holed orifice in place of a singleholed orifice ± see photographs. Various designs are available ± see photographs. 101 . ± Use several single-holed orifices in series. Inc.

102 .Multiple-Holed Orifices ‡ ‡ The use of orifices with multiple holes may reduce or eliminate cavitation. All rights reserved. ‡ © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. The disadvantages include the greater likelihood of plugging and different choking cavitation characteristics. Inc. This approach has some advantages over single-holed orifices including better noise and vibration characteristics and requiring less space than using orifices in series.

Orifices in Series ‡ Multistage orifices eliminate cavitation by breaking down the total pressure drop into a number of smaller steps. Inc. Methods exist to allow calculation of an orifice string to avoid cavitation. At each step (or stage). 103 . the pressure drop is controlled by the orifice diameter to prevent cavitation. ‡ ‡ © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. All rights reserved.

Normally these restrictors are used in high-pressure drop lines (e. All rights reserved. letdown lines).g. © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute.Proprietary Restrictors ‡ ‡ ‡ Various vendors supply proprietary restrictors to reduce cavitation. Inc. Vendors will normally supply design information.. 104 .

Inc. 105 . All rights reserved.Multiple-Holed Orifices Photos courtesy of CU Services LLC © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute.

Proprietary Restrictor Drawings courtesy of CU Services LLC Proprietary restrictor design and installation © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. All rights reserved. 106 . Inc.

107 .Another Proprietary Restrictor Upstream end Mockup of downstream end showing impinging jets. Inc. Photos courtesy of Pratt © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. All rights reserved.

Inc.e.Countermeasures ± Other Components ‡ Options available include: ± Changing the material. All rights reserved. abrupt expansions. target tees. ± Local design changes to eliminate bubbles collapsing near solid surfaces ± e.g. 108 . © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute.. ± Changing the location of the major pressure drop (i. moving the pressure drop downstream)..

These types are: ± µcolliding jet¶ and ± µstack arrangement. 109 . All rights reserved. There are two basic types.Anti-Cavitation Valve Types ‡ ‡ ‡ There are valves designed to reduce or eliminate cavitation even under extreme conditions.¶ © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. Inc. although there are many variants to these designs.

Usually. Inc. 110 . © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. the trim is cylindrical in shape and the flow passes through a large number of small holes. All rights reserved.Anti-Cavitation Valve ± Colliding Jet Arrangement ‡ ‡ The flow is split and is made to pass through a number of orifices that expand into a sudden enlargement.

the flows are outward toward the valve boundary. In other designs.Continued ‡ ‡ Some of these designs have the flows inward where the jets collide with each other in the center.Anti-Cavitation Valve ± Colliding Jet Arrangement . 111 . All rights reserved. © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. Inc.

e. labyrinth passages).. All rights reserved. 112 . Inc. ‡ © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. there are stacks of discs containing these obstructions.Anti-Cavitation Valve ± Stack Arrangement ‡ The flow passes through a large number of parallel paths containing designed obstructions (i. Typically.

113 . the choking limit with little noise and vibration. Inc. ‡ © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute.Anti-Cavitation Valve ± Stack Arrangement Continued ‡ The resistance of the obstructions in the discs can be tailored to control the valve characteristics as different disks may have different flow passages. These valves can be designed to operate at. or near. All rights reserved.

Anti-Cavitation Valves ± General ‡ In either of the above designs. 114 . found in conventional valve styles. ‡ © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. The following slides present some anti-cavitation valves with a brief commentary. All rights reserved. Inc. to many jets reduces the amount of noise and vibration. the change from one jet.

Anti-Cavitation Valves ± General . ‡ © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. 115 . pressure level. All rights reserved. Note that there are other designs available designed for different size. control requirements. etc.Continued ‡ Some of the designs shown allow a conventional globe valve to be back-fitted to become an anti-cavitation type. pressure drop. Inc.

Cavitrol® III ± Anti-Cavitation Valve Example of a Valve Using Inward. Inc. 116 . Colliding Jets Drawings courtesy of Emerson Cross Section and Operation of a Cavitrol® III One-Stage Trim Control Valve © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. All rights reserved.

