‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Konsep dan Terminologi Transmisi data analog dan digital Gangguan transmisi (Impairment) Analisis Fourier Kuat sinyal (Signal Strength) dan Decibels

Sources of signal impairment
Signal carried on transmission medium affected by:

- Attenuation - Limited Bandwidth - Delay Distortion - Noise

Sources of signal impairment .

Possible remedies : .Attenuation ‡Signal Attenuation: Decrease in signal amplitude as it propagates along transmission medium . .Consequence: Limit length of cable to be used .Property : Signal attenuation increases as a function of frequency.Non Linear amplifiers or Equalizers .Solution : Amplifiers (Repeaters) used to restore signal to original level.

Attenuation (lanjutan) ‡Signal Amplification ( Gain ): Increase in signal amplitude .

Contoh (Attenuation) .

Contoh (Lanjutan) .

Data Bit Rate .Signaling Rate vs.

Limited Bandwidth ‡ Bandwidth of a communication / transmission medium: ± band of sinusoidal frequency components (f1to f2) that will ± be transmitted by the channel unattenuated ‡ Question: What is the effect of channel bandwidth on transmitted signal ? .

cycles per sec (Hz) .Harmonics : other frequency components.Fundamental frequency component : same frequency as initial periodic signal. .Fourier analysis ‡ A periodic signal is made of an infinite series of sinusoidal frequency components . multiples of fundamental frequency.

Fourier analysis g g v(t ) ! a  § an cos n([ 0)t  § bn sin n([ 0)t n !1 n !1 ‡ V(t) = tegangan sinyal (periodis) sebagai fungsi waktu ‡ W0 = komponen frekuensi fondamental (rad/sec) ‡ T= 2 /W0 atau W0 = 2 f0 .

highest fundamental frequency component: worst-case sequence ..Aplikasi analisis Fourier (Untuk transmisi data) Possible binary sequences (periodic) : (1) 1 0 1 0 1 0 «« period = 2 bit cell intervals (2) 1 1 0 1 1 0 «. period = 3 bit cell intervals (3) 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 «. period = 4 bit cell intervals Note: (1) has shortest period.

Aplikasi analisis Fourier (Untuk transmisi data) Basic Binary Signal Types: ‡ Unipolar Signal (Return to zero. Mean Signal Level = V /2 ‡ Bipolar Signal (Non Return±To±Zero . RZ) Amplitudes : +V. Mean Signal Level = 0 . NRZ) Amplitudes : +V. 0. -V.

Aplikasi analisis Fourier (Untuk transmisi data) .

Aplikasi analisis Fourier (Untuk transmisi data) .

5f0 Note: Odd harmonics only . 3f0 -A fifth harmonic component . f0 -A third harmonic component .Aplikasi analisis Fourier (Untuk transmisi data) General Observations: ‡ A periodic binary sequence is made of an infinite series of sinusoidal signals made of -A fundamental frequency component.

1/ Tb = 2/T = 2 * 1/T R (bit rate) = 2 * f0 (fundamental frequency) ‡ When binary data signal transmitted on a channel. only those frequency components that are within channel bandwidth will be received ‡ A channel with a bandwidth : From 0 to fundamental frequency (half the bit rate) can often give satisfactory performance .Aplikasi analisis Fourier (Untuk transmisi data)/Lanjutan ‡ The amplitude of the harmonics diminishes with increasing frequency ‡ T (Signal Period) = 2*Tb (Bit Period) Tb = T/2.

Aplikasi analisis Fourier (Untuk transmisi data) Analysis Effect of Limited Bandwidth: .

Aplikasi analisis Fourier (Untuk transmisi data) Effect of Limited Bandwidth .

Aplikasi analisis Fourier (Untuk transmisi data) Effect of Limited Bandwidth: .

assuming (a) Fundamental frequency only (b) Fundamental and third harmonic (c) Fundamental.Contoh : ‡ A binary signal of R (bit rate) = 500 bps is transmitted on a communication channel ‡ What is the minimum bandwidth required. f0 = R/2 = 250 Hz (a) 0 ± 250 Hz (b) 0 ± 750 Hz (c ) 0 ± 1250 Hz .third and fifth harmonics ‡ Solution : For R = 500bps.

Laju transfer informasi maksimum Untuk kanal transmisi (noiseless) (the Nyquist Formula) C = 2W log2M where W : bandwidth of the channel (Hz) M: number of levels per signaling element log2M : number of bits/signaling element .

000 bps .000 Hz Q: What is the Nyquist maximum data transfer rate ? A: C = 2W log2M = 2*3000*log28 = 2*3000*3 = 18.Laju transfer informasi maksimum (Contoh) Data is sent over a PSTN with : M = 8 levels /signaling element W = 3.

0bps Hz-1.Bandwidth Efficiency of a Transmission Channel B = R/W = 1/(W* Tb) bps Hz-1 Observations: ‡ The higher the bit rate relative to the available bandwidth. the higher the bandwidth efficiency ‡ Typical values for B: 0.0 requires a high signal rate) ‡Another expression for bandwidth efficiency: R = RS.25 .3. (B=3. m = RS log2 M B = R/W = (R S log2 M) /W Where M is number of levels per signaling element log2 M is number of bits per signaling element .

Delay Distortion ‡ Rate of propagation of a signal over a channel is function of frequency of signal ‡ Consequence: Delay Distortion ± different frequency components arrive with different delays ‡ Delay distortion increases with bit rate ‡ Inter symbol interference : frequency components of a bit start to interfere with a later bit ‡ Use of an eye diagram : oscilloscope displays all possible signals superimposed .

Delay Distortion (Lanjutan) .

even when no signal present. Consequence: Interference between (attenuated) transmitted signal and line (background) noise ‡ Signal-to noise ratio: (SNR) SNR = 10log10(S/N) dB S : average power in received signal (watts) N : noise power (watts) .Noise ‡ Line Noise level : Random perturbations on the line.

S = Average signal power (watts) N = Random noise power (watts) .Noise (Lanjutan) Theoretical data rate of a transmission channel (Shannon ± Hartley law) C = W log2(1 + S/N) bps Where W = Bandwidth (Hz).

963 bps. C = W log2(1 + S/N) = 3000 log2(1+100) = 19. and SNR = 20 dB determine maximum theoretical data rate A: SNR = 10log10(S/N) 20 = 10log10 (S/N) . untuk S/N = 102 = 100. .Noise (Lanjutan) Theoretical data rate of a transmission channel (Shannon ± Hartley law) Given a PSTN with: W = 3000 Hz.

Noise (Lanjutan) ‡ Cross Talk: Noise caused by unwanted electrical coupling between adjacent lines ‡ Near ± End Cross Talk (NEXT) or Self ± Cross Talk: Strong signal output from transmitter circuit interferes with weak signal at receiver circuit Solution: Adaptive NEXT cancellers ‡ Impulse Noise: Caused by external electrical activity ± impulses (lightning. impulses from old switching systems) Observation : Both cross talk and impulse noise are caused by electrical activity external to transmission line .

Noise (Lanjutan) .

Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.