# Trig Functions

Learning Objectives: Recognising sin, cos and tan Understand how graphs of trig functions are transformed. Range and domain Inverses

y = f(x - a) y - b = f(x) y - b = f(x - a) y = k f(x) y = f(x/k) y = - f(x) y = f(-x) f(-

Translation by Translation by

Translation by

[ ] [ ] [ ]

a 0 0 b a b

stretches by a factor µk¶ along the y-axis ystretches by a factor µk¶ along the x-axis xreflects in the x-axis xreflects in the y-axis y-

Trig Graphs: translation 
How will y=sin x, y=sin x +1 y=sin x ± 3 work in degrees.  How is the y=sin x transformed to make the other two graphs? y = sin x
1.5 1.0 0.5 y 0.0 0 -0.5 -1.0 -1.5 x 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360

y = sin x y = sin x - 0 y=x-0

y=s
2.5 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0 -0.5 0 y -1.0 -1.5 -2.0 -2.5 -3.0 -3.5 -4.0 -4.5

x

45

90

135

180

225

270

315

360

y sn y sn 1 y y =snx-3 -3

x

-For y=sin x + 1 there is a translation of 1 unit up. ( y - 1 = sin x ) y=s n -For y=sin x - 3 there is a translation of -3 unit up. ( y + 3 = sin x ) -What about y=cos x + 2 or y=tanx ± 4?

Graphs: more translation 
Plot using a graphic calculator and then sketch y=sin x, y=sin( x + 90) and y=sin(x-45). y=sin(x How is the y=sin x transformed to make these y = sin x two graphs?
1.5 1.0 0.5 y 0.0 0 -0.5 -1.0 -1.5 x 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360

y= i x
1.5 1.0 0.5 y 0.0 0 -0.5 -1.0 -1.5 For = ( + 90) there a tra lat o of -90 u t the d rect ox . For = ( - 45). there a tra lat o of 45 u t the d rect o . 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360 = = ( + 90) = ( - 45)

Graphs: Cosine 
Plot using a graphic calculator and then sketch y=cos x, y=2 cos x and y=cos 1/4x.  How is the y=cos x transformed to make y = sin x these two graphs?
2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 y 0.0 -0.5 -1.0 -1.5 -2.0 x 0 90 180 270 360

y

y=c
2.5 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 y 0.0 -0.5 0 -1.0 -1.5 -2.0 -2.5 x 90 180

x

270

360

= =2 =

( ) ( /4)

For =2 os there is a stret h of 2 in the dire tion. For = os 1/4 there is a stret h of 4 in the dire tion.

y = tan x + asymptotes
y = ta x
3.0 2.5 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 y 0.0 -0.5 0 -1.0 -1.5 -2.0 -2.5 -3.0 x 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360 y = tan x

x = 90

x = 270

Range and Domain (1)
The 3 T g Function
2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0 -0.5 -1.0 -1.5 x 0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360 y = sin x y = cos x y= tan x

Trig functions go on forever, so the domain has to be specified

Here the domain is 0  x  360

Range and Domain (2)
The 3 T ig Function

The range?
-1  sin x  1 -1  cos x  1

2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0 -0.5 -1.0 -1.5 0 45 90 135 180 225 270 315 360 y = sin x y = cos x y= tan x

tan x is unbound

-2.0 x

0  x  360

sin x and cos x have a maximum of 1 sin x and cos x have a minimum of -1

Inverse Functions (2) 
As always in maths, there is a trick to this«
f(x) = sin x

1. Write function as a rule in terms of y and x.
y = sin x

2. Swap µx¶ and µy¶

x = sin y y = sin-1 x f-1(x) = sin-1 x

3. Rearrange to get in terms of y.

Inverse Functions (1)
Function Inverse

f(x) = sin x f(x) = cos x f(x) = tan x

f-1(x) = sin-1 x f-1(x) =
-1 cos

x

f-1(x) = tan-1 x

These have always been called inverse functions and the symbol (-1) is the same ± so it is kind of obvious