Valtek Anti-Cavitation Stack Valve Drawings Courtesy of Flowserve Valtek Valtek Anti-Cavitation Stack Valve with ³tiger-teeth¶ flow passages. © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. 117 . Note the flow is radially outward. Inc. All rights reserved.

Valtek Anti-Cavitation Sleeve Valve Drawings Courtesy of Flowserve Valtek Valtek Anti-Cavitation Sleeve Valve with ChannelStream trim. © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. All rights reserved. Inc. 118 .

119 . Inc.Calculating Cavitation in Valves ± Basic Definitions ‡ In order to introduce the calculation of cavitation in valves. some terms must be defined. ‡ If you are not familiar with these terms. © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. All rights reserved. see. These terms are: ± Vena Contracta ± High-Pressure Recovery Valve ± Low-Pressure Recovery Valve ± Cavitation index and cavitation number.

Using Cavitation Parameters
‡ The fluid conditions are related to the valve characteristics through either the cavitation number or the cavitation index. A determination is then made as to: ± If the valve is not cavitating ± If the valve is cavitating, how severe the cavitation is.

‡

© 2006 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Using Cavitation Parameters - Continued

‡ ‡

There are variants to this process, although they differ mainly in the details. Methodologies and correlations are available from: ± EPRI & NUREG reports cited at the end of the cavitation section ± Valve manufacturers¶ data.

© 2006 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Outline of Calculation
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Define problem. Determine local conditions. Calculate the cavitation parameter (index or number). Determine valve performance by comparing the cavitation parameter with the appropriate correlation. State result.

© 2006 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Calculating Cavitation in Orifices ± Basic Definitions

‡ ‡

As orifices have a constant geometry, they are easier to analyze than valves. If you are not familiar with the following terms: ± Vena Contracta ± Cavitation index and cavitation number ± See.

© 2006 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

123

All rights reserved.Single-Hole Orifices ‡ ‡ ‡ Empirical correlations have been published relating the onset of the various regimes of cavitation. 1993. Inc. These correlations are available in various references including NUREG/CR-6031. USNRC. © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. 124 . Corrections may be required to account for the diameter and pressure level.

ratio Do/D ( ) incipience critical choking 0.39 Note: These values are for one diameter and pressure.500 2. All rights reserved. © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute.20 1. Corrections may be required for other diameters and pressures. Inc.62 2.Sample Single-Hole Data Sample line from a table of orifice cavitation parameters vs. 125 .

Inc. 126 . ‡ © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute.Multi-Holed Single Orifices ‡ ‡ There is less cavitation data than on single-holed orifices. These data seem to show that the cavitation response is related to the ratio of the total hole area to the pipe area. All rights reserved. Thus. an equivalent beta ratio should be determined. from the geometry.

Inc.Multi-Holed Single Orifices ‡ Using this value of beta. ‡ ‡ © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. See NUREG/CR-6031 for more information. 127 . All rights reserved. Manufacturers¶ data may also be available for some designs. single-holed orifice correlations should be applied with corrections for pressure and diameter as recommended.

Inc. See NUREG/CR-6031 and EPRI 1011231. Single-holed or multiple-holed orifices may be used in series.Series Orifices ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Series orifices are an effective way of dealing with a cavitating orifice. © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. All rights reserved. Methodology for calculating a series arrangement will now be presented. 128 .

All rights reserved. © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. Inc. an iterative process must be used to design the orifices. 129 .Series Orifices ± Methodology ‡ ‡ ‡ The first step is to size a single orifice and see if it cavitates. If not. If this design is satisfactory. the process is over.

Inc. © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. proceed upstream until the desired pressure drop is obtained.Series Orifices ± Methodology .Continued ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Beginning at the downstream end. Calculate the allowable cavitation index. All rights reserved. If the orifice is cavitating. 130 . assume a larger beta and recalculate. assume a beta ratio. If the orifice is not cavitating.

the point of lowest pressure and highest velocity is found just downstream of the restriction. Inc. All rights reserved.Vena Contracta ‡ When a flow passes through a restriction. © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. ‡ This point is known as the vena contracta. 131 .

