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MAJOR CONCEPTS and DEFINITIONS
MAJOR CONCEPTS and DEFINITIONS
The quality of being confident in stating one·s opinions or needs.
MAJOR CONCEPTS and DEFINITIONS TRANSACTIONAL ANALYSIS A technique for analyzing discussions. .
MAJOR CONCEPTS and DEFINITIONS LIFE POSITIONS An individuals assumption about self in relation to others. .
. Acted on.MAJOR CONCEPTS and DEFINITIONS PASSIVE Inactive.
.MAJOR CONCEPTS and DEFINITIONS NEGATIVE ASSERTION Accepting negative aspects about oneself.
MAJOR CONCEPTS and DEFINITIONS
Active, Bold, Pushy.
MAJOR CONCEPTS and DEFINITIONS
A technique involving repeating what one wants.
MAJOR CONCEPTS and DEFINITIONS
Agreeing with the truth.
.MAJOR CONCEPTS and DEFINITIONS NEGATIVE INQUIRY Asking for more information about oneself.
BARRIERS TO ASSERTIVENESS .
SEX ROLE SOCIALIZATION MEN Aggressive Competitive Independent Objective Analytical Task Oriented Confident Self Disciplined and Emotionally controlled WOMEN Passive Dependent Subjective Intuitive Empathetic Sensitive Interpersonally Oriented Weak Inconsistent and Emotionally Unstable .1.
NURSING SOCIALIZATION PROCESS AND THE NATURE OF NURSING VALUES TAUGHT 1.2. Humility 4. Service . Sacrifice 3.Subservience 2.
3. FEMALE-MALE ROLE COMPETITION and FEMALEFEMALEFEMALE-FEMALE RELATIONSHIP PROBLEMS MEN are more competitive with women than other men WOMEN are more competitive with women than with men QUEEN BEE and TRASHING SYNDROME emerge .
What is QUEEN BEE BEE? .
enjoys being told that she is different from most women. and feels superior to other women.QUEEN BEE The queen bee identifies with men. .
What is TRASHING SYNDROME? SYNDROME .
.TRASHING SYNDROME Trashing is a form of character assassination that divides women against one another.
trashing is done to destroy. The trasher may give misinformation to others about what the victim does and thinks or tell her lies about what others think of her.TRASHING SYNDROME Rather than exposing disagreements to resolve differences. .
trashing is being manipulative. dishonest and destructive. .TRASHING SYNDROME Whatever method is used.
TRANSACTIONAL ANALYSIS .
TRANSACTIONAL ANALYSIS Transactional Analysis is a technique that can be used by nurses for analyzing and understanding behaviors. Developed by Eric Berne and popularized by Thomas Harris. Muriel James and Dorothy Jongeward. .
Ego 3.Parent 2.Adult . Super Ego 1.TRANSACTIONAL ANALYSIS Transactional Analysis sprung from: Freud·s elements Berne·s ego states of the psyche 1. Id 2.Child 3.
EGO STATES Parent. Child and Adult .
1.E. rules. 2 major types of P. opinions. Nurturing Parent 2.S. Critical Parent . regulations and social conscience.PARENT EGO STATE Controls and is the source of values.
. It is the ´Idµ ego state where strong feelings are triggered by immediate experiences.CHILD EGO STATE Dominated by emotions and is the feeling state.
1. Natural (Happy) 2.E. Trusting.CHILD EGO STATE 2 major types of C. Adventurous Suppressed.S. May experience anger. fear or conformity . Joyful. rebellion. Adapted (Destructive) Spontaneous.
compares alternatives. thinking and problem solving state.ADULT EGO STATE Monitors one·s behavior and is the unemotional. . Collects info. makes decisions and plans and tests reality. sets goals.
Every individual exhibits behavior from the 3 ego states at different times. .
.A healthy individual maintains a balance among them.
. some people are dominated by one or two ego states and are likely to create problems for managers and colleagues.Unfortunately.
A transaction or an observation unit is an exchange between people that consists of complimentary or crossed types. . Child or Adult.TRANSACTIONS Interaction among people as they participate as Parent.
TRANSACTIONS COMPLEMENTARY TRANSACTION CROSSED TRANSACTION P A C P A C P A C P A C .
TRANSACTIONS ADULT-to-ADULT COMPLEMENTARY P A C P A C .
TRANSACTIONS PARENT-to-PARENT COMPLEMENTARY P A C P A C .
TRANSACTIONS CHILD-to-CHILD COMPLEMENTARY P A C P A C .
TRANSACTIONS PARENT-to-CHILD COMPLEMENTARY P A C P A C .
