By:Simrandeep Kaur Lecturer Adarsh College of Nursing Patiala. Punjab

} Female
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

reproductive system is specially developed for the
Fertilization, Implantation, Growth, Development, Child birth.

Can be divided into 1. External reproductive system 2. Internal reproductive system


veneris / mons pubis }Labia majora }Labia minora }Clitoris }Vestibule }Perineum

Mons veneris / mons pubis



a firm, cushion ² like elevation of adipose tissue over the symphysis pubis covered by pubic hair. pubic hair tends to be triangular distribution, while in male, it tends to be diamond ² shaped. It serves to protect the junction of the pubic bone from trauma.

.Labia majora } } } Two rounded folds of adipose tissue with overlying skin. where as the inner surface contain sebaceous follicles which are smooth and moist. Their purpose is mainly to protect the inner delicate parts of the vulva. The outer surface are covered with hair. they extend from the mons pubis downward and backward to encircle the vestibule.

. Beneath the skin. The adipose tissue is richly supplied with venous plexus which may produce hematoma.‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ The labia majora are homologous of the scrotum in the male organ. if injured during child birth. there are dense connective tissue and adipose tissue. The arterial blood is supplied by the internal and external pudendal arteries and a portion of the inferior rectus artery.

in width and 1 ² 1. in thickness .‡ ‡ ‡ It also shared an extensive lymphatic supply with the other structure of vulva. and obstetric or sexual trauma may cause hematoma. which facilitates the spread of cancer in female reproductive organ. these structures are 7 ² 8 cm. Ordinarily. Immediately under the skin is a sheet of dartos muscle. which is responsible for the wrinkled appearance as well as for their sensitivity to heat and cold.5 cm.

Each labium minus consists of a thin fold of connective tissue which when protected. reddish appearance. The structure is covered by stratified squamous epithelium. .Labia minora ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Two thin. flat. Functions: To lubricate and waterproof the vulvar skin. It doesn·t contain hair follicle but it contains many sebaceous follicles and occasionally a few sweat glands. presents a moist. similar to that of mucous membrane. To provide bactericidal secretion. reddish folds of tissue lying between the inner surface of the labia majora.

each divide into 2 parts. This structure is extremely sensitive and abundantly supplied with several varieties of nerve endings. the upper pair merges into the prepuce(front of clitoris) and the lower one fuse to form the frenulum(behind clitoris) Posteriorly.‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ The labia minora are classed among erectile structures. . The labia minora increase in size at puberty and decrease after menopause due to estrogen level changes. the labia minora fuse to form fourchette. Anteriorly.

It is made up of erectile tissue in which many large and small venous channels surrounded by large amount of involuntary muscle tissue. across. The clitoris measures 5 ² 6 mm. cylindrical highly sensitive erectile organ corresponding to the male penis. ‡ Serve as a landmark in locating urethral opening during catheterization. It produces smegma. long and 6 ² 8 mm.Clitoris ‡ ‡ a small. It has very rich blood and nerve supplies. the ischiocarvernosa(muscle) facilitate erection of the organ. Functions : ‡ Stimulate and elevate levels of sexual tension. which along with other vulvar secretion has a unique odor that may be sexually stimulating to the male. ‡ .

These bulbs lie in close opposition to the ischio-pubic rami and partially covered by the ischiocavernosus and constrictor vaginal muscles. It is perforated usually by 6 openings: urethra. wide and 0. The vestibular bulb is located beneath the mucous membrane of the vestibule on either side which are almond shaped aggregation of vein 3 ² 4 cm. vagina. .Vestibule ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ an almond ² shaped area that is enclosed by the labia minora laterally and extends from the clitoris to the fourchette antero-posteriorly.5 ² 1 cm. The posterior portion of the vestibule between the fourchette and the vaginal opening is called the fossa navicularis and is usually observed only in nulliparous women. thick. long. and bartholin·s gland (2) and paraurethral gland (2). These structures are liable to injury and rupture which may result in a vulvar hematoma or hemorrhage. 1 ² 2 cm.

