The Factories Act, 1948

Object of the Act: The object of this Act is, to secure health, safety, welfare, proper working hours, leave and other benefits for workers employed in factories. General Scheme of the Act: The Act is divided into 11 chapters and in contains one schedule. Chapter I: It deals with preliminary information like the title, extent, commencement of the Act; approval of licensing and registration of factories (Sec 1-7) Chapter II: It deals with inspecting staff (Sec 8-10) Chapter III: It deals with health of the workers like cleanliness, disposal of waste, ventilation, dust and fume, lighting, drinking water, latrines, urinals etc., (Sec 11-20) Chapter IV: It deals with safety of workers in a factory like fencing of machinery, employment of young persons on dangerous machines, pressure plans, precautions in case of fire, maintenance of building, safety officers etc., (Sec 21-41) Chapter V: It relates to welfare of workers like facilities for washing, drying and storing clothes, first aid appliances, canteen, shelters, rest rooms, crèches, etc., (Sec 42-50)

power to require medical examinations etc. protection to persons acting under the act etc.. (Sec 85-91A) Chapter X: It deals with penalties and procedures (Sec 91-106) Chapter XI: It deals with supplemental issues like appeals. wages for extra work. (Sec 107-120) It also includes one schedule which gives the list of notifiable diseases. wages during leave period. .. dangerous operation. restriction on double employment etc. obligations of workers.Chapter VI: It deals with working hours of adults like weakly hours. notice of certain accidents and diseases. weakly holidays. compensatory holidays. daily hours. etc. and includes annual leave with wages. (Sec 67-77) Chapter VIII: It deal with annual leave and wages. payment in advance in certain cases. night shift.. returns. display and service of notices.. working hours for children.. fitness. (Sec 78-84) Chapter IX: It deals with special provisions relating to power to apply the act to certain premises. mode of recovery of unpaid wages etc. publication of rules. intervals for rest. (Sec 51-66) Chapter VII: It provides for various restrictions on employment of young persons and other matters like.

instruction. by paying the prescribed license and registration fee. training and supervision to ensure safety. Licensing and Registration of Factories (Sec 6): Every employer has to obtain the permission in writing of the State Government for the site on which a factory is to be situated and for the construction or extension of any factory. 3. 2. appeal to the central government. Maintain. within 30 days. storage and transport of articles and substances. No license shall be granted or renewed unless notice has been given by occupier. it shall be assumed that permission has been granted. monitor that working environment is safe without risks to health. Ensure safety and absence of risks to health in use. He is required to get the factory registered and obtain a license for operating it. Maintenance of plant and system of work in factory are safe. If the government refuses to grant permission to the site. the applicant may. Maintenance of all places of work in the factory in safe condition. . 4. If an application has been sent and no order is communicated within 3 months.Approval. General duties of Occupier: 1. Provide information. 5. handling. without risks to health.

is used. record or document which he may consider necessary in respect of any offence under this Act. Disposal of Wastes and effluents (Sec12): As regard the disposal of wastes and effluents. acquire any document relating to the factory. it is required that every factory shall be kept clean and free from effluvia (outflow of bad gasses) arising from any drain or other nuisance. He may enter any place which is used or which he has reason to believe. 5. He may inquire into any accidents or dangerous occupations. the state governments are required to make rules for effective arrangements for the treatment and disposal of wastes. whether resulting in bodily injury and take any on the spot statement of any person which he may consider necessary for the purpose of the Act. . Confiscate any register.Powers of Inspectors (Sec 9): Under Sec 8(1). the State Govt. plants and machinery. Provisions regarding health (Secs 11 to 20): 1. 2. 3. He may examine the premises. is required to appoint an inspector for the enforcement of the Act. 2. as a factory. Exercise any other power as may be prescribed. The Chief Inspector enjoys the following powers: 1. Cleanliness (Sec 11): Under the Act. 4.

exhaust appliance should be installed. Artificial Humidification (Sec 15): The Act provides that in respect of all factories. 6. 5. Temperature shall be kept at a level comfortable to workers.9 cubic meters and 4. Arrangement of drinking water (Sec 18): In every factory. c. 4.. Dust and Fumes (Sec 14): If necessary. Over Crowding (Sec 16): No room in any factory shall be over crowded to the extent of its being injurious to the health of the workers.. the state government may make some rules like securing adequate ventilation and cooling of the air in work rooms etc. (one gallon per worker per day) .2 cubic meters in new factories per worker) 7. Ventilation and Temperature (Sec 13): a. effective arrangements are to be made to provide and maintain at suitable points a sufficient supply of drinking water. 8. Such points should be situated more than 6 meters away from bathrooms and washing places. they shall be provided sufficient and suitable lighting. Lighting (Sec 17): In every part of a factory where workers are working or passing.3. natural or artificial. Adequate ventilation for the circulation of fresh air. if humidity is artificially created. (old factories ± 9. The walls and roofs shall be of such material as to keep a temperature low. b.

