APES Units 1 & 2

Abiotic and Biotic Parts of Ecosystems

Matter and Energy Resources: Types and Concepts 


3-1: Matter: Forms, Structure, and Quality 3-2: Energy: Forms and Quality 3-3: Physical and Chemical Changes and the Law of Conservation of Matter 3-4: Nuclear Changes 3-5: The Two Ironclad Laws of Energy 3-6: Connections: Matter and Energy Laws and Environmental Problems

Forms, Structure, and Quality   

Matter is anything that has mass and takes up space. Matter is found in two chemical forms: elements and compounds. Various elements, compounds, or both can be found together in mixtures.

Solid. Liquid. and Gas .

Ions: Electrically charged atoms or combinations of atoms. .Atoms. Ions. Molecules: Combinations of two or more atoms of the same or different elements held together by chemical bonds. and Molecules    Atoms: The smallest unit of matter that is unique to a particular element.

and negatively charged ELECTRONS Each atom has an extremely small center. . uncharged NEUTRONS. or nucleus.What are Atoms?   The main building blocks of an atom are positively charged PROTONS. containing protons and neutrons.

ca/content/2004-Winter/180-Winter/Nuclear/frame0008.http://mediaserv.htm .mcgill.sus.

 Atomic  The number number of protons in the nucleus of each of its atoms.  Mass  The number total number of protons and neutrons in its nucleus.Atomic Number and Mass Number. .

metalloids. table by classifications of metals. metalloids and nonmetals .Elements are organized through the periodic metals.

Inorganic Compounds   All compounds not Organic Ionic Compounds   sodium chloride (NaCl) sodium bicarbonate (NaOH) hydrogen(H2) carbon dioxide (CO2) nitrogen dioxide (NO2) sulfur dioxide (SO2) Ammonia (NH3)  Covalent compounds      .

. metallic of most minerals. minerals.Inorganic Compounds   The earth¶s crust is composed of mostly inorganic minerals and rock The crust is the source of all most nonrenewable resource we use: fossil Various combinations of only eight elements make up the bulk fuels. etc.

Nitrogen (N).Nonmetallic Elements. . Sulfur (S). Oxygen (O).  Nonmetallic elements make up about 99% of the atoms of all living things. and Phosphorous (P).  Carbon (C). Hydrogen (H).

Ionic Compounds Structure   Composed of oppositely-charged ions Network of ions held together by attraction Forces of attraction between opposite charges Ionic bonds  .

Formation of Ionic Compounds  Transfer of electrons between the atoms of these elements   Atom that is metal loses electrons (oxidation) to become positive Atom that is nonmetal gains electrons (reduction) to become negative  Results in drastic changes to the elements involved .

edu/faculty/farabee/BIOBK/redox.emc.http://www.gif .maricopa.

and brittle solid . their atoms are transformed via a violent reaction into a totally different substance called.a white.Sodium Chloride    Sodium is a rather "soft" metal solid. with a silver-grey color Chlorine is greenish colored gas When a single electron is transferred between these elements. crystalline. sodium chloride. commonly called table salt -.

the atoms must share the electrons  .Covalent Bonds Formed by two non-metals  Similar electronegativities  Neither atom is "strong" enough to steal electrons from the other  Therefore.

energy is released. both atoms now have a full valence of eight electrons Individual atoms are independent. but once the bond is formed.Covalent Bonds     Chlorine atoms with valence electrons shown Chlorine atom has seven valence electrons. and the new chlorine molecule (Cl2) behaves as a single particle . but wants eight When unpaired electron is shared.

oxygen combinations  Chlorofluorocarbons   Simple carbohydrates  .  Hydrocarbons  Compounds of carbon and hydrogen Carbon. chlorine. nitrogen. hydrogen.Organic Compounds  Compounds containing carbon atoms combined with each other with atoms of one or more other elements such as hydrogen. and fluorine atoms carbon. etc. sulfur. oxygen.

Organic Compounds Hydrocarbons Chlorofluorocarbons .

Biological Organic Compounds Carbohydrates (Glucose) Protein (Cytochrome P450) .

Biological Organic Compounds

Lipid (Triglyceride)

Nucleic Acid (DNA)

Earth¶s Crust

Matter Quality   

Matter quality is a measure of how useful a matter resource is, based in its availability and concentration. High quality matter is organized, concentrated, and usually found near the earth¶s crust. Low quality is disorganized, dilute, and has little potential for use as a matter resource.

