SAMPLING

BY Bhaskar Banerjee

METHODS 


PROBABILITY SAMPLING NON- PROBABILITY SAMPLING

PROBABILITY SAMPLING 

Every unit in the sampling frame has an equal or known chance of being included in the sample.
( BOYD AND KRESS)

It includes 
 

Simple Random Sampling Stratified Random Sampling Cluster Sampling 


Systematic Sampling Area Sampling

 Selection Method: Table of random numbers.SIMPLE RANDOM SAMPLING It is a sample generated by a process that guarantees. in the long run. that every possible sample of a given size will be selected with known and equal probability  Eg: drawing a card from a pack of well shuffled deck. Lottery method  .

 Cost per interview is practically independent of the location of the sample items. Eg. Used to sample a universe with following properties It is small  Satisfactory list of universe items exists. no other universe information is available.  Other than a list of items.survey of members of gym in New Delhi  ..

PROBLEMS Cost  Availability of a Current Listing of Universe Elements  Statistical Efficiency  Administrative difficulty  .

 .STRATIFIED RANDOM SAMPLING The universe to be sampled is divided (or stratified) into groups that are mutually exclusive and include all items in the universe.  A simple random sample is then chosen independently from each group or stratum.

00.000 30.000 50.Example STORE SIZE STRATUM Large stores Medium stores Small stores Total NUMBER OF STORES 20.000 PERCENTAGE OF STORES 20 30 50 100 .000 1.

Reasons for using Obtaining information about parts of the universe  Greater precision through stratification.  .

How should the universe be stratified? Create strata on the basis of a variable known to be correlated with the variable of interest. and for which information on each universe element is known.  Strata should be constructed in such a way which will minimize differences among sampling units within strata and maximize differences among strata.  .

manufacturers) rather than human universes.  Sample each stratum in proportion to its relative weight in the universe as a whole.OBSERVATIONS IN EACH STRATUM  PROPOTIONAL ALLOCATION.  When the variability among observations within a stratum is high.  DISPROPORTIONAL ALLOCATION Sample institutional universes (grocery stores. one samples the stratum at a higher rate than for strata with less internal variation.  .

LIMITATIONS Greater complexity of both design and analysis.  A separate list of items within each stratum is required  .

CLUSTER SAMPLING Sampling methods in which universe elements are chosen in groups  Widely used in sampling of human populations  .

X2.X12 X13.X16 .X11.X7.Example BLOCK 1 2 3 4 HOUSES X1.X10.X15.X8 X9.X14.X6.X4 X5.X3.

COMPARISION WITH SIMPLE RANDOM SAMPLING  More or less statistically efficient than simple random sampling.  Depends upon the degree of intracluster heterogeneity obtained  Lower relative cost of obtaining observations .

TYPES SYSTEMATIC SAMPLING  AREA SAMPLING  .

SYSTEMATIC SAMPLING  Most widely used form of cluster sampling .

7.8. Possible samples .6.11 96 2.13 98 4. 100  Draw a random number between 1 to 5.Example   To study students opinion towards food provided in canteen.14 99 5.12 97 3.9. the researcher decides to sample 20 students out of 100.10. One method  SAMPLE 1 2 3 4 5 IDENTIFICATION 1.

This identifies the first element on the universe list to be included in the sample.SELECTING A SYSTEMATIC SAMPLE  Sampling interval= Number of universe items Desired sample size Select a random figure between 1 and the sampling interval figure.  .

Each new total represents another element on the universe list to be included in the sample.SELECTING A SYSTEMATIC SAMPLE Add the sampling interval to the random number selected in Step 2.  Continue adding the sample interval to each total to create a new total.  . The total represents the second element on the universe list to be included in the sample.

 Less subject to error than simple random sampling.ADVANTAGES Simplicity.  .  Faster technique than systematic sampling.

every 14th day and so on .DISADVANTAGES Requires an assumption about the order of the items on the list  It can pose problems if the sampling interval is a whole no. multiple of some cycle related to the variable being measured   Eg weekly sales cycle in retail store. cannot sample retail sales every 7th day .

choose a sample of markets and then audit soap sales of all retail outlets in these markets.  .AREA SAMPLING Samples items are clustered on a geographic area basis  No current and accurate list of universe elements  eg: To measure sale of soap in retail stores.

 Practical execution is highly complex  .APPLICATION Used where very high quality data is required but no list of universe items exists.

DISADVANTAGES Expensive  Time consuming  For best results. statistical data by areas) is needed and expert statistical council is required.  . substantial information (detailed maps.

 Types:  Convenience Sampling  Judgment Sampling  Quota Sampling  .NONPROBABILITY SAMPLING Any sampling method in which the chance of choosing a particular universe element is unknown.

 .  Responses given by convenient items in a universe differ significantly from the responses given by universe items that are less accessible.CONVENIENCE SAMPLING In which sample is chosen purely for expedience  Items are selected because they are easy or cheap to find or measure  Eg: monitoring price trends in a near by grocery shop with the object of inferring national price measurement.

.APPLICATION  Used when there is very little information available about a subject. LIMITATION Cannot be used if the universe items are large and scattered.

 Eg: Sales managers might select the sample of grocery store in a city they regarded as representative  .JUDGEMENT SAMPLING Is selection of universe items by mean of expert judgment  Specialists in the subject matter of the survey choose what they believe to be the best sample for that particular study.

APPLICATION  May be used when the total sample size is extremely small LIMITATION  This approach has been found empirically to produce unsatisfactory results. .

QUOTA SAMPLING Is most widely used in consumer survey  Uses principle of stratification  The researcher begins by constructing strata  Sample sizes (called quota) are established for each stratum  The sampling within strata may be proportional or disproportional  .

35-49 QUOTA 50 50 100 100 . 18-34 Men. 18-34 Women.Example STRATUM Men. 35-49 Women.

 .ADVANTAGES Relatively low cost  Relatively high speed of execution  Superior to ordinary convenience sampling or judgment sampling because it uses the principle of stratification.

the process is objective. based on random identification of respondents.DIFFERENCE BETWEEN STRATIFIED SAMPLING AND QUOTA SAMPLING  With stratified random sampling. the process is subjective being done by field workers using what amounts to convenience sampling. . In quota sampling.

SPECIAL FORMS OF NONPROBABILITY SAMPLING GROUP INTERVIEW SAMPLE  SHOPPING MALL INTERCEPT SAMPLE  .

GROUP INTERVIEW SAMPLE Used in focus group studies  A group is usually a quota sample of 5-10 consumers assembled for a 12 hour joint interview by a person specially trained in group dynamics  The no of groups used is often small  They are expensive  Information obtained from each group is highly unstructured  .

 Eg: compare TV commercials  Speed and economy relative to a probability sample of personal interviews  . in each of several cities. each serving different socioeconomic populations.  Common to use several malls.SHOPPING MALL INTERCEPT SAMPLE Respondents are recruited for individual interviews (using assigned quotas ) at fixed locations in shopping malls.

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