Pastimes . Rituals (Procedures) 2.TRANSACTIONS Transactions usually proceed in a programmed series as 1.
What are RITUALS? RITUALS
Rituals are series of simple complementary transactions that provide mutual stroking with no real commitment.
Greeting rituals like Hi! How are you? I am fine! are used often where the form has become more important than the content.
.RITUALS The person that goes from office to office participating in rituals may get promoted because he or she is a ´good guyµ.
.RITUALS People who work hard to develop themselves may become apathetic when they realize socializing is more effective for obtaining promotions than hard work.
What are PASTIMES PASTIMES? .
PASTIMES Pastimes are pleasant ways to pass time with others to learn if you have enough in common to warrant further interaction. .
costs.PASTIMES Common small talk includes topics such as cooking. sports. mutual acquaintances and recreation. . fashion.
PASTIMES QUESTION: When do pastimes become a problem for the organization? ANSWER: When PASTIMES become an alternative to WORK .
GAME PLAYING .
Eric Berne in Games People Play . predictable outcome.µ .GAME PLAYING ´A game is an ongoing series of complementary ulterior transactions progressing to a well defined.
GAME PLAYING Games have a high stroke or recognition potential but the pay off is usually negative. .
make mistakes.GAME PLAYING While playing games. . people dwell on their own sorrows and inadequacies. catch others making mistakes. pass the buck and fail to meet the obligations.
.GAME PLAYING People receive negative strokes and get hurt while real problems go unsolved.
.GAME PLAYING Productivity is limited because people use their energies to play games instead of getting the job done.
. and negative strokes are better than no strokes.GAME PLAYING People need strokes.
in work environments that do not provide positive strokes. Games discourage openness.GAME PLAYING Consequently. . honesty and intimacy. people have a need to play games.
µ ´See what you made me do. *Games that blame others include: ´If it weren·t for you.GAME PLAYING Games take many forms.µ .
µ ´Blemishµ ´Bear Trapperµ ´Rapoµ ´Let·s you and him fightµ .GAME PLAYING *Games that attack others include: ´Now I got you. SOB.
µ ´Wooden leg.µ ´Kick me. self pity is reinforced by games such as: ´Poor me.µ ´Stupid.µ ´Harried.µ ´Lunch bag gameµ .GAME PLAYING On the other hand.
GAME PLAYING Games always involve putting someone down. one must stop putting oneself and others down. . To decrease games in the org.
.GAME PLAYING One should not play the complementary role. but should give and receive positive strokes and invest time in activities and intimacy.
GAME PLAYING Manager should integrate the goals of workers and organization and decrease boredom through job enrichment and personnel development. .
positive strokes can become an intrinsic part of the job. .GAME PLAYING With good organization and management.
GAME PLAYING Managers should foster an ´I·m OK. . you·re OKµ atmosphere.
.GAME PLAYING Activities such as working and learning are goal directed and have a high stroke potential. Intimacy is an open sharing of experience with others. usually by people with close relationships but somehow by strangers.
LIFE POSITIONS .
LIFE POSITIONS Life positions are more permanent than ego states. .
they make assumptions about themselves and others. .LIFE POSITIONS As individuals mature.
you·re not OKµ . you·re not OKµ 3. ´I·m OK. ´I·m not OK. you·re OKµ 4. ´I·m OK. you·re OKµ 2.LIFE POSITIONS Four Position Result 1. ´I·m not OK.
I m Ok.LIFE POSITIONS I·m OK. you re OK Individuals are interdependent with each other and the environment Happy and Active With a positive outlook on life who like reinforcement for being OK but are NOT dependent on it They use the happy child and nurturing parent ego states . you·re OK.
LIFE POSITIONS I·m OK. you·re not OK. you re not OK They do not believe they can rely on anyone but themselves They think people are worthless and are likely to be enemies and consequently tend to blame others The critical parent ego state is dominant Supervises people closely because they think they cannot be trusted . I m Ok.
you·re OK. you re OK Burdened with self-defeating attitudes and a lack of confidence Take a psychologically inferior stand to others Less competent Less influential than others . I m not Ok.LIFE POSITIONS I·m not OK.
you re not OK Maladjusted Thinks they are worthless and so are others Lacks confidence in themselves and trust in others Suspicious and anxious Disconnected from others Miserable and tend to give up . I m not Ok.LIFE POSITIONS I·m not OK. you·re not OK.
ASSERTIVE TECHNIQUES .
or assertive.ASSERTIVE TECHNIQUES Communication styles are commonly passive. aggressive. .
Self-enhancing at others· expense Self-enhancing . inhibited and allows others to choose for them.ASSERTIVE TECHNIQUES PASSIVE PERSONS AGGRESSIVE PERSONS ASSERTIVE PERSONS Self-denying.