High quality & Low quality HIGH QUALITY LOW QUALITY .

Energy    Energy is the capacity to do work and transfer heat. Energy comes in many forms: light. . heat. and electricity. Kinetic energy is the energy that matter has because of its mass and its speed or velocity.

. which differ in wavelength (distance between successive peaks or troughs) and energy content.Electromagnetic Spectrum Electromagnetic Spectrum  The range of electromagnetic waves.

Kinetic energy. falling rocks. flowing streams.    Kinetic energy is the energy that matter has because of its mass and its speed or velocity. moving car . . Wind.all have kinetic energy. electricity. It is energy in action or motion.

Potential energy   Potential energy is stored energy that is potential available for use. . Potential energy can be charged to kinetic energy.

Natural gas. . Moderate: Normal sunlight.Energy Quality     Very High: Electricity. and Concentrated sunlight. and wood. High: Hydrogen gas. Nuclear fission.temperature heat and dispersed geothermal energy. and Coal. Low: Low.

high energy radiation. or both at a fixed rate  The unstable isotopes are also known as radioactive isotopes or radioisotopes .Natural Radioactive Decay  A nuclear change in which unstable isotopes spontaneously emit fast moving particles.

the material is said to be clean . the radiation emitted is damaging ionizing radiation    Gamma rays Alpha particles Beta particles  After ten half-lifes.Natural Radioactive Decay   The decay continues until the original isotope becomes a stable. nonradioactive isotope Until then.

Alpha. Beta. Gamma rays .

Nuclear Fission   Nuclear change in which nuclei of certain isotopes with large mass numbers are spilt apart into lighter nuclei when struck by neutrons Each fission releases two or three more neutrons and energy .

com/Movies/Movie4.shtml .Click to see QuickTime Movie of Fission http://www.atomicarchive.

Nuclear Fission 

Critical Mass  

Chain Reaction 

Enough fissionable nuclei available for multiple fission reactions to occur  

Multiple fissions within a critical mass Releases huge amounts of energy Atomic Bomb or Nuclear Power Plant

The ³Law of Conservation of Matter and Energy´  

In any nuclear change, the total amount of matter and energy involved remains the same. E = mc2 

The energy created by the release of the strong nuclear forces for 1 kilogram of matter will produce enough energy to elevated the temperature of all the water used in the Los Angeles basin in one day by 10,000oC

What is Nuclear Fusion? 

Nuclear Fusion is a nuclear change in which two isotopes of light elements, such as hydrogen, are forced together at extremely high temperatures until they fuse to form a heavier nucleus, releasing energy in the process.

First Law of Thermodynamics    In all physical and chemical changes Energy is neither created nor destroyed But it may be converted from one form to another .

less useful energy Also known as Law of Entropy .Second Law of Thermodynamics    When energy is changed from one form to another Some of the useful energy is always degraded to lower-quality. more dispersed.

High Waste Societies   People continue to use and waste more and more energy and matter resources at an increasing rate At some point. high-waste societies will become  UNSUSTAINABLE! .

Goals of Matter Recycling Societies To allow economic growth to continue without depleting matter resources or producing excess pollution .

Matter Recycling Societies Advantages   Disadvantages  Saves Energy Buys Time    Requires high-quality energy highwhich cannot be recycled Adds waste heat No infinite supply of affordable highhigh-quality energy available Limit to number of times a material can be recycled .

Low Waste Societies  Works with nature to reduce throughput  Based on energy flow and matter recycling .

Low Waste Societies Function 1. Use matter and energy resources efficiently . Use potentially renewable resources no faster than they are replenished 3. Reuse/recycle most nonrenewable matter resources 2.

Low Waste Societies Function 4. Emphasize pollution prevention and waste reduction 6. Reduce unnecessary consumption 5. Control population growth .

Unit 2. Chapter 3 Ecosystems: What Are They and How do They Work .