All rights reserved. Inc. a highpressure recovery valve will have a lower pressure at the vena contracta than a low-pressure recovery valve. © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. For a given pressure drop across a valve. 132 .High-Pressure Recovery Valves ‡ ‡ Valves types may be classified as high or low-pressure recovery (see later slide).

Continued ‡ The lower pressure at the vena contracta means that they are more susceptible to cavitation than lowpressure recovery valves. ‡ ‡ © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. All rights reserved. butterfly and gate valves. Examples of high-pressure recovery valves are ball. See next slide for a schematic diagram.High-Pressure Recovery Valves . 133 . Inc.

Loca ion 1 1. All rights reserved. 134 .6 0.4 igh Pressure Recover ow Pressure Recover Vapor pressure Cavitation likel © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute.High.and Lo -Pressure Recovery Valves 110 100 Pressure 0 0 0 60 0 0 0.2 0.2 1.4 0. Inc.

. This means that they are less susceptible to cavitation than high-pressure recovery valves. Inc. e.Lo -Pressure Recovery Valves ‡ Similarly for a low-pressure recovery valve. ‡ ‡ © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. All rights reserved.g. globe. 135 . there will be a higher pressure at the vena contracta than for a high-pressure recovery valve. are lowpressure recovery valves. Most types of control valves.

Inc. ‡ © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. All rights reserved. This coefficient is commonly used in the United States.Cavitation Coefficient ‡ Cavitation coefficient is defined as: P d .Pv W= Pu . 136 .P d where: = Cavitation coefficient Pd = Mean pressure 10 diameters downstream Pv = Liquid vapor pressure Pu = Mean pressure one diameter upstream.

Pv velocity head Pu . 137 .Cavitation Index ‡ Cavitation index is defined as: / Pu . © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. Inc.P v VV 2 2 where: = Cavitation index = Mass density of the liquid v = Mean pipe velocity upstream. ‡ This index is commonly used in Europe. All rights reserved.

138 . © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. Stage B ± Acceleration ± the fatigue limit of the material is reached and the material is losing pieces of the surface. but the subsurface is being fatigued by repeated impacts.Stages of Damage Stage A ± Incubation ± no damage is apparent visually. Stage C ± Maximum rate ± the maximum rate of erosion damage is reached as the surface becomes very rough. All rights reserved. Inc.

Stages of Damage -- Continued

Stage D ± Deceleration ± the surface has been roughened, and the rate of damage remains relatively constant. Stage E ± Terminal or Final Steady State Stage ± this stage may not be reached.

© 2006 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

139

Flashing Erosion - Introduction
‡ ‡ Flashing erosion is related to cavitation erosion. Flashing erosion occurs when a liquid flow passes through a restriction and the local pressure drops below the vapor pressure forming bubbles (or cavities). In contrast to cavitation, these bubbles do not collapse but travel downstream.

‡

© 2006 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

140

Flashing Schematic

100 0
e

0 0 60 0 40 0 0. 1
siti n

a

ess

e

ess

1.

2

© 2006 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

141

Flashing Erosion ± Mechanism
‡ Since the bubbles formed by flashing have a much lower density than the liquid they were formed from, the average liquid velocity must increase. Flashing erosion causes damage, not from the collapse of bubbles, as with cavitation, but from the high liquid velocities.

‡

© 2006 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

142

For more information on flashing ± see. Inc.Continued ‡ Note that while cavitation may be prevented. ‡ ‡ © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. flashing will occur if the downstream pressure is below the vapor pressure. The term flashing erosion is here to distinguish it from flashing which describes the flow conditions.Flashing Erosion ± Mechanism . 143 . All rights reserved.

For more information ± see. That is the restriction is passing as much flow as possible for the upstream conditions. the flow is critical or choked. 144 .Flashing Erosion ± Critical Flo ‡ ‡ ‡ When flashing occurs. © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. Inc. All rights reserved.

All rights reserved. © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute.´ Note again the difference between cavitation erosion and flashing erosion ± very rough vs. Inc.Flashing Erosion ± Morphology ‡ ‡ Surfaces damaged by flashing erosion are usually described as being ³smooth´ or ³polished. smooth. 145 .