It is situated in the middle of the vestibule and serves as an outlet for urine from the urinary bladder. pea ² sized glands located within the substances of the labia majora. Often. abcess and cyst formation. Usually. Vulvovaginal / bartholin·s gland ² pair of small. they are sites of infection. ± . They correspond to the bulbourethral of Cowper·s gland in male.± Urethral meatus / urethral orifice ² although not a true part. The gland secretes a small amount of clear. viscid mucus during sexual excitement. it is considered as part of the reproductive system because of its closeness and relationship to the vulva. the openings are not visible or palpable.

the opening is closed by the labia minora. The vagina has an abundantly vascular supply. ± . Its upper third is supplied by the vesicovaginal branches uterine arteries. In nulliparae. Vaginal orifice / introitus ² occupies the lower portion of the vestibule and varies considerably in size and shape. They produce a small amount of mucus and are especially susceptible to gonorrheal infection. but in parous.± Paraurethral / skene·s gland ² a pair of small glands lying on each side of the urethra. It is homologous to male prostate. Its middle third by the inferior vesical arteries. it may be exposed. Its lower third by the middle hemorrhoidal internal pudendal arteries.

The levator ani muscles form a broad muscular sling that originates from the posterior surface of the superior rami of the pubis. The pelvic and urogenital diaphragm provides most of the support of the perineum. Pelvic diaphragm ² consists of the levator ani muscles which is the principal muscle that is close to vagina and the coccygeus muscle posteriorly. . from the inner surface of the ischial spine and between the 2 sites from the obturator rami.Perineum ‡ ‡ ‡ the area extending from the fourchette to the anus.

. Their functions are as follows: play a role in sexual sensory function bladder control control perineal relaxation during labor and in expulsion of the fetus during birth.‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ 3 portion of levator ani muscle: iliococcygeus muscle pubococcygeus muscle puborectalis muscle The pubococcygeus and puborectalis constrict the vagina and rectum and form an efficient functional rectal sphincter.

The perineal body is about 4 cm. wide x 4 cm. fascia and ligament of the upper and lower pelvic diaphragm. deep and continuous with the septum between the rectum and vagina.‡ ‡ The perineal body is a wedge ² shaped between the vaginal and canal opening which serves as an anchor point for the muscles. . This tissue is flattened and stretched as the fetus moves through the birth canal.

INTERNAL ORGAN ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Vagina The Uterus Fallopian tubes The ovary .


Approximately. The vagina has an abundantly vascular supply. In nulliparae. the upper ¼ of the vagina is separated from the rectum by the rectouterine or cul-de-sac of Douglas. } Anteriorly. it may be exposed. Posteriorly between the lower portion and the rectum is the rectovaginal septum. but in parous. .Vagina } occupies the lower portion of the vestibule and varies considerably in size and shape. the opening is closed by the labia minora. the vagina is in contact with the bladder and urethra from which is separated by a connective tissue referred to vesicovaginal septum.

The areas around the cervix at the upper end of the vagina are called fornicles. The anterior and posterior vaginal walls commonly measure 6 ² 8 cm. anterior and posterior . right and left. and 7 ² 10 cm.} The vagina varies in length. in length. respectively.

Due to the presense of bacteria Doderlein which converts glyogen to lactic acid .0 ² 6. it is acidic from puberty to menopause. These are referred to the inner wall of vagina. It is smooth during labor and parturition.} The walls are lined with mucous membrane. or corrugated formation called rugae.0. A healthy vagina has pH of 4. It is not present before menarche and gradually become obliterated after repeated childbirth and menopause. which falls into folds.

The hymen can be broken through strenous physical activities or masturbation. After childbirth. the remnants of the hymen from several nodules of varying size called myrtiform caruncles . especially in multipara.} Functions: } serves as excretory duct of the uterus } female organ for copulation } part of birth canal } Hymen comprised mainly of connective tissue both elastic and collagen. Both surfaces are covered by stratified squamous epithelium.

Uterus .

} The posterior wall of the uterus is directly covered with peritoneum and the lower portion forms the anterior portion of the cul-de-sac of Douglas. } The cavity of the uterus is lined by the endometrium. } Uterus .² a hollow pear ² shaped organ partialy covered by peritoneum or serosa.

wide x 2.100 g. at term } a total volume averages about 4ml to 4000ml. implantation.5 cm. x 23 cm. to about 1. retention and nutrition of the conceptus which then expels during labor. and during pregnancy. } A non ² pregnant uterus has an approximately measurement of 7.5 cm thick. long x 5 cm. the uterus serves for reception. } It undergoes remarkable growth due to hypertrophy of muscle fibers.} During pregnancy. x 20 cm . it is approximately measures 30 cm. } Its size increases from 60 g.

