Dr Naresh Gill T.N.M.C.


A. B. C.




. The importance of population studies is increasing ƒ There is realization that population explosion is hindering economic development.Study of demography is increasingly assuming more importance not only in India but all over the world. Demography today can neither be ignored by the planners nor policy maker. Primarily. Significance of population studies was realized even in earlier period. economic and even political system of nations. nor administrators nor by academicians and politicians. ever-growing population in developing countries is straining social.

Demography is the study of changes which take place in population including its size. . Hence. As regards definition of this term. Some of these are given below. It has been derived from the Latin word ³demos´ meaning people. it is the science of people. distribution and organization. it has been defined in various ways by different authors.

composition and distribution and in changes in these aspects through time.´ € W. and the causes of there changes as they are related to human welfare.´ . The most appropriate definition is given by Thompson & Lewis . A broad study of demography studies both qualitative and quantitative aspects of population. that is  ³The population studies is concerned with the population. its size. The numerical portrayal of human population is known as demography.G.€ Frank Lorimar:³In broad sense demography includes both demographic analysis and population studies. Brackley: ³Demography does not deal with the behavior of individuals but only with the aggregate of people.

€ Three main aspects are concerned under demography. What would be the likely number in future. but also. Size and growth of the population. Size : This deals with the number of people living in an area and what changes are taking place and how these changes are affected. In a demographic study. €    . Composition of population and Distribution of population. 1. the concern is not only in finding out How many people live in a particular area at a given point of time Whether the number is larger than what it was.

1. These factors or events change the static structure of the population. . Static Demography: It means the study of anatomy or structure of communities and their environment in a given population..€ Demography: Type. fertility and migration. 2. Dynamic Demography: It deals with physiology or function of communities as regards changing patterns of mortality.

. Age. Sex & Literacy are most widely used characteristics of population study. Composition: Composition of population mainly related to certain characteristics. 3. According to Thompson & Lewis composition of a population affects demographic processes.2. Distribution: Population distribution study is concerned with matters like ƒ how are the people distributed ƒ what is the nature of changes in population distribution.

Late expanding: India 4. High stationary : India till 1921(Big divide year) 2.Five stages: 1. Early expanding 3. Low stationary 5. Declining: Germany and Hungary .

the rate at which they are growing and the composition and distribution of population.Demographic features of India It shows mainly the number of people living in a country at a particular time. ƒ Size and Growth rate of population: India today possesses about 2.4 percent of the total land area of the world but has to support about 17 percent of the world population. A study of growth rate of India¶s population falls into four phases: € € € € 1891-1921: 1921-1951: 1951-1981: 1981-2001: DOWN STAGNANT POPULATION STEADY GROWTH RAPID HIGH GROWTH HIGH GROWTH WITH SIGNS OF SLOWING .

0. which marked by stagnant population. The growth rate was considered as moderate. During the second phase of 30 years (19211951). In this period India was in the first stage of demographic transaction.22 percent per annum. This stage was characterized by high birth rate and high death rate. the population of India grew by 110 million. Birth and death rates were more or less equal during this period. The growth rate of population was 1. € . The growth rate per annum was negligible.e.€ During the first phase of 20 years ( 1901-1921). the population of India grew by 15 million.19 percent per annum for the period. i.

19 billion. Thus. Compared to previous phase the growth rate is almost double. It is resulted in population explosion.€ During the third phase (1951-1981). India is now in the second stage of demographic transaction when death rate is low but the birth rate is high.14 percent. And it will increase to 1. the population of India grew from 361 million from 1951 to 683 million in 1981. € . There is a projection that it may surpass China by 2025.4 billion by 2026. According to latest estimate the population of India in Dec 2010 is 1. The growth rate of population during this period was 2.

5 21.0 14.8 1.8 24.3 11.7 23.7 -0.3 13.19 .Year Total population (in Millions) Increase or Decrease ( in Millions) Percentage increase or decrease Growth Rate 1901 1911 1921 1931 1941 1951 1961 1971 1981 1991 2001 2010* 236 252 251 279 319 361 439 548 683 844 1027 1192 -+16 -1 +28 +40 +42 +78 +109 +135 +161 +183 +165 -5.5 24.3 21.2 13.93 1.22 0.54** 2.14 1.

km. It refers to the average number of persons living per square kilometer of area within the territory of the country. which became 267 in 1991 and it rose to 324 per sq. € As per the latest estimate of 2006 the population density per square kilometer is 338 in India. However. It can be calculated by dividing the total population of a country by its total area. in 2001. Table ± 2 brings to us the variations observed among the different states of India. ƒ € If we compare the figure it was 77 persons living per square km. € .€ The density of population is considered as one of the important demographic features. in 1901. density of population is very unevenly distributed.