Provisions regarding safety (Secs 21 to 41): 1. (One urinal for every 50 men upto 500 and one urinal for every 25 women) 10. Work on or near Machinery in motion (Sec 22) 3. lifting machines etc (Sec 28 & 29) 9. Openings in Floors. Stairs and Means of Access (Sec 32) 12. Fencing of Machinery (Sec 21) 2. of spittoons should be provided at convenient places in every factory and these should be maintained in a clean hygienic condition. Conservancy arrangements (Sec 19): Separate enclosed arrangements should be made for male and female workers in regard to conservancy services. Striking gear and devices of for cutting of power (Sec 24) 5. Prohibition of employment of women and children near cotton openers (Sec 27) 8. Spittoons (Sec 20): Sufficient no. lifts. etc. (Sec 33) . Hoists. Employment of young persons on dangerous machines (Sec 23) 4. Casing of new machine (Sec 26) 7. Revolving Machinery (Sec 30) 10. Floors. Sumps. Pits. Pressure Plant (Sec 31) 11.9. Self acting machine (Sec 25) 6.

(Sec 37) 18. Provisions Regarding Welfare of Workers: The Act has laid down elaborate provisions for the welfare of workers. Washing Facilities (Sec 42) 2. Protection of Eyes (Sec 35) 15. Excessive Weights (Sec 34) 14.13. First Aid Appliance (Sec 45) . Precautions regarding the use of Portable Electric Light (Sec 36A) 17. Facilities for Storing and Drying Clothing (Sec 43) 3. Precaution in Case of Fire (Sec 38) 19. Maintenance of Buildings (Sec 40A) 22. Facilities for Sitting (Sec 44) 4. Gas etc. The various provisions detailed out in the Act are as under: 1. Explosive or Inflammable Dust. Power to Make Rules: The State Government has the power to make rules to supplement the provisions relating to safety contained in the Act. Power to Require Specifications of Defective Parts of Tests of Stability (Sec 39) 20. Precautions against Dangerous Fumes (Sec 36) 16. Safety to Buildings and Machinery (Sec 40) 21. Safety Officers (Sec 40B) 23.

Rest Room and Lunch-Rooms Canteens (Sec 47) 7. Overlapping of Shifts (Sec 58) 6. Night Shifts (Sec 57) 5. Double Employment (Sec 60) 8. Weekly Holidays (Sec 52) 3. Canteens (Sec 46) 6. Power to Make Rules in Connection with Welfare Activities (Sec 50) Provisions Regarding Working Hours and Holidays for Adults: The Act makes no distinction between µperennial¶ a µnon-perennial¶ factories and as such the same hours of work are kept for all factories. Compensatory Holidays (Sec 53) 4. Hours of Work (Sec 51) 2. Register of Adult Workers (Sec 62) . Shelter. Notice of Periods of Work for Adults (Sec 61) 9. Creches (Sec 48) 8. 1. Welfare Officers (Sec 49) 9. Extra Wages for Overtime (Sec 59) 7.5.

Prohibitions of Employment of Young Children (Sec 67) 2. Creches: f. Hours of Work: b. Effect of Certificate of Fitness Granted to Adolescent (Sec 70) 5. 1. Hours of Work to Correspond with Notice Under Section 72 and Register under Section 73 (Sec 74) . Dangers Operations: Employment of Young Persons: Various restrictions have been put on the employment of young persons on the ground of State¶s responsibility for the health of future citizens. Notice of Period of Work for Children (Sec 72) 7. Work on or near Machinery in Motion: c.Employment of Women (Sec 66): Certain restrictions have been placed under the Act on the employment of women. Employment of and Working Hours of Children (Sec 71) 6. Prohibition of Employment of Women near Cotton Openers: d. Certificate of Fitness (Sec 69) 4. Certificate of Fitness (Sec 68) 3. Excessive Weights: e. For example: a.

Exemption of Public Institutions (Sec 86) 5. Noticeable Accidents (Sec 88) . Dangerous Manufacturing Process or Operations (Sec 87) 6. Power to Require Medical Examination (Sec 75) 9.8. Annual Leave with Wages (Sec 79) 2. Power to Make Rules (Sec 83) Special Provisions 1. Payment in Advance in Certain Cases (Sec 81) 4. Exemption During Public Emergency (Sec 5) 3. Mode of Recovery of Unpaid Wages (Sec 82) 5. Power to Make Rules (Sec 76) Annual Leave with Wages 1. Department as Factories (Sec 4) 2. Wages During the Leave Period (Sec 80) 3. Power to Apply the Act to Certain Premises (Sec 85) 4.

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