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ONE DAY SEMINAR ON FIRE RISK & EXPLOSION IN INDUSTRIES DECEMBER 06 , 2003 AT HOTEL EXPRESS , VADODARA

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CASE STUDIES ON FIRE RISK & EXPLOSION IN INDUSTRIES BY Shri Sanjay V Shinde DY. MANAGER ( FIRE & SAFETY)

CASE STUDIES ON FIRE RISK & EXPLOSION IN INDUSTRIES

S V SHINDE DY. MANAGER ( FIRE & SAFETY ) INDIAN OIL CORPORATION LTD. GUJARAT REFINERY, INDIA

What is gas an explosion :A PROCESS WHERE COMBUSTION OF A PREMIXED GAS CLOUD CAUSES A RAPID INCREASE IN PRESSURE. THE PRESSURE INCREASE OR ³ OVERPRESSURE´DEPENDS UPON THE DEGREE OF CONFINEMENT

Explosion :- Explosion can occur either in the form of a deflagration or a detonation depending upon the burning velocity during an explosion. the flame speed is extremely high.with a typical velocity of 2000-3000 m / sec. The flame front travels as a shock wave . of the order of 1 m/ sec and peak pressure developed reaches to 70-80 kpa In detonation. Deflagration occurs when the burning velocity of the flame speed is relatively slow. Detonation generates peak pressure of magnitude 200 kpa and is more destructive than a deflagration .

building . . engine room etc) Mechanical ventilation system can help in preventing the building up of explosive gas cloud.Types of gas explosion :Confined explosion :. but they can also result in ingestion of gas from outside.( vessel .

( offshore module ) The explosion overpressure is a function of size and location of openings and congestion within the compartment .Types of gas explosion :Partly Confined explosion :.

. the gas is volatile and there is a significant congestion.( refinery . petrochemical units ) Un confined explosion can still develop significant overpressure.particularly if the flammable cloud is large.Types of gas explosion :Un-Confined explosion :.

Types of gas explosion :BLEVE ( Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapor Explosion ) An explosion due to rupture of a vessel containing a high vapor pressure liquid. A BLEVE can result in very large fire ball and rocketing projectiles. .

seal failure /over pressurisation .Potential sources and causes of Release : sources Instrument connections Pipe work Flanges Valves Heat exchangers Compressors Pumps Vessels causes MalMal-operation . failure to follow procedures Poor safety culture Inadequate precautions corrosion Erosion Fatigue / vibration impact / gasket.

Sources of ignition ‡ Electrical equipment ‡ Static electricity ‡ Hot surfaces ‡ Engines ‡ Hot work (welding .flame cutting) ‡ Naked flames ‡ smoking Continue« . grinding.

Acetylene ) ‡ Introduced sources ‡ Intermittent sources .Sources of ignition ‡ Fired boilers ‡ Impact ‡ Friction ‡ Auto-ignition ( Hydrogen .

28 nos of people were killed A temp pipe failed resulting in release of an about 50 tons of cyclohexane in atmosphere.Worst explosions in the world Flixborough 1974 The plant was totally destroyed and over 100 houses in the area were damaged.which ignited after 01 minute resulting in a violent explosion equivalent to about 16 tons TNT ( Tri-nitro-toulene) . this caused a very large flammable cloud of heavy vapor to form .

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This was followed by a large fire and series of explosion as many LPG vessels suffered BLEVE . A large release of LPG occurred from a ruptured pipe.the flammable cloud reached a flare and ignited. After approx 10 minutes.Worst explosions in the world Mexico city 1984 A major fire and series of an explosions occurred at the PEMEX LPG plant destroying the terminal and killing approx 500 people.

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Worst explosions in the world PIPER ALPHA 1988 An explosion caused fires which subsequent resulted in rupture of the riser and total loss of platform 167 nos of people were killed .

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The flammable gas cloud ignited after about 02 minutes resulting in amassive explosion followed by a fire and further explosions. .Worst explosions in the world PASADENA TEXAS 1989 Incorrect connection of a valve during the maintenance operation resulted in a release of ethylene. The plant was destroyed and there were 23 nos of fatalities. About 40 tons of gas was released. hexene and hydrogen.isobutane .