Damage Caused by Flashing Erosion Flashing damage downstream of a multi-hole orifice Photo courtesy of Southern Nuclear © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. Inc. All rights reserved. 146 .

147 .Flashing Erosion Damage in a feedwater minimum flow recirculation line. photo courtesy of Florida Power & Light © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. Inc. All rights reserved.

148 . ‡ ‡ © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. perhaps as low as the condenser pressure. Flashing erosion will be accompanied by noise and possibly vibration.Where to Look for Damage ‡ Flashing erosion occurs: ± In single-phased systems ± Downstream of large-pressure drops caused by letdown valves or orifices Usually the downstream pressure is low. Inc. All rights reserved.

149 . ± Vibration and or noise may be present and cause damage. All rights reserved. © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute.Where to Look for Damage ± Continued ‡ It is important to note that cavitation and cavitation erosion may be prevented through design measures. Inc. but« ± Flashing will always occur whenever the pressure downstream of the restriction is less than the vapor pressure.

ultrasonic methods should use 100% scans or finer grids than are normally used for FAC inspections. As the damaged area is likely small. All rights reserved. 150 .Inspection Considerations ‡ ‡ Flashing damage may be detected using conventional inspection techniques ± usually UT or RT. © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. Inc.

Inc. All rights reserved.Countermeasures ‡ Design methods to reduce flashing erosion include: ± Use a sudden expansion or a target tee to keep the fluid away from the wall ± Use a larger diameter downstream to reduce the fluid velocity ± Move the restriction closer to the sink ± The use of a proprietary restrictor may help. 151 . © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute.

Countermeasures ± Continued ‡ ‡ These methods are described in more detail in EPRI Report 1011231. All rights reserved. Inc. Materials consideration ± see. © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. 152 .

Inc. Valve manufacturers often recommend a maximum discharge velocity. 153 . All rights reserved. ‡ © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. See also EPRI Report 1011231.Calculation Approaches ‡ ‡ Little work has been done in this area. A suggested approach would be to calculate the downstream velocity and compare with a maximum allowable downstream velocity.

Inc.Flashing ‡ ‡ Flashing occurs when a liquid encounters a pressure below the vapor pressure.. Flashing has been extensively studied to predict the rate of depressurization following a loss of coolant accident ± e. 154 . ‡ © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. LOFT series of tests. All rights reserved.g. This work was designed to predict the critical flow rate.

Continued ‡ ‡ Various models have been developed to predict the flow rates in these situations. RETRAN). TRAC) and system analysis codes (e...g.Flashing . RELAP5. Inc. All rights reserved. 155 . These models are used in Nuclear Safety Codes (e.g. © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute.

this will occur when the downstream pressure falls below the vapor pressure of the water. critical flow will occur. Inc.Critical Velocity ‡ ‡ If the pressure downstream of a restriction is low enough. 156 . All rights reserved. If the fluid involved is water. At this point. ‡ © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. the flow rate is independent of the downstream conditions.

´ At this time.Critical Velocity ± Continued ‡ When critical velocity occurs. All rights reserved. This condition is also known as ³supercavitation. At this point.´ ‡ ‡ © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. 157 . the flow rate through the restriction is a maximum for the upstream conditions. the speed of the fluid is the acoustic velocity. the flow is said to be ³choked. Inc.

As the flow is two-phase (i. the flow is traveling at the local acoustic velocity. Inc. 158 .Acoustic Velocity ‡ ‡ When flashing occurs.. steam and water) at this point. All rights reserved.e. © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. the acoustic velocity is much less than the acoustic velocity for either the liquid-only phase or the steam-only phase.

159 . Inc. All rights reserved.Acoustic Velocity of a Water-Steam Mixture © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute.

‡ © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. damage to the surface will result.Droplet Impingement . 160 . All rights reserved. Inc. If the droplets are big enough and if the velocity is high enough.Introduction ‡ Droplet impingement erosion occurs when a highvelocity stream of a liquid jet or a two-phase stream containing liquid droplets impacts a surface.

