Syed Sohaib Hussnain Kazmi Asad Lakhani (TS4B

)

What is a Defect ?
A Fabric Defect is any abnormality in the Fabric that hinders its acceptability by the consumer...

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What is a Defect Free Fabric
y A Fabric that exhibits a consistent Performance

Within the boundaries of human use & human view y A Fabric that exhibits a consistent Appearance Within the human sight boundaries

y www.cottoninc.com

Types of Defects
y Avoidable and unavoidable y Major and minor y Mendable and unmendable

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What are the Factors that could lead to Fabric Defects?
y Machine related Factors y Material related factors y Handling

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Machine related factors
y Failure of spinning preparation to eliminate or y y y y

minimize short Long -term variation Failure of opening and cleaning machines to completely Eliminate contaminants and trash particles Failure of the mixing machinery to provide a homogenous blend

y www.cottoninc.com

Machine related factors
y Excessive machine stops particularly during spinning y Excessive ends piecing during spinning preparation y Poor maintenance and housekeeping y Weaving-related defects y Knitting-related defects y Dyeing and Finishing-related defects

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Material related factors
y Fibres contaminants y Excessive neps and seed coat fragments y Excessive short fibres content y Excessive trash content y High variability between and within-mix

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Material related factors
y Clusters of unfavorable fiber characteristics y Weight variation y Twist variation y Excessive Hairines

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Two types of material will be discussed along with their defects y Woven fabric defects y Knitted fabric defects

Woven fabric defects
y Box mark y Broken pattern y Broken pick y Crackes y Cut weft y Float stitches y Fuzzy y www.apparelsearch.com

Woven fabric defects
y Hand pick y Loose warp end y Hanging thread y Missing end y Reed mark y Shuttle mark y Sticker y Stain y Defective selvedge

Woven fabric defects
BOX MARK y A width wise line showing stained or injured weft due to the rubbing of shuttle when rebound. BROKEN PATTERN y This defect may be due to wrong drawing of thread, inserting a pick in the wrong shed, incorrect lifting of warp thread. BROKEN PICK y A pick missing from a portion of the width of the fabric due to rough shuttle-eyes which snag the weft

Woven fabric defects
CUT WEFT y A pinhole in the finished fabric caused by the use of weak weft with a strong warp FLOATS STITCHES y A place in the fabric where warp and weft yarns escape the required interlacement due to entanglement of warp threads. FUZZY y Fibrous appearance of the cloth due to the presence of abraded yarns

Woven fabric defects
LOOSE WARP ENDS y Loose warp ends which appear like a reed mark are caused by loose ends which start to feed in just a trifle faster than the rest of the warp. HANGING THREADS y Ends loose on the face of the fabric because the short and long ends of the fabric are not removed by the weaver. STAINS y Stains such as grease, rust etc occur due to poor material handling Misc.

Knitted fabric defects
y Pilling effect y Weak yarn y Sudden snag y Press off y Cloudy fabric y Contamination y Motes y Nep y Mied yarn

Knitted fabric defects
y Slub y Soiled yarn y Thick & thin yarn y Thin end y Holes or cracks in fabric y Vertical line y Drop stitches y Needle line y Oil stains

Knitted fabric defects
Pilling effect y Due to short fibers in the yarn short fibers balls are formed on the fabric Weak yarn y Logically, a stronger fiber produces a strong yarn than a weak yarn e.g. polyester and nylon etc Sudden Snag y Short fibers in the yarn accumulates the eye pot passage of the yarn which suddenly comes in the form of small balls and stuck in the feeder and hence result in the yarn breakage.

Knitted fabric defects
Cloudy Appearance y Uneven yarn y Variation in yarn tension y Improper yarn winding off the cones Mied yarns y Yarns of varying counts or lots contained within the same fabric Motes y Foreign vegetable matters

Shade variation
y A noticeable difference in color within the same piece

or from piece to piece within a given lot

Analysis of fabric defects
y The methods employed for analysis of fabric

defects are y First piece inspection y Grey inspection y Point rate system

First piece Inspection
y The first piece of the newly gated

loom is taken to the grey flooding departments and is inspected for design verifications. y The report is immediately sent to the weaving department and if there is any defect the necessary changes are made

Grey Inspection
y Fabrics are tested in grey state after y weaving and then after finishing

processes. y In the grey inspection the fabric defects are identified and mended if they are mendable. y In the final folding the fabric defects are examined and graded into the following six categories depending upon severity of faults

Grey Inspection
y Fresh or first quality: fabric with no major or objectionable faults. y Shorter length: piece of cloth having shorter length(less than 50 cm). y Seconds: cloth having minor defects. y Fents : The cut pieces of cloths measuring 90cm and more but less than 150 cm in length are graded as fents. y Rags : The cut pieces of cloths larger than 25cm but less than 90 cm are regarded as rags. y Chindies : These are the cloths having length of 25 cm or less.

Point rate system
The two most commonly used point rate systems are y 4-point rate system y 10-point rate system

point system
y Given by American standard ASTM, the

test method describes a procedure to establish a numerical designation for grading of fabrics from a visual inspection. y This system does not establish a quality y Level for a given product, but rather provides a means of defining defects according to their severity by assigning demerit point values.

point system
y Points to be remembered while using 4-point system are: y No running yard shall be penalized more than 4 points for warp and weft defects. y For Fabric width exceeding 64"-66", Maximum penalty points can be increased above 4 per linear yard in proportion to the width. y Defects appearing within one inch of either edge shall be disregarded. y Any hole other than a pin hole shall be considered a major defect and assigned 4points for penalty

10 point system
y In this system the cloth defects are given demerits y y y y

points range from 1-10 depending upon the variety of defects Points to be taken care for 10-point grading are: Not one metre of cloth is penalized more than 10 points even the defect is a combination of warp and weft threads. Any defect occurring repeatedly throughout is marked as second.

Grading in 10 point system
Grading of cloth, that is first and second quality depends upon the number of penalty points per piece.
y Cloth is inspected on the face side only y Unless specified