Group members: 1) Haji 2) Ali 3) Ahmad 4) Adeel 5) Jawad 6) Babar 7) Muneeb 8) GM 9) Umer



An electric motor is an electromechanical device that converts electrical energy to mechanical energy. The mechanical energy can be used to perform work such as rotating a pump impeller, fan, blower, driving a compressor, lifting materials etc.



TYPES OF AC MOTORS       Electrical current reverses direction Two parts: stator and rotor Stator: stationary electrical component Rotor: rotates the motor shaft Speed difficult to control Two types: ± ± Synchronous motor Induction motor 4 .

AC MOTOR: INDUCTION MOTOR  Most common motors in industry Advantages are: ± ± ± ± ±  Simple design Inexpensive High power to weight ratio Easy to maintain Direct connection to AC power source 5 .

cylindrical core of stacked laminations.COMPONENTS OF INDUCTION MOTOR  A 3-phase induction motor has two main parts: ‡ A stator ± consisting of a steel frame that supports a hollow. Slots on the internal circumference of the stator house the stator winding. 6 . with rotor slots for the rotor winding. ‡ A rotor ± also composed of punched laminations.


which produce a squirrelcage induction motor (most common) Conventional 3-phase windings made of insulated wire. which produce a wound-rotor induction motor (special characteristics)   8 .COMPONENTS OF INDUCTION MOTOR contd«  There are two-types of rotor windings: Squirrel-cage windings.

the bars and end-rings are diecast in aluminium to form an integral block. In small motors. slightly longer than the rotor. which are pushed into the slots. The ends are welded to copper end rings. so that all the bars are short circuited.Induction Motor: Squirrel cage rotor    Squirrel cage rotor consists of copper bars. 9 .

The external resistors are mainly used during start-up ±under normal running conditions the windings short circuited externally.Induction Motor: Wound Rotor  A wound rotor has a 3-phase winding. The rotor winding terminals are connected to three slip rings which turn with the rotor. similar to the stator winding.   10 . The slip rings/brushes allow external resistors to be connected in series with the winding.

Wound Rotor & its connections 11 .


Consider a series of conductors (length L) whose extremities are shorted by bars A and B.Induction Motor: Operating Principle  Operation of 3-phase induction motors is based upon the application of Faraday¶s Law and the Lorentz Force on a conductor. A permanent magnet moves at a speed v. so that its magnetic field sweeps across the conductors.  13 .

The force always acts in a direction to drag the conductor along with the magnetic field. A voltage E = BLv is induced in each conductor while it is being cut by the flux (Faraday¶s Law) 2. they experience a mechanical force (Lorentz force). Since the current-carrying conductors lie in a magnetic field. and place it in a rotating magnetic field ± an induction motor is formed! 14 . Now close the ladder upon itself to form a squirrel cage.Operating Principle Contd«      The following sequence of events takes place: 1. 4. 3. The induced voltage produces currents which circulate in a loop around the conductors (through the bars).

BN. CN. Ib and Ic will flow in the windings. The windings are mechanically spaced at 120° from each other. AC currents Ia.CONSTRUCTION Induction Motor: Rotating Field     Consider a simple stator with 6 salient poles .which creates a flux across the hollow interior of the stator.   15 . The 3 fluxes combine to produce a magnetic field that rotates at the same frequency as the supply. Each winding produces its own MMF. The windings are connected to a 3-phase source. but will be displaced in time by 120°.windings AN.

    16 . Spreading the coil in this manner creates a sinusoidal flux distribution per pole. Also.Induction Motor: Stator Winding  In practice. The staggered coils are connected in series to form a phase group. instead of a single coil per pole. induction motors have internal diameters that are smooth. instead of having salient poles. which improves performance and makes the motor less noisy. In this case. many coils are lodged in adjacent slots. each pole covers 180° of the inner circumference of the rotor (pole pitch = 180°).

‡ The slip is 100% for locked rotor. N = rotor speed (rpm) ‡ At no-load.    17 . the slip for large motors rarely exceeds 0.5%. s = (Ns ± N)/Ns Where s = slip. Ns = synchronous speed (rpm).1%). the slip is nearly zero (<0. For small motors at full load. it rarely exceeds 5%. known as the slip. ‡ At full load.INDUCTION MOTOR : SLIP  The difference between the synchronous speed and rotor speed can be expressed as a percentage of synchronous speed.

Induction Motor: Frequency induced in the rotor    The frequency induced in the rotor depends on the slip: fR= s f fR = frequency of voltage and current in the rotor f = frequency of the supply and stator field s = slip 18 .

Induction Motor: Active Power Flow  Efficiency ± by definition. is the ratio of output / input power: =PL / Pe Rotor copper losses: PJr = s Pr Mechanical power: Pm = ( 1-s)Pr Motor torque: Tm = 30Pr Ns Where: Pe = active power to stator Pr = active power supplied to rotor PL = Shaft Power      19 .

Energy Efficiency Opportunities      Reduce intrinsic motor losses Efficiency 3-7% higher Wide range of ratings More expensive but rapid payback Best to replace when existing motors fail 20 .

which reduces losses due to lower operating flux densities. Stator I2R Use of more copper & larger conductors increases cross sectional area of stator windings. lowering conductor resistance (R) & losses due to current flow (I) 4 Friction & Winding 5. Fixed loss (iron) Efficiency Improvement Use of thinner gauge.Use Energy Efficient Motors Power Loss Area 1. This lower resistance (R) of the windings & reduces losses due to current flow (I) 3 Rotor I2R Use of larger rotor conductor bars increases size of cross section. Longer core adds more steel to the design. lower loss core steel reduces eddy current losses. 2. Stray Load Loss Use of low loss fan design reduces losses due to air movement Use of optimized design & strict quality control procedures minimizes stray load losses 21 .


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