All rights reserved. Inc. Droplet impingement is also known as liquid droplet impingement and liquid impingement erosion. Rain damage to aircraft canopies is another common example. © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute.Continued ‡ ‡ ‡ Damage to steam turbine blades is a common example of damage caused by droplet impingement.Droplet Impingement ± Introduction . 161 .

These details are beyond the scope of this module. Note this mechanism is not similar to solid particle erosion. All rights reserved. droplet impingement is a continuing problem in steam turbines. ‡ ‡ © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. Inc.Description of Mechanism ‡ Droplet impingement is an important mechanism in a number of technical areas. Aside from piping systems. Consequently much is known about the details of the processes involved. 162 .

this value is approximately 300 feet per second (~100 m/s). 163 .Description of Mechanism ± Continued Tests and experience have demonstrated that: ‡ The damage increases with velocity to a power between 3 and 6 ‡ There is a Critical Velocity. All rights reserved. © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. below which damage does not occur ± For steels. Inc.

Below this value. 164 . As with cavitation.Description of Mechanism . All rights reserved. © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute.Continued ‡ ‡ ‡ Above drop sizes of about 1 mm. damage decreases with decreasing size. damage is not a function of drop size. Inc. the damage is non-linear with time.

All rights reserved. Inc. © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. 165 .Damage vs. Time for Droplet Impingement Note ± the letters A-E refer to the stages of damage ± see.

Inc. 166 . Through-wall leaks are commonly experienced. ‡ ‡ © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. Damage is normally localized to the impact region. All rights reserved.Morphology ‡ Surface damage caused by droplet impingement exhibit a very rough irregular surface with a cratered aspect.

All rights reserved. 167 .Droplet Impingement Damage Copper alloy condenser tube damage by droplet impingement Overall View Cross Section photos courtesy of EDF © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. Inc.

168 . Inc. All rights reserved.Droplet Impingement Damage Comparison of an Eroded Turbine Blade with a Test Sample © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute.

Droplet Impingement Damage Damage downstream of a leaking valve in an extraction steam line. photo courtesy of Electrabel/Tractebel © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. All rights reserved. Inc. 169 .

Inc. ± In extraction lines where the relief valves have failed to shut. e. ‡ Other locations include at the backside of spargers opposite incoming flows. All rights reserved. © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. 170 .g.Where to Look for Damage ‡ Damage caused by droplet impingement is often found in two-phase lines that experience a large pressure drop accelerating the flow to high velocities. ± Downstream of valves or steam traps that have failed open..

Inc.Droplet Impingement Damage in a Sparger Leak in sparger with sketch showing location. All rights reserved. photo and sketch courtesy of Constellation Energy © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. 171 .

All rights reserved. ultrasonic methods should use 100% scans or finer grids than are used for FAC inspections. 172 . © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. As degradation caused by droplet impingement is normally quite localized.Inspection Considerations ‡ ‡ Radiographic or ultrasonic techniques may be used to locate damaged areas. Inc.

Countermeasures ± General Approaches ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Use larger pipe sizes to reduce velocity ± remember damage ~ v3±6. Improve the local geometry. e. © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute.. Inc. Use separators to eliminate some of the moisture and hence the damaging drops Repair leaking valves and traps.g. target tee. 173 . Improve the material ± see. All rights reserved.

. As key parameters are unlikely to be known (e. Inc. All rights reserved. it is doubtful that useful models yielding detailed results are possible. droplet size distribution). © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute.Calculation Models for Droplet Impingement ‡ ‡ There are no known correlations suitable for predicting droplet impingement in power piping.g. 174 .

© 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. velocities at various points of the system may be calculated and compared to the threshold velocity to produce a susceptibility ranking. As an alternative to a model. Inc. All rights reserved. 175 .Calculation Models for Droplet Impingement ± Continued ‡ ‡ Approximate models for droplet impingement do exist ± see.

Droplet Impingement Models ‡ ‡ There are several models designed to predict the rate of droplet impingement. All rights reserved. © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. 176 . Two will be mentioned here: ± ASTM Model developed by Technical Committee G-2 ± Model of Frank Heymann¶s of Westinghouse Steam Turbine division. Inc.