} body or the corpus ² upper triangular portion which constitute the greater part. . } Fundus ² the upper. } Corpus . rounded prominence above the insertion of the fallopian tube.main portion encircling the intrauterine cavity. } Isthmus .known as the lower uterine segment during pregnancy. It is slightly constricted portion that joins the corpus to the cervix.

laterally. it is attached to the cardinal ligament and anterior. } External Os ² small round opening at the lower end of the cavity and endocervical canal . } Internal Os ² the narrowed opening between the uterine cavity and the endocervical canal. The cavity of the cervix is a narrow tube called cervical canal. The supravaginal segment on its posterior surface is covered by peritoneum. it is separated from the overlying bladder by loose connective tissue. It is divided by the attachment of the vagina into vaginal and supravaginal portion.} Cervix ² the lowermost portion of the uterus.

3. Serosal layer or perimetrium ² the outermost layer which is composed of peritoneum. Muscular uterine layer or myometrium The mucous membrane or endometrium .The corpus of the uterus is made up of 3 layers 1. 2.

These muscles fibers surround large old vessels and their contraction produces a hemostatic action and control of blood loss after placental separation.} } } A. The inner layer ² made up of circular fibers. Mucosal layer or endometrium ² the innermost layer which composed of a single layer of columnar epithelium. The middle layers ² thick and made up of interlacing muscle fibers in figure of 8 patterns. which forms sphincter } } } } . is made up of longitudinal muscles especially suited to expel the fetus during birth. Serosal layer or perimetrium ² the outermost layer which is composed of peritoneum. Muscular uterine layer or myometrium ² the middle layer. B. This is continuous with the muscle layer of the fallopian tube and with that of the vagina. Myometrium has 3 distinct layers of uterine ( smooth ) involuntary muscles : The outer layer ² found mainly over the fundus. This helps the organ present a unified reaction to various stimuli ² ovulation and orgasm C. glands and stroma.

thinner and more alkaline than at other times. } The .cervical mucosa has 3 functions: } provide lubrication for the vaginal canal } act as a bacteriostatic agent } provide an alkaline environment to shelter deposited sperm from the acidic vagina. } At ovulation. cervical mucus is clearer.

it is about 5 mm thick.5 mm thick.} From menarche to menopause. the endometrium undergoes changes and become decidua. near the end of the endometrial cycle. Just after the menstrual flow ends. When pregnancy occurs. During menstruation and following delivery. the compact surface and middle spongy layers slough off. . just before menstruation begins again. the endometrium is 0. the endometrium undergoes monthly degeneration and renewal in the absence of pregnancy.

3. Broad ligament Round ligament Cardinal / transverse cervical ligament / Mackenrodt Uterosacral ligament Ovarian ligament Infundibulopelvic ligament .Ligaments of uterus 1. 2. 6. 4. 5.

forms the infundibulopelvic ligament. lateral. . Each broad ligament consists of a fold of peritoneum and these superior. The broad ligament keeps the uterus centrally placed and provides stability within the pelvic cavity 1. The inner 2/3 of the superior margin forms the mesosalphinx to which the fallopian tubes are attached.Broad ligament ² comprised of 2 winglike structures that extend from the lateral margins of the uterus to the pelvic walls and thereby divide the pelvic cavity into anterior and posterior compartments. The outer third of the superior margin extends from the fimbriated end of the oviduct to the pelvic wall. inferior and medial margins.

pulling downward and forward. It serves as the chief uterine support and to upper part of the vagina thus to prevent uterine prolapse. Cardinal / transverse cervical ligament /Mackenrodt ² composed of the dense connective tissue that medially is united firmly to the supravaginal portion of the cervix. 3. and helps the broad ligament in keeping the uterus in place. It is capable of contraction on time of labor thereby.2. it steady the uterus. so that the presenting part of the fetus is forced into the cervix. . Round ligament ² composed of smooth muscle and connective tissue.

Uterosacral ligament ² a cordlike folds of peritoneum extending from the supravaginal cervical portion of the uterus.4. It provides support for the uterus at the level of the ischial spine. 6. They also contain sensory nerve fibers that contribute to dysmenorrhea. Ovarian ligament ² anchor the lower pole of the ovary to the cornua of the uterus. They composed of muscle fibers that allow the ligament to contract. . Infundibulopelvic ligament ² the suspensory ligament of the ovary. 5. It contains the ovarian vessels and nerves.

