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**c
compact, indurated natural material (composed of one
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or more minerals) that requires drilling, blasting, wedging, or

other Ơbrute forceơ to excavate.

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c . solid rock material which does not contain obvious structural features (discontinuities) and which usually can be sampled and tested in the lab. known as Ơintact rockơ.

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a complex system of natural rock material comprised of blocks of intact rock and structural features (discontinuities) that allow for interactions among the blocks. too large and complex to sample and test in the lab .

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ï c ð. Site topography and proposed cut-slope geometries (best to display cross-sections ð ð with no vertical exaggeration) . Geologic mapping of formations and units needed to generate surface-geology maps and cross-sections 2.

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including orientation. Engineering properties of rock discontinuities. Geologic mapping of formations and units needed to generate surface-geology maps and cross-sections 2. shear strength 5. Relevant rock-strength data for the rock substance 4. ï c ð. head distributions) . Groundwater regime (water table. piez. Site topography and proposed cut-slope geometries (best to display cross-sections ð ð with no vertical exaggeration) 3. geometry.

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ã = cross-sectional area of the cylindrical specimen = (d2/4 . tsm) where Pf = ultimate failure load (at rupture). The length-to-diameter ratio (L/d) typically ranges between 2 and 3. ã cylinder of rock taken from drill-core is cut square on the ends. psf. MPa. then the ends are ground smooth. and the specimen loaded to failure in a testing machine. UCS = Pf / ã (stress units of psi.

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5 whereby the core piece is loaded perpendicular to the core axis between cone-shaped platens until failure occurs and the core is Ơsplitơ. ± The point load test is conducted on a piece of drill core (with ragged ends) with L/d > ð. Pg = instrument gage pressure at specimen failure. and ãr = cross-sectional area of instrument loading ram. . The core diameter and instrument gage pressure at failure are recorded. The Point Load Index then is given by PtL = Pg(ãr) / d2 where d= core diameter.

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ð5d) for d measured in units of mm For typical core diameters (4 ð mm). use the approximation UCS ü 23(PtL) . _ UCS ü PtL(ð4 + 0.

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Scanline mapping detailed mapping of individual discontin- uities that intersect a designated mapping line or linear Ơwindowơ .6 Field mapping methods to obtain information on discontinuity orientations. roughness. length. etc. . spacing.

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spacing. etc. length.6 Field mapping methods to obtain information on discontinuity orientations. roughness. Scanline mapping detailed mapping of individual discontin- uities that intersect a designated mapping line or linear Ơwindowơ Fracture-Set mapping (Cell mapping) mapping of fracture- set properties observed within user-defined cells on the rock exposure . .

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length. . etc. fracture spacings.6 Field mapping methods to obtain information on discontinuity orientations. roughness . spacing. roughness. Scanline mapping detailed mapping of individual discontin- uities that intersect a designated mapping line or linear Ơwindowơ Fracture-Set mapping (Cell mapping) mapping of fracture- set properties observed within user-defined cells on the rock exposure Oriented core logging mapping of oriented drill core to obtain orientations.

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ã cluster of such poles then represents a fracture set having Ơplanesơ in similar orientations. Ú . The orientations of planar discontinuities are best displayed and evaluated by plotting their poles (normals) on lower- hemisphere stereographic projections (known as Ơstereonet plotsơ).

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Thus. . and poles near the outer edge of the stereonet are for steeply dipping fractures. a cluster of fracture poles in the upper-right portion of the lower-hemisphere stereonet plot indicates a fracture set with planes dipping toward the southwest. Poles near the center of the stereonet are for shallow-dipping (fairly flat) fractures.

r r ° 6.

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c = cohesion (generally equal to zero or a very small value for clean rock fractures). È = friction angle. nƞ = effective normal stress acting on the discontinuity. ð. tanÈ) = c + nƞ tanÈ where = shear strength along the discontinuity. Linear Mohr-Coulomb failure envelope with y-intercept (known as cohesion) and slope (known as the coefficient of friction. .

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this model reduces to a linear model with the parameter a = tanÈ. power-curve model = c + a(nƞ )b where = shear strength along the discontinuity. c = power-curve parameters. b. Therefore. General nonlinear. this general model also covers the special case of the linear model.0. nƞ = effective normal stress acting on the discontinuity. a. . Note that when b = ð. 2.

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JRC model of shear strength (nonlinear model) = nƞ · tan[(JRC)logð0(JCS/nƞ) + Èb] where = shear strength along the discontinuity. smooth surfaces). 3. values 2 to ). JCS = joint-wall compressive strength (UCS of intact rock). JRC = joint roughness coefficient (typ. nƞ = effective normal stress acting on the discontinuity. .e. Èb = base friction angle (i.. for saw-cut.

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JCS. Back-analysis of a rock-slope failure with well- defined geometry and groundwater conditions e set the FOS equal to ð. 4. e can follow the same approach with the JRC model of shear strength (select appropriate values of Èb.0.0). . and JRC that give FOS = ð. and back-calculate the corresponding combinations of È and waviness that seem appropriate (linear shear-strength model with zero cohesion).

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. data are collected to record the shear load as a function of the applied normal load and the shear displacement. . shear displacement for each applied normal load provides the basis for describing the shear strength of the specimen. 6 r 6 Xuring the laboratory direct-shear test of a natural rock joint. The graph of shear load vs.

r r .

. For circular or rectangular specimens. a reference table must be constructed that displays the contact area as a function of shear displacement. 6 r 6 The contact area in shear when the specimen attains either the peak shear load or the residual shear load is needed to calculate the corresponding normal stress and shear stress (strength) for any particular graph trace (trial). For irregularly shaped specimens. . this contact area can be calculated directly. once the pertinent shear displacement is identified.

as shown in the typical plots of shear strength on the overheads . . 6 r 6 ã least-squares regression program (such as Taussm or the Mathcad sheet entitled ƠTauRegrơ) then provides the linear and power models for shear strength.

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00 x RQX) B = .45exp(.0ð3 x RQX) Then: cm = cr (B2) + cf (ð-B2) in psi Èm = Èr (ã2) + Èf (ð-ã2) in deg.ðexp(. ð. . Exponential RQX Method Required input: ãverage RQX (Rock Quality Xesignation) of the rock mass (%) Estimated c (psi) and È for intact rock Estimated c (psi) and È for natural fractures Intermediate factors (weights): ã = .

2.uniaxial compressive strength of intact rock X .estimated rock-mass disturbance factor (0 for insitu rock or for carefully designed blasting programs.Geological Strength Index (see handout) Ci .Hoek-Brown constant (a material constant ranging from about 4 to 33) GSI . ð for poor blasting practices with considerable overbreak) See Mathcad calculation sheet for examples. . Hoek-Brown Rock Mass Strength Model Required input: mi .

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