Ecosystems.Chapter 4 Ecology. and Food Webs 4-1 Ecology and Life  4-2 Earth¶s Life-Support Systems  4-3 Ecosystem Concept  4-4 Food Webs and Energy Flow in Ecosystems  4-5 How do Ecologists learn about Ecosystems?  4-6 Ecosystem Services and Sustainability  .

and the ecosphere . temperature. ecosystems.4-1 Ecology and Life  Ecology. populations.study of relationships between organisms and their environment   Ecology examines how organisms interact with their nonliving (abiotic) environment such as sunlight. communities. moisture. and vital nutrients Biotic interaction among organisms.

animals such as cows.one that exists as a population of individuals in a natural habitat.Distinction between Species  Wild species. ideally similar to the one in which its ancestors evolved Domesticated species. sheep. animals in zoos  . food crops.

Vocabulary  Population  Group of interacting individuals of the same species that occupy a specific area at the same time Populations that are dynamic groups that change in size. and genetic composition as a result of changes in environmental conditions  Genetic Diversity  . density. age distribution.

and microorganisms Community of different species interacting with one another and with their nonliving environment of matter and energy All earth's ecosystems  Community   Ecosystem   Ecosphere or Biosphere  . animals. Habitat  Place where a population or individual organism naturally lives Complex interacting network of plants.

What is Life?  All life shares a set of basic characteristics   Made of cells that have highly organized internal structure and functions Characteristic types of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecules in each cell .

Living Organisms   Capture and transform matter and energy from their environment to supply their needs for survival. growth. despite changes in their external environment through homeostasis. if not overstressed . and reproduction Maintain favorable internal conditions.

Living Organisms   Perpetuate themselves through reproduction Adapt to changes in environmental conditions through the process of evolution .

uiuc.asp .edu/nitro/biggraph.sws.www.

5% of the weight of the earth¶s crust .4-2 Geosphere The Earth contains several layers or concentric spheres Lithosphere   Crust  Crust and upper mantle Outermost. thin silicate zone. eight elements make up 98.

solid zone. oxygen. silicon. and magnesium. surrounded by a liquid core of molten material Inner Core is hotter than surface of the Sun .4-2 Geosphere  Mantle  Core  Surrounded by a thick. rich with iron. very hot  Innermost zone. mostly iron. largest zone. solid inner part.

lower portions contains enough ozone (O3) to filter out most of the sun¶s ultraviolet radiation  Stratosphere  .4-2 Atmosphere  Thin envelope of air around the planet  Troposphere  extends about 17 kilometers above sea level. contains nitrogen (78%). and is where weather occurs 17-48 kilometers above sea level. oxygen(21%).

and water vapor in the atmosphere . ice.4-2 Hydrosphere Consists of the earth¶s liquid water.

which allows the planet to hold onto its atmosphere and causes the downward movement of chemicals in the matter cycles .What Sustains Life on Earth?  Life on the earth depends on three interconnected factors    One-way flow of high-quality energy from the sun Cycling of matter or nutrients (all atoms. through all parts of the ecosphere Gravity. or molecules needed for survival by living organisms). ions.

5 billion years Visible light that reaches troposphere is the ultraviolet ray which is not absorbed in ozone .Sun      Fireball of hydrogen (72%) and helium (28%) Nuclear fusion Sun has existed for 6 billion years Sun will stay for another 6.

Solar Energy 72% of solar energy warms the lands  0.023% of solar energy is captured by green plants and bacteria  Powers the cycling of matter and weather system  Distributes heat and fresh water  .

htm .au/lam/climate/levelthree/ climch/clichgr1.bom.www.gov.

calcium. sodium. sulfur. ion. iron « etc nutrient that organism need in small amount Ex: zinc. oxygen. copper« etc  Macronutrient    Micronutrient   . nitrogen« etc nutrient that organisms need in large amount Ex: phosphorus.Type of Nutrients  Nutrient   Any atom. or molecule an organism needs to live grow or reproduce Ex: carbon. hydrogen.

Biomes ± Large regions characterized by distinct climate. . main factor determining what type of life will be in a certain area. and specific life-forms Climate ± Long-term weather.

nonliving. solar energy  Physical and chemical factors that influence living organisms   Biotic. components Ex: air. water.living.Ecosphere Separation  The Ecosphere and it¶s ecosystem can be separated into two parts  Abiotic. components  Ex: plants and animals .

 Ex: trout has to live in colder water than bass  .Range of Tolerance  Variations in it¶s physical and chemical environment Differences in genetic makeup. and age. health.

and soil Lacking water in the desert can limit the growth of plants .Limiting Factor  More important than others in regulating population growth   Ex: water light.

even if water. corn will stop growing.Limiting Factor Principle  too much or too little of any abiotic factor can limit growth of population. nitrogen are in a optimum levels. after it uses up available phosphorus. even if all the other factors are at optimum (favorable) range of tolerance.  Ex: If a farmer plants corn in phosphorus-poor soil. .

