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A computer is a digital electronic device
that accepts data in one form and
processes it to produce data in another
form.
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A computer is a device that works under a
control of a set of instructions (stored
programs), for storing and processing data
to produce information.
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ëomputers can be classified according to


their usage, power and size
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ëomputers with a microprocessor
Various integrated circuits and elements of
those huge computers are replaces by a
single integrated circuit called a ³chip´.
Examples:
Desktop computers, Video game consoles,
Laptops, palmtops, tablet Pës, and other
embedded computers are microcomputers.

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A computer system consists of four basic


components
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½he parts that can be seen and touched.

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Œs an organized set of instructions to
perform specific tasks.

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ëontrol
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Arithmetic
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Logic Unit

Registers
Peripheral
Memory Storage
Devices

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Œt performs the actual   $of data


and manages all other devices.
½he procedure that transforms raw data
into useful information is called
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Data Processing Œnformation

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microprocessor consists of:
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 ëontrol Unit (ëU)
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Arithmetic and Logic Unit (ALU)
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Registers

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Œt coordinates and controls all hardware operations,


main memory and the processor it self.

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Œt carries out the basic
Arithmetic perations:
Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication and division
Logical perations:
AD, R,  ½

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Registers store the data and instructions
 
for the fast access of the ALU.
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Œn a typical microcomputer the memory can be
divided into two parts:

*)a RAM: Random Access Memory

*0a R M: Read nly Memory

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Œnput devices accept data and instructions from
the user or from another computer system.
Ex: keyboard, mouse ...

utput devices return processed data back to


the user or to another computer system.
Ex: printer, monitor «

ëommunication devices perform both input and


output operations allowing computers to share
information.
Ex: modems and network interface cards «
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ëonvert the input (Data or Œnstruction) to
the computer understandable format
(Electronic Signal).


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Monitors
Multimedia Projectors
Sound Systems

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Printers
Plotters

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Modems

etwork ëards

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Used to communicate over telephone lines

½elephone line

Digital Digital
ëomputer signal ëomputer
signal
1 Modem 1 Modem 2 2

Analog signal

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Œnterface between the computer and the
network.

 


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Storage devices store data permanently
(hold data, even when the computer is
turned off)
ëapacity is measured in bytes to terabytes
½here are three types of storage devices
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Gard disks

Diskettes (Floppy diskettes / Zip diskettes)

Magnetic tapes

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ëompact Disc Read- nly Memory
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ëD-Recordable (ëD-R)
ëD-Rewritable (ëD-RW)

Digital Video Disc Read- nly Memory /


Digital Versatile Disc Read- nly Memory
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Flash Memory (Memory Stick, Pen Drives, ½humb
Drives, USB Keys )
Use an electronic chip to store data
ëapacity : 64MBs ± 256 GBs

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A computer is a digital electronic
device that accepts data in one form
and processes it to produce data in
another form.

A computer is a device that works


under a control of a set of instructions
(stored programs), for storing and
processing data to produce information.

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Super ëomputers
Mainframes
Minicomputers
Microcomputers

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Desktop computers
Laptop computers
Palmtop computers
Game consoles
Embedded computer systems

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Gardware
Software
Data
Users

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½he parts of a computer system that can
be touched.

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A of set of  $ consists of
organized set of instructions to perform
specific tasks.

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ëontrol
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Arithmetic
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Registers
Peripheral
Memory Storage
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  At the basic level, a
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microprocessor consists
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ëontrol Unit (ëU)


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Arithmetic and Logic Unit
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Registers

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RAM - Random Access Memory

R M - Read nly Memory

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Because, when the power is  the
content stored in the RAM is lost.

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accept data and instructions from the
user or from another computer system.

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return processed data back to the user
or to another computer system.

  
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perform both input and output operations
allowing computers to share information.
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Monitors
Multimedia Projectors
Sound Systems

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Printers
Plotters
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Storage devices are used to store


data permanently.

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Gard disks, Floppy diskettes, Zip diskettes,
Magnetic ½apes

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ëD, DVD, Blu-Ray Discs

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Flash drives, Memory cards
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