.ASSERTIVE TECHNIQUES PASSIVE PERSONS *Tend to be at a loss for words *Do not say what they really mean *Use many apologetic words *They hope that people will understand what they want without telling them They have a weak. and They nod frequently. hesitant voice. downcast eyes and fidgety hands.
ASSERTIVE TECHNIQUES ACTIVE PERSONS *Loud and uses loaded subjective words *Makes accusations *Sends ´youµ messages that blame others *A flippant. sarcastic style with an air of superiority and rudeness is common The person is likely to stand with hands in hips. pointing a finger and talking superior. narrowed eyes. authoritarian manner. feet apart. . demanding.
of caring .ASSERTIVE TECHNIQUES ASSERTIVE PERSONS *Say what they want They use eye contact and in direct statements *Make honest spontaneous verbal statements about expressions with their feelings appropriate *Use objective gestures and facial words expressions while *Attentive listener speaking in a well who give impression modulated voice.
ASSERTIVE TECHNIQUES BROKEN RECORD A technique involving repeating what one wants. .
I·m so tired that I shut off my alarm and go back to sleep. Manager: You are scheduled to work the day shift this rotation. Then when I do get up.ASSERTIVE TECHNIQUES Broken Record Manager: I expect you to get to work on time. Staff Nurse: But I·m a night person. would you like to be assigned at the night shift permanently? . and I expect you to be at work on time. I stumble around in the dark to find my clothes so I won·t wake my husband. and it·s difficult to get up so early to come to work. I stay up late. If you are a night person.
I wouldn·t be able to see my husband then. Yes. I would have to come to work at 10:30 and I could only see him for an hour. I would prefer the evening shift.ASSERTIVE TECHNIQUES Broken Record Staff Nurse: No. However. I would get home just in time for him to go to work. Manager: You are scheduled to work the day shift this rotation. Would you want that? Staff Nurse: Working the evening shift would allow me to see my husband after work and to sleep in. and I expect you to be at work on time. He works 9am to 9pm and he gets home about 9:30pm. Manager: I will see how quickly we can get your schedule changed to permanent evenings. I do expect you to be here by 7am until we get your schedule changed . we could assign you to the evening shift permanently.
.ASSERTIVE TECHNIQUES Fogging FOGGING Agreeing with the truth.
ASSERTIVE TECHNIQUES Fogging Staff Nurse: You scheduled me to double back from evenings to days twice in a 2-week time schedule. have trouble functioning. I have less than 7 hours for sleep. I get tired. and fear making mistakes. . Staff Nurse: When I double back. Manager: I see that I scheduled you to double back the first Wednesday and the second Friday (agreeing with the truth).
Staff Nurse: We need a policy to prevent having just one shift off between shifts. . It seems logical that one would make more mistakes when tired than when alert (agreeing with the odds). Manager: I agree.ASSERTIVE TECHNIQUES Fogging Manager: I understand that you get tired when you double back and fear making mistakes. We do need staffing policies that would provide for adequate rest periods between shifts (agreeing in principle).
.ASSERTIVE TECHNIQUES Negative Assertion NEGATIVE ASSERTION Accepting negative aspects about oneself.
ASSERTIVE TECHNIQUES Negative Assertions Staff Nurse: You·re new uniform really reveals how fat you are. Staff Nurse: Well. Manager: These new styles don·t compliment my figure worried (negative assertion). I·ve seen the cat get worried (negative assertion). I eat just about everything in sight except the kitchen sink. that new uniform sure makes you look like a blimp. . Manager: I·m overweight because I eat too much.
.ASSERTIVE TECHNIQUES Negative Inquiry NEGATIVE INQUIRY Asking for more information about oneself.
What about my face makes me look tired? Staff Nurse: Your eyes look so tired. I guess you could use a crème cosmetic over the bags and use light instead of dark-colored eye shadow. They·re so dark. Manager: I don·t feel tired. . Manager: Is it me or what I am wearing? Staff Nurse: It·s your face.ASSERTIVE TECHNIQUES Negative Inquiry Staff Nurse: You don·t look good today. Manager: What can I do to make them look less tired? Staff Nurse: If the problem isn·t fatigue. There are bags under them. You look so tired.
and what you want and the ability to make them feel comfortable talking about themselves.In a social sense. what you do. . how you live. assertiveness is the ability to communicate with others about who you are.
µ .´NURSE LEADERS SHOULD BEHAVE ASSERTIVELY TO ACHIEVE POSITIVE SELF-IMAGES AND MAINTAIN AN I·M OK POSITION.