 Limiting factor of aquatic ecosystem .Dissolved Oxygen Content  Amount of oxygen gas dissolved in a given volume of water at a particular temperature and pressure.

Salinity  amount of salt dissolved in given volume of water .

Living Organisms in Ecosystem Producers or autotrophs.  Ex: plant gets energy or food from sun .makes their own food from compound obtained from environment.

abiotic nutrients to sugars and other complex organic compounds  Chlorophyll.traps solar energy and converts into Chlorophyllchemical energy .Living Organisms in Ecosystem Photosynthesis.ability of producer to convert Photosynthesissunlight.


lipids. Producer transmit 1-5% of absorbed energy into chemical energy. proteins and nucleic acid in plant tissue . which is stored in complex carbohydrates.

crabs Bacteria can survive in great amount of heat . clams.ChemosynthesisChemosynthesis Bacteria can convert simple compounds from their environment into more complex nutrient compound without sunlight   Ex: becomes consumed by tubeworms.

Consumers or Heterotrophs  Obtain energy and nutrients by feeding on other organisms or their remains .

holidays. rabbits http://www.htm . goats.net/easter/bunny1.Consumers   Herbivores (plant-eaters) or primary consumers Feed directly on producers  Deer.

Consumers   Carnivores (meat eater) or secondary consumers Feed only on primary consumer  Lion. Tiger .

Consumers   Tertiary (higherlevel) consumer Feed only on other carnivores  Wolf .

Consumers  Omnivoresconsumers that eat both plants and animals  Ex: pigs. bears . humans.

shark . crows.Consumers  Scavengers. flies.feed on dead organisms  Vultures.

extract nutrients from partly decomposed organic matter plant debris. and animal dung.  Detritus feeders.Consumers  Detritivores. .live off detritus  Detritus parts of dead organisms and wastes of living organisms.

Consumers  Decomposers .can be broken down by decomposers .Fungi and bacteria break down and recycle organic materials from organisms¶ wastes and from dead organisms   Food sources for worms and insects Biodegradable .

Respiration  Aerobic Respiration   Uses oxygen to convert organic nutrients back into carbon dioxide and water Glucose + oxygen Carbon dioxide + water + energy Breakdown of glucose in absence of oxygen  Anaerobic Respiration or Fermentation  .

Plant litter and garbage.Food Chain  Food Chain-Series of organisms in which each eats or decomposes the preceding one   Decomposers complete the cycle of matter by breaking down organic waste. . dead animal. Whether dead or alive organisms are potential (standard) sources of food for other organisms.

grow and reproduce. Decomposers process detritus from all trophic levels.Second Law of Energy  Organisms need high quality chemical energy to move.Producer is a first trophic level. . secondary consumer is third. primary consumer is second trophic level. and this energy is converted into low-quality heat that flows into environment   Trophic levels or feeding levels.

Food Web   Complex network of interconnected food chains Food web and chains   One-way flow of energy Cycling of nutrients through ecosystem .

000 Units of Energy) .Food Webs  Grazing Food Webs    Energy and nutrients move from plants to herbivores Then through an array of carnivores Eventually to decomposers (100.

000 Units of Energy) .Food Webs  Grazing Food Webs    Energy and nutrients move from plants to herbivores Then through an array of carnivores Eventually to decomposers (1.

Food Webs  Grazing Food Webs    Energy and nutrients move from plants to herbivores Then through an array of carnivores Eventually to decomposers (100 Units of Energy) .

Food Webs  Grazing Food Webs    Energy and nutrients move from plants to herbivores Then through an array of carnivores Eventually to decomposers (10 Units of Energy) .

Food Webs  Grazing Food Webs    Energy and nutrients move from plants to herbivores Then through an array of carnivores Eventually to decomposers (1 Units of Energy) .

.Food Webs  Detrital Food Webs   Organic waste material or detritus is the major food source Energy flows mainly from producers (plants) to decomposers and detritivores.

greater loss of usable energy as energy flows through trophic levels More trophic levels the Chains or Webs have more energy is consumed after each one. That¶s why food chains and webs rarely have more than 4 steps .Pyramid of Energy Flow   More steps or trophic levels in food chain or web.