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Worst explosions in the world Conoco oil refinery. The vapor cloud formed was ignited by a furnace 80 meters away. The explosion caused the rupture of other lines resulting the release of a further 08 tons of LPG and large fire ball. Two persons were injured . lincolnshire. 2001 An elbow on a de-ethaniser column failed due to corrosion resulting in the release of approximately 06 tons of ethane / propane within about 07 seconds.

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The refinery was to be closed for 7-10 days for an investigation and damage assessment. 2000 killed four people and injured 49 others.OIL REFINERY An explosion caused by a gas leak at Kuwait's Mina Al-Ahmadi refinery on June 25. while a 120. according to the Kuwaiti News Agency. Poltical fallout was swift. with the Kuwait Oil Minister offering for resignation . KNPC says two 18.Worst explosions in the world KNPC . A 122.000 b/d gasoline units were severely damaged by the explosion and fire. says KNPC. Some units at the refinery would be out of operation for months and others for several weeks.000 b/d crude unit suffered moderate damage.000 b/d crude unit suffered major damage.

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1999.corroded pipes at one of the refinery¶s oil fractionators. a 150 feet distillation tower designed to heat and separate components of crude oil . four workrs were killed in a fiery accident at Tosco corporation¶s Avon refinery in Martinez.TOSCO AVON REFINERY FIRE Case study : 01 INCIDENT : On febrary 23. California The men were in the process of replacing .

The fractionator continued to operate.TOSCO AVON REFINERY FIRE INCIDENT : Because the project was classified as a low risk routine maintenance. no special precautions were in lace. with large volumes of flammable vapor and liquid flowing inside the tower and it¶s attached piping The surface temp of the equipment was over 500 deg. fahrenheit .

TOSCO AVON REFINERY FIRE What is fractionator ? Crude oil fractionation is the first step in oil refining process. A fractionator is a vesselthat separates heated crude oil into components such as natural gasoline.kerosene and diesel. Pipes connected to each tray withdraws the liquids to storage or other processes.naphtha. Inside the vessel. trays are used to collect the different fractions as liquids. Processing is continuous .

.near where the piping joined the fractionator.under the direction of maintenance Supervisor. After lunch.the workers climbed 40 to 100 feet up scaffolding alongside the tower.But things had not been going as planned. They tried to drain the piping system of naphtha by opening a pipe flange 36 ft.TOSCO AVON REFINERY FIRE Description in detail :Earlier that morning . When a second cut was made 26 feet below the first. workers had removed a section of corroded naphtha piping 112 feet up the tower. naphtha-a volatile hydrocarbon began to ooze out and workers had to immediately reseal the pipe.

shot out of the open pipe overhead.TOSCO AVON REFINERY FIRE Description in detail :Up and directing the leaking fuel into a vacuum truck using makeshift plastic sheeting and a bucket. when suddenly a large volume of naphtha. engulfing them in flames. . The operation proceeded without apparent problem for 30 minutes. there were few avenues of escape as the hot surface of the fractionator ignited the naphtha. propelled by vapor pressure from the operating fractionator. For the five men high on the scaffold.spraying the workers.

operators had observed a naphtha leak coming of the fractionator.But the leaks kept reccuring. . which they treated as an emergency at the time.TOSCO AVON REFINERY FIRE What went wrong ? A) RECURING NAPHTHA LEAK On Feb 10. They located pinhole leak in the naphtha piping 112 feet up and closed aseries of valves in an effort to eliminate it. one attempt after another failed to completely staunch the flow of naphtha.In succeeding days. Shut-off valves malfunctioned repeatedly and drain valves were found to be clogged beyond use or repair.

and these revealed that both the piping and the valves were severely corroded and needed to be replaced.TOSCO AVON REFINERY FIRE What went wrong ? A) RECURING NAPHTHA LEAK Ultrasound and x-ray tests were ordered. This fateful decision did not receive any scrutiny from the management. . Although the unit operator argued for shutting down the process before attempting to replace the deteriorated piping.a maintenance supervisor decided to do the job while he hot fractionator continued to run.