TABLE ± 2 DENSITY OF POPULATION IN INDIA ( 2001) STATES / UT DELHI CHANDIGARH WEST BENGAL KERAL BIHAR JHARKHAND UP TAMILNADU PUNJAB HARYANA ASSAM INDIA MAHARASTRA ANDHRAPRADESH KARNATAKA GUJURAT ORISSA MP CHATISHGARH RAJASTAN HIMACHALPRADESH J&K DENSITY ( 1991 ) 6352 5632 767 749 497 274 548 429 403 372 286 267 257 247 235 211 203 149 133 129 93 77 DENSITY ( 2001) 9294 7903 904 819 880 338 689 478 482 477 340 324 314 275 275 258 236 196 154 165 109 99 .

0 41.3 15-59 60+ .4 6.2 5.7 5.7 36.2 6.1 57. TABLE ± 3 AGE COMPOSITION ( IN PERCENTAGE ) AGE GROUP 0-14 Year 1961 1971 1981 1991 2001 41.6 53.4 54. On this basis percentage distributions of India¶s population is shown in the Table -3.1 58. The working age of the population is considered as 15-60.3 53.2 6.4 39.Age Composition The study of age composition is helpful in determining the proportion of the labour force in the total population.5 35.

€ This figures indicate that the proportion of child population in the 0-14 age group was 35. € The principal reason is high birth rate. A high proportion of children only reflects a large proportion of unproductive consumers. € It can be observed that nearly 43 percent of the total population depends upon the rest 57 percent of the working population.6 percent in 2001. .

4 POPULATION BY BROAD AGE .9 64. Japan 9 million.5 8.1 26. It is reflect in lower birth rate.4 62. ‡By 2020 25% of the India¶s population will be under 15 and 64% will be in the working age group. ‡And by this time the US will require 17 million workers. ‡India can earn a rich demographic dividend if it sets about giving its young people the right skills.1 29. That is in 2006 nearly 40% of our population depends on the rest 60%.4 TOTAL 100 100 100 100 100 ‡As the figure shows there is decline in the child population in 2006. .8 25. China 10 million and Russia 6 million. ‡The dependency ratio is also declining.3 10.6 63.TABLE .3 15-59 60.7 12.3 60+ 7.2 64.3 9.1 23.GROUPS ( AGE GROUP ) PERCENTAGE POPULATION YEAR 2006 2011 2016 2021 2026 0-14 32.

Among the various states of India. ( 898/1000). Kerala alone shows a higher proportion of female 1058 per 1000 males in 2001. . TABLE ± 5 SEX RATIO IN INDIA Year 1981 1991 2001 2006 Females / 1000 Males 934 927 933 932 It can be seen that there is a slight improvement in the sex ratio in 2001 compared to 1991 census.P. In Orissa it is 972 per 1000 males. It is lowest in Harayana ( 861/1000) followed by Punjab (874/1000) and U. It is observed that poverty and IMR are the two main determining factors of a declining sex ratio.Sex Composition Sex composition gives us an idea about the number of females in a region per 1000 males.

In Orissa it is 63.92 percent and Bihar has the lowest percentage of literates ( 47. TABLE ± 6 LITERACY RATE IN INDIA Year 1991 2001 2009* Persons 52.5 ‡One important and widely accepted parameter of Human Development is the percentage of literate people in the total population. ‡The overall literacy level in India is 68%(2007) which is far below the cent percent level of literacy achieved in Australia. UK and the US. ‡Kerala has the highest literacy rate of 90.2 65.1 54.3 54.9 Female 39.4 68 Male 64. the level of literacy and the level of technical training of the people of a country. .53).8 76.1 75.Literacy Rate: € The quality of population can be judged from life expectancy. Canada.61.

2.1. 4. 3. RGI. 7. 6.DGHS & State health directorates. Miscellaneous including health agencies and medical establishments like hospital and nursing homes. . Population census Records of vital statistics Records of health department Records of health institutions Reports of special surveys Periodic publication by WHO. 5.

is called a population census. € In India. . € The information is collected by house to house visits on specified dates in the first quarter of the first year of each decade. economic and social data at a specified time or times pertaining to all persons in a country or delimited territory.( UN Handbook of Population Census Methods). compiling and publishing demographic .Since then it is being done every 10 years.€ The total process of collection. € Census 2011 is 13th census being conducted. first census was conducted in 1872 and the next in 1881.

€ The Census of India is conducted under the Indian Census Act 1948 under which Govt appoints the Census commissioner. . € In practice. Registrar General of India is assigned an ex-officio charge of Census commissioner.

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