Pyramid of Energy Flow   Loss of usable energy as energy flows through trophic levels of food chains and webs Rarely have more than 4 steps .

 Biomass is measured in dry weight  Water is not source of energy or nutrient   Biomass of first trophic levels is dry mass of all producers Useable energy transferred as biomass varies from 5%-20% (10% standard) .Biomass  Dry weight of all organic matter contained in organisms.

Pyramid of Biomass Storage of biomass at various trophic levels of ecosystem .

Pyramid of Numbers Number of organisms at each trophic level .

net/Module_3_pages/ecosystems_energy_flows.nicksnowden.http://www.htm .

Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) Rate in which producers convert solar energy into chemical energy (biomass) in a given amount of time .

59% of NPP occurs in land / 41% occurs in ocean .Net Primary Productivity (NPP)  Rate in which energy for use by consumers is stored in new biomass of plants    Measured in kilocalories per square meter per year or grams in biomass NPP is the limit determining the planet¶s carrying capacity for all species.

 10% ecological efficiency 1.000.000 units available for green plants (photosynthesis)  1000 units for herbivores  100 units for primary carnivores  10 units for secondary carnivores  .Ecological Efficiency  Percentage of energy transferred from one trophic level to another.000 units of energy from sun  10.

and measurement of model ecosystems under laboratory conditions Conditions can easily be controlled and are quick and cheap Disadvantage is that it is never certain whether or not result in a laboratory will be the same as a result in a complex. natural ecosystem Simulation of ecosystem rather than study real ecosystem Helps understand large and very complicated systems  LABORATORY RESEARCH     SYSTEMS ANALYSIS   . time-consuming.Studying Ecosystems  FIELD RESEARCH    Going into nature and observing/measuring the structure of ecosystems Majority of what we know now comes from this type Disadvantage is that it is expensive. and difficult to carry out experiments due to many variables Set up. observation.

Ecosystem Importance Ecosystem services are the natural services or earth capital that support life on the earth  Essential to the quality of human life and to the functioning of the world¶s economies  .

and paper . fiber. timber. water.Ecosystem Importance  Ecosystem services include:      Controlling and moderating climate Providing and renewing air. medicines. soil Recycling vital nutrients through chemical cycling Providing renewable and nonrenewable energy sources and nonrenewable minerals Furnishing people with food.

Ecosystem Importance  Ecosystem services include      Pollinating crops and other plant species Absorbing. diluting. and detoxifying many pollutants and toxic chemicals Helping control populations of pests and disease organisms Slowing erosion and preventing flooding Providing biodiversity of genes and species .

and is raw material for future adaptations . medicines. raw materials. « Provides for billions of dollars in the global economy Provides recycling. fibers. purification.Why Is Biodiversity So Important?     Food. industrial chemicals. wood. and natural pest control Represents the millions of years of adaptation. energy.

and reproduction .Two Principles of Ecosystem Sustainability   Use renewable solar energy as energy source Efficiently recycle nutrients organisms need for survival. growth.

Chapter 5 Nutrient Cycles and Soils .Unit 2.

Matter Cycling in Ecosystems  Nutrient  Natural or Biogeochemical Cycles processes that recycle nutrients in various chemical forms in a cyclic manner from the nonliving environment to living organisms and back again .

Nutrient Cycles (Closed System) Energy Flow (Open System)  Water  Carbon  Nitrogen  Phosphorus  Sulfur  Rock  Soil  Energy Flow .

and global levels The element does not have a gaseous phase or its gaseous compounds don¶t make up a significant portion of its supply Operates local and regional basis  Atmospheric    Sedimentary   . and vapor Operates local.e. liquid.Biogeochemical Cycle Locations  Hydrosphere   Water in the form of ice. and global levels Large portion of a given element (i. regional. Nitrogen gas) exists in gaseous form in the atmosphere Operates local. regional.

air pollution. and loss of biodiversity  Humans are accelerating rates of flow of mater    Isolated ecosystems are being influenced by human activities .Nutrient Cycling & Ecosystem Sustainability  Natural ecosystems tend to balance  Nutrients are recycled with reasonable efficiency Nutrient loss from soils Doubling of normal flow of nitrogen in the nitrogen cycle is a contributes to global warming. ozone depletion.

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