The repeated recurrence of naphtha leaks was a strong indicator that shut-off valves were corroded and were not functioning properly. . naphtha continued to leak into the piping . and vapor from the fractionator pressurized the escaping fuel. But that could not be done at Tasco so long as the fractionator was operating. .TOSCO AVON REFINERY FIRE What went wrong ? B) PROCESS SHOULD HAVE BEEN SHUT DOWN Good operating practice calls for draining hazardous materials from lines and equipment and verifying that the equipment has been isolated before opening for maintenance. As long as the fractionator was running .

such safety measures would have been included shutting down the fractionator as the only way to eliminate both the source of the naphtha and the potential source of it¶s ignition. In his case. .Tosco personnel missed numerous opportunities to reassess the hazards of the pipe replacement work and take measures to ensure the work would be performed safely. .TOSCO AVON REFINERY FIRE What went wrong ? B) PROCESS SHOULD HAVE BEEN SHUT DOWN In the 13 days that elapsed between the first occurrence of the leak and the fatal accident .

The valves and piping had corroded at an excessive rate because an upstream vessel known as the crude oil desalter-which removes salt. water and corrosive materials like ammonium chloride were carried over into the fractionator. overtaxing the desalter.leading to a potentially hazardous situation.TOSCO AVON REFINERY FIRE What went wrong ? C) CORROSION AND MANAGEMENT OF CHANGE PROGRAM INADEQUATE The naphtha piping and valves had been run to the point of breakdown due to corrosion.where they began to deteriorate the piping and valves. Tosco had routinely processed excessive volumes of crude oil with high water content. water and solids from the oil feed ± was being operated beyond it¶s design limits. . As a result.

These changes included feeding different material into the process.increasing the amounts being processed and making long term adjustments to valve positions. . This omission contributed to the final breakdown and the fire. Such was not applied to these process modifications..TOSCO AVON REFINERY FIRE What went wrong ? C) CORROSION AND MANAGEMENT OF CHANGE PROGRAM INADEQUATE Tosco should have evaluated operational changes that could worsen the corrosion of piping and valves.

This tragedy could have been prevented had better procedures been in place for opening process equipment. However . managing process changes and isolating piping prior to maintenance But problems existed in these areas before the FEB 1999 fire occurred.TOSCO AVON REFINERY FIRE What went wrong ? D) DEVIATION FROM SAFE PRACTICES WERE NOT CORRECTED The incident highlighted several ineffective safety practices and procedures at the AVON refinery. Had Tosco management conducted an safety audit of these programs. controlling sources of hazardous energy. problems could have been corrected prior to the accident.no relevant documented safety audits were performed during the three years leading to the fire .

TOSCO AVON REFINERY FIRE Key recommendations :‡TO IMPLEMENT A PROGRAM TO ENSURE THAT HAZARDOUS NON.ROUTINE MAINTENANCE IS CONDUCTED SAFELY ‡REFINERY SHOULD REQUIRE A WRITTEN HAZARD EVAULATION BY A MULTIDISCIPLINARY TAEM BEFORE ANY HAZARDOUS JOB IS STARTED. ‡REFINERY SHOULD REQUIRE HIGHER LEVELS OF APPROVALS FOR HIGHER HAZARD JOBS. AND MAKE SURE THAT MANAGERS AND SAFETY OFFICIALS PROVIDE AEQUATE OVERSIGHT FOR HAZARDOUS WORK . DEVELOP A WRITTEN PROTOCOL FOR MAKING SHUTDOWN DECISIONS.

. ‡ AUDIT FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS SHOULD BE SHARED WITH THE WORKFORCE AND TRACKED TO COMPLETION.TOSCO AVON REFINERY FIRE Key recommendations :‡THE REFINRY SHOULD IMPROVE IT¶S MANAGEMENT OF CHANGE AND CORROSION CONTROL PROGRAMS TO PREVENT SITUATIONS WHERE SAFETY IS COMPROMISED.

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