177 .ASTM Model ‡ ASTM has developed a purely empirical model for predicting the maximum erosion rate and the incubation period. Inc. All rights reserved. ‡ ‡ © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. with less accuracy expected for field predictions. This model is described in the annual ASTM Book of Standards. This model is felt to be accurate to about a factor of 3 for laboratory data.

Inc. the velocity.6 mm. provided the droplets are greater than 0. All rights reserved. ‡ © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute.Heymann¶s Model ‡ ‡ Heymann developed a very simplified model designed to predict the rate of erosion. The erosion rate is a function only of the material resistance. This equation may is described on the next slide. 178 . and the flux of droplets.

179 .047 Where: ± Ne = rationalized erosion rate = ratio of the volume lost per second to the volume of impinging liquid per second ± Re = normalized erosion resistance ± v = velocity in meters per second. All rights reserved. Inc.Heymann¶s Model ± Continued ‡ The model is written as: N e Re ! 6. © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute.41 ™ 10 ‡ 18 v 5.

All rights reserved. Inc. As no accuracy limits are stated.047 This correlation is based on steam velocity between 50 and 500 meters per second. this model reduces to: N e ! 1.Heymann¶s Model for Carbon Steel ‡ For carbon steel. © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. 180 . this correlation should be used with caution.6025 ™10 19 ‡ ‡ v 5.

if any. 181 .Materials Considerations ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ It has been found that materials respond similarly to cavitation erosion and droplet impingement. All rights reserved. Inc. © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. Material response is completely different for solid particle erosion. In fact. work has been done in this area. Flashing erosion is probably similar but little. materials are usually considered to behave identically.

A different approach was taken by Heymann who plotted relative resistance to erosion versus material. In general. Inc. © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. All rights reserved. this work has met with limited success. See more. This approach is a good screening method. 182 .Correlating Damage ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Many investigators have attempted to correlate the degree of damage with material properties.

ne l in le 6 . Inc.1 10 1 ali e ro sio n R esista ic hr o e 30 0 er ie s ta er ie s ta ne lw el d ov er la ss in le ss In co in le l ee 00 st st ca ol te el on ar el © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute.1 oo E P l te R I or e el 2 co In ss .or 100 0 . All rights reserved. Resistance of Materials 183 u le r u le ta te l li te 6.

All rights reserved. © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. Norem.g. 184 . but less resistance than those on the above list. Inc. 300 Series stainless steel will provide more resistance than carbon steel. Stellite.. the following materials should provide improved resistance to erosion: ± Inconel ± Duplex stainless steel ± Hard facing ± e.Recommendations ‡ ‡ Based on information from the literature and from anecdotal sources.

Repair Considerations ‡ Some repair options include: ± Replacement in kind ± Replacement with a more resistant material ± Local repair with an overlay or a patch of resistant material ± Local redesign ± e..g. © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. 185 . Inc. All rights reserved. target tee. heavier wall fittings.

Some of the properties that have been used include: ± Hardness ± Tensile strength ± Ultimate strength © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. 186 . All rights reserved. Inc.Correlating Damage ‡ ‡ Many workers have attempted to correlate the erosion resistance of material with physical properties.

Correlating Damage -. e. Recently. 187 . EPRI has sponsored work which has been more successful by correlating damage with the fatigue related parameters: ± Fatigue strength coefficient ± Cyclic strain-hardening exponent © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. carbon steels.g. All rights reserved.Continued ‡ ‡ These attempts have only succeeded in correlating damage within a narrow class.. Inc.

Inc.Correlating Damage -. Details are available in EPRI Reports ± ± EPRI Report TR-108943-V2 ± EPRI Report 1011231 Details are also available in technical papers cited in these references. ‡ © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. All rights reserved. 188 .Continued ‡ ‡ Good agreement has been demonstrated for a wide range of materials.

As SPE has been extensively studied. SPE is commonly encountered and is even used commercially (e. Inc.g. 189 . All rights reserved. there is a large body of literature available.Solid Particle Erosion ± Introduction ‡ Solid particle erosion (SPE) occurs when a fluid stream containing particles impacts a surface causing damage.. ‡ ‡ © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. sand blasting to clean surfaces).