} Anteflexed ² slightly bend forward. } Anteverted ² the fundus is tilted forward. number of children borne.Position of uterus position of the uterus varies depending on a woman·s posture. } Retroverted ² tilted backward } Retroflexed ² bending backward } The . bladder and rectal fullness and even normal respiratory pattern. It is considered as the normal position.

.BLOOD SUPPLY } Uterine artery. It is divided into 2 main branches:} Cervicovaginal artery } Internal iliac artery } Ovarian artery² a direct branch of the aorta enters the broad ligament through the infundibulopelvic ligament. Nerve Supply The nerve supply is derived principally from the sympathetic nervous system but partly from the cerebrospinal and parasympathetic system.

Functions of uterus : }Organ for menstruation }Organ for gestation .

} Parts : } Interstitial } Isthmus } Ampulla } Infundibulum . in length.Fallopian tube or oviduct } are 2 trumphet shaped about 8 ² 14 cm. 3 ² 8mm in diameter covered by peritoneum and their lumen lined by mucous membrane.

Its funnel shaped opening encircles with fimbrae approximately 2 cm. in length.² the narrow portion contained in the muscular wall of the uterus approximately 1 cm. This fimbrae become swollen. It is the narrow portion of the tube adjoining the uterus approximately 2 cm. in length. } Infundibulum ² distal third. in length. } Isthmus ² proximal to the ampulla. long. almost erectile at ovulation. } Ampulla ² the outer 3rd portion where fertilization occurs and considered as longest portion with approximately 5 cm. } Interstitial .

} The wall of the fallopian tube is made up of 4 layers 1. Mucosal ² composed of ciliated and unciliated cells with the number of ciliated cells more abundant at the fimbria. 2. 3.responsible for the peristaltic movement of the tube. Subserous ( adventitial ) ² contains the blood and nerve supply Muscular . . Peritoneal (serous) ² covers the tubes. 4.

ectopic pregnancy or even sterility. Each fallopian tube is richly supplied with blood by the uterine and ovarian arteries.} Any malformation or malfunction of the tubes could result in infertility. } Functions : } site of fertilization } provide transport for the ovum from the ovary to the uterus } serve as a warm. moist. nourishing environment for the ovum or zygote .

The size varies among women and according to the stage of the menstrual cycle. The ovary is attached to the broad ligament by the mesovarium.5 ² 3 cm wide. 2 ² 5 cm long and 1 ² 1. ovarian size diminishes remarkably. } mesometrium }2 and mesosalpinx .5 cm thick. After menopause.Ovaries almond shaped organ situated in the upper part of the pelvic cavity. } Each ovary weighs 6 ² 10 g with 1.

it also allows easier spread of malignant cells from cancer of the ovaries. Scarring due to ovulation causes this pitting.also changed in appearance from smooth ²surfaced. } A single layer of cuboidal epithelial cells. } There is no peritoneal covering for the ovaries. } They . dull white organs to pitted gray organ. called the germinal epithelium covers the ovaries. Although this lack of covering assists the mature ovum to erupt.

dense and dull white and serves as protective layer. corpora lutea. graafian follicles. These also a counterpart to the testes of male organ. degenerated corpora lutea (corpora albicantia). } Cortex ² main functional part because it contains ova.of ovaries : } Tunica albuginea . } Medulla ² or central portion of the ovary is composed of loose connective tissue. } Functions : } ovulation } hormone production } Layers . } Both sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves supply the ovaries.

Breast .


breasts are bilateral glandular structures and in female it constitutes the accessory reproductive organ. There are numerous sebaceous glands present over it. } The . } Nipple is a muscular projection covered by pigmented skin.5 cm in diameter. } It lies in the subcutaneous tissue over the fascia covering the pectoralis major } The pigmented aeola is present about centre of the breast is about 2. It is vascular and erectile. } The shape of the breast varies in women and also in different periods of life } Extends from the 2nd to 6th rib in the midclavicular line.

} Each breast is divided into 15 ² 20 lobes by fibrous tissue septa } Each lobe drains to lactiferous duct Lobes Lobules Alveoli (15 ² 20) lactiferous ducts collecting ducts (10 ² 100) small ducts .

axillary artery and internal mammary artery . lactiferous duct dilates to form ampulla where the milk is stored } BLOOD SUPPLY.} Alveoli has acini cells which produces milk after parturition } Each Alveoli are surrounded by myoepithelial cells which contract and propel the milk out } Behind the nipple.e.. the main duct i.

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