Solid Impact Erosion. ‡ SPE is also called Particle Erosion. the exact damage mechanism depends on the material and the particles involved ± For example.Description of Mechanism ‡ ‡ Despite its inherent simplicity. 190 . ductile target materials behave differently than brittle materials. All rights reserved. the detailed mechanism of damage by SPE has not been determined. and Particle Impact Erosion © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. Apparently. Inc.

All rights reserved. Inc. non-linear.Important Note ‡ It is very important to note that SPE and droplet impingement are not at all similar in terms of parametric effects including: ± Materials effects ± Velocity dependence ± power dependence and critical velocity ± Damage rate behavior ± linear vs. © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. 191 .

192 . © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. Inc. There is a critical velocity below which SPE does not cause damage to surfaces. normally about 3 feet per second (~ 1 m/s) for ductile materials.Impact of Velocity ‡ ‡ ‡ Velocity is a key parameter in SPE. This velocity is quite low. All rights reserved.

3 and 2. 193 .4. Inc. ‡ © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute.Impact of Velocity .Continued ‡ Damage to ductile materials from SPE will occur if the velocity is above the threshold velocity and the particles are greater than about 0.004´ (100 microns). Investigators have found that the damage rate for ductile materials increase with the velocity to the power of between 2. All rights reserved.

Morphology ‡ Surface damages by SPE exhibit a variable morphology depending on the material. Inc. ‡ © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. the properties of the particles and the fluid velocity. and grooving may occur. Surfaces may be rough or polished. 194 . All rights reserved. ± Rippled surfaces are possible at small angles of attack on a ductile material.

All rights reserved. 195 .Damage Caused by Solid Particle Erosion Valve Internals Damaged by Solid Particle Erosion photos courtesy of Dominion Virginia Power © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. Inc.

Inc.Damage Caused by Solid Particle Erosion Turbine Blades Damaged by Solid Particle Erosion © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. All rights reserved. 196 .

197 . photo courtesy of Constellation Energy © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. Inc.Solid Particle Erosion in a Steam Generator Blo do n Line Note the rippled surface. All rights reserved.

© 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. 198 . Note the critical velocity is small enough that damage occurs even in service water and related systems. All rights reserved. Inc. ± Service water systems ± the particles are silt and/or sand contained in the water.Where to Look for Damage ‡ Damage caused by SPE is often found in: ± Steam generator blowdown ± the particles are corrosion products from the steam generator.

© 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. ultrasonic methods should use 100% scans or finer grids than are used for FAC inspections.Inspection Considerations ‡ ‡ Radiographic. Inc. 199 . All rights reserved. ultrasonic or visual techniques may be used to locate damaged areas. As degradation caused by SPE is normally quite localized.

Materials Considerations ‡ It is important to note that the material resistance characteristics of SPE are completely different than other erosive mechanisms discussed in this module. ‡ ‡ © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. Inc. All rights reserved. 200 . See figure on next slide. Depending on conditions. for commonly used piping materials there is a much smaller difference in resistance than compared to the other mechanisms.

20 Re la ti e Erosion Re sista nce a re d to S te llite For conditions of severe erosion (i. All rights reserved. 0 0.. 201 .60 o 0.e.20 0. high velocit ) © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute.00 1.80 1. Inc.00 0.Material Resistance to Solid Particle Erosion tellite 6 tellite 0 16 0 tainles s tainles s tainles s Inc onel 600 Inc olo 800 Inc onel 6 1 ild teel 0.

© 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. Inc. Probably 300 series stainless is the best replacement material available for piping systems. 202 .Materials Considerations . Redesign may be necessary in particularly bad situations.Continued ‡ ‡ ‡ Based on these data for severe conditions. All rights reserved. there is no material solution to problem.

Inc. All rights reserved. 203 . © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute.Countermeasures The methods to reduce damage due to SPE include: ‡ Reducing velocity by increasing the pipe size or redesign ‡ Using target tees or similar approaches ‡ Reduce particle loading by ± Cleaning upstream ± Filtering/separation ‡ Using more resistant material.

geometry. Inc. These models may be useful under certain circumstances. All rights reserved. © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. particle size. particle material. material are some of the input requirements. 204 . More about models. Fluid velocity.Calculation Models and Parametric Trends ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ There are empirical models available to predict the rate of SPE.

‡ EPRI Report TR-108943-V2 has a treatment of SPE in steam turbines. Inc. ± This report also contains a number of relevant references.For More Information ‡ EPRI Report 1011231 for a treatment of SPE in piping systems. © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. 205 . All rights reserved.

Solid Particle Erosion . Target Material Variables ± all material properties including. 206 . angle of incidence. All rights reserved. hardness. the ease of fracture). particle concentration. and microstructure. and friability (i.e.. particle size distribution. ‡ ‡ © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute.Parameters The parameters influencing SPE may be conveniently divided into three categories. particle rotational speed. melting point. hardness. work hardening behavior. ‡ Impingement Variables including ± particle velocity. Inc. Particle Variables including ± particle shape.

Parametric Effects ‡ ‡ Velocity ± the erosion rate for ductile materials varies as the velocity raised to a power between 2. ± Note that this is a much lower critical velocity than for droplet impingement © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. All rights reserved. Critical velocity ± the critical velocity (above which damages occurs) is normally taken to be 3 feet/second (1 meter per second) for ductile materials. 207 .4. Inc.3 and 2.

Continued ‡ Impact angle ± the amount of damage is a function of impacting angle. See chart on next slide. All rights reserved. ‡ ‡ © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. Note that intermediate behavior (not shown on the graph) is possible for materials that are not easily characterized.Parametric Effects . Inc. 208 . The damage profile depends on whether the material is ductile or brittle.

All rights reserved. 209 . Inc.Influence of Impact Angle on SPE © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute.

210 .Continued ‡ Particle Size ± the size of the erodent particle has little effect on the erosion rate of ductile materials as long as the particle size is above about 100 microns [i. ‡ © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute.Parametric Effects .e. Inc. All rights reserved.. Experiments have shown that the damage for ductile materials is essentially linear with time. 0.004´]. the erosion rate decreases rapidly with decreasing particle size below 100 microns.

± Hutchings ± erosive wear occurs as a result of material being plowed out by the impacting particles. Inc. 211 . micro-machining) of the surface by impacting particles. All rights reserved.. © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute.e.Most Commonly Used Models ‡ Two commonly cited models to predict the rate of solid particle erosion are: ± Finnie ± erosive wear as a consequence of the cutting (i.

e.Practical Limitations of SPE Models ‡ In power plant environments. Inc. particle loading.. the information needed to model the impacting particles is normally unknown. elbows. ‡ © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute.g.g. the available models are not applicable to piping geometries. All rights reserved. particle size distribution. 212 . e. Further..

All rights reserved. Inc. 213 .Cavitation Erosion Damage to Pump Impellors © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute.

214 . Inc. All rights reserved.Control Valve Trim Damaged by Cavitation © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute.

Inc. 215 .Cavitation Damage in a Globe Valve © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. All rights reserved.

All rights reserved.Pipe Sho ing Extensive Cavitation Damage © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. 216 . Inc.

All rights reserved. 217 . photos courtesy of Southern Nuclear © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute.Erosion Damage in a Dump Valve Note the damage was caused by leakage. Inc.

Inc.Droplet Impingement Damage in a MSR Pocket Drain photo courtesy of Constellation Energy © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. 218 . All rights reserved.

Inc. photo courtesy of Bruce Power © 2006 Electric Power Research Institute. 219 . All rights reserved.SPE in a Valve Body Valve was located in the steam generator blowdown system.

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The report is a corporate document that should be cited in the literature in the following manner: Computer-Based Training Module on Erosion in Piping Systems. Taylor This report describes research sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). 1013570. . EPRI. Horowitz T. Palo Alto. CA 94304 Principal Investigator J.CITATIONS This report was prepared by EPRI Solutions 1661 Page Mill Rd Palo Alto. CA: 2006.

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