Job Safety Analysis

Job Hazard Analysis

Job Safety Analysis
Focusing your Safety and Health Efforts 
This course will help you to understand and conduct your own Job Safety Analysis. The aim is to help you identify and correct the most serious safety issues facing your particular situation.  This course focuses on employee safety and health, but the general method may be applied to other loss prevention efforts (environmental and fire protection, liability, etc.)

 It focuses on the relationship between the worker. Hazard ± a potential for harm A hazard is associated with a condition or activity that. can result in an injury or illness. you can take steps to eliminate or reduce the hazard to an acceptable level.  After identifying hazards. . the tools and the work environment. the task.Job Safety Analysis What is a Job Safety Analysis (JSA)  A JSA is a technique of screening job tasks as a way to identify hazards before they occur. if left uncontrolled.

or illness by eliminating or controlling hazards identified. equipment.Why conduct a Job Safety Analysis  To become aware of all the hazards associated with each position in your organization.  To prevent work related deaths.  To ensure all employees have the training.  To ensure all employees have the proper job procedures to ensure their safety. and supplies to do their jobs safely . injuries.

.Hazard Analysis Benefits ‡ The hazard analysis: ± Increases employee hazard recognition and awareness ± Standardizes operations based on acceptable safe practices ± Identifies appropriate Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) ± Allows formal documentation of employee¶s knowledge of the job requirements.Increases productivity .

Purpose of Job Hazard Analysis  A hazard analysis is the evaluation of the hazards associated with an employee¶s work activity  A hazard analysis focuses on ³fixing´ the system or root causes that brought the hazardous condition or unsafe practice into the workplace ± Provides organized approach for the evaluation of a process ± Identifies hazards. .  A hazard analysis attempts to incorporate ³Safe Behavior´ into the normal operating procedures. root causes and corrective actions.

Just because "We've been doing it this way for 20 years.Hazard Awareness  When conducting a Job Safety Analysis you'll need to take a fresh look at the way things are done at your work place. (We'll suggest a way to rank the hazards later.) ." doesn't mean that a hazard doesn't exist.  Accepting a risk or hazard is not the same as eliminating or controlling it.  You'll need to take a comprehensive look at all possible hazards with an open mind.

 Periodically assess controls to ensure they are working correctly. Identify the job or task to be analyzed. Break the job or task into key components. Identify the hazards found in each key component. .  Act to eliminate the hazard or implement the controls.How do I Conduct a JSA?     Involve your employees in the JSA process.  Identify ways to eliminate or control these hazards. Use accident history of injuries and ³near misses´.  Record the hazards identified and the steps taken to eliminate or control them.

Job Hazard Analysis .

oxygen deficient atmospheres. Catastrophic potential: fire. Tasks with a history of injuries. Tasks done in new environments . explosion. toxic atmospheres. or near misses.Conducting a Job Safety Analysis Identifying the Job for Analysis  Any job or task that meets any of the following conditions should have a JSA conducted for it. chemical release.

. Any task done under a safety "Work permit" condition (e. Lock Out/Tag Out). permit required confined space. Rarely performed jobs. hot work permits.Conducting a Job Safety Analysis Identifying the Job for Analysis In addition. Tasks that have changed. any job or task that meets any of the following conditions should also have a JSA conducted for it: New people doing the task.g.

Conducting a Job Safety Analysis Identifying Jobs for a JSA  Look at jobs injuring workers using existing information found in: Your accident or incident reports Workers' compensation claims Conduct walk through observations to identify hazardous jobs or tasks. .

.  Workers' compensation claims will show you jobs that have caused an injury.Identifying the Job/Task for Analysis Existing Information Sources  Incident or accident reports will direct you to the jobs that have injured workers in the past. Don¶t forget ³near misses´.

Identifying the Job/Task for Analysis WalkWalk-through Observations  Observe workers doing their jobs to identify potential hazards that may lead to an injury. ask them if what you observed them doing is typical. .  Talk with workers to find out what they think is the most hazardous part of their job. pay attention to the amount of time the worker is exposed to a particular hazard.

Identifying the Job/Task for Analysis Hazard Sources .)? Chemicals: Crushing hazards: Dusts: . consumer products. grinding dusts.? Can workers get crushed (under or between) objects? Does the process create or are workers exposed to dusts (wood dust. Holes or Floor Openings: Moving Equipment: Pinch points: Are workers working at heights? Do workers have to enter a confined space? Can workers fall into or through? Is there machinery. bases. etc? Do workers use solvents. etc. pesticides. in the area? Do moving parts in machinery create pinch points? Can workers get caught in machinery or belts & pulleys.Walk-through Observations WalkHazards Source List Fall Hazards: Confined Space Entry: Excavations. etc. forklifts. etc. acids. chains & sprockets.

wiring.Identifying the Job/Task for Analysis Hazard Sources . mechanical. trip or fall hazards: Physical layout of work place: Ladder or Scaffold use: What is the condition of your extension cords. etc.? What is the condition of the walking/ working surfaces. housekeeping.? Is there enough light to do the work? Can stored energy be released by the work? (Lock-out/Tag-out) Are people working overhead? Do workers have to drive or work in traffic as part of the job? Do workers use knives.? Does the layout or process flow create a hazard? Are ladders or scaffolds used in the work? . razors. pressure): Falling or dropping objects: Motor vehicles or traffic: Sharp objects: Slip.Walk-through Observations WalkHazards Source List ±con¶t Electrical Hazards: Lighting Levels: Stored Energy Hazards (Electrical. service panels. etc. etc.

)? Process Flow: Location of co-workers or other workers in the area: Human factor issues: Material Moving or Handling: Repetitive Motion : .Walk-through Observations WalkHazards Source List ±con¶t Weather: Fire/Explosion: Access and Egress: Can the weather create hazards? Is there a potential for a fire or explosion? Can workers safely get to their work areas? Can they safely evacuate in the case of an emergency? Does the flow of product through the process create a hazard? Does the work pose a hazard to them.? Do workers have to lift or carry heavy objects? Does the job require repetitive motion (typing. etc. or does their work pose a hazard to the job being analyzed? Is the training adequate? Are the workers fatigued? How fit are the workers.Identifying the Job/Task for Analysis Hazard Sources . etc.

. then its time to start conducting the JSA's.Conducting a Job Safety Analysis Involving Workers and Managers in the JSA  Once you have identified jobs needing a JSA. They can help to identify hazards and they will have ownership of the JSA and may more readily accept the findings and hazard controls selected.  Involving employees and area managers in the JSA process allows them to bring their insights on the job to the process.

Conducting a Job Safety Analysis  Once the job is identified. you must break it into key components or subtasks and then identify and list all the hazards associated with each subtask. What can go wrong? What are the consequences? How could a problem happen? How likely is it that the hazard will occur?  The following screens will help you break down a job. . and identify and rank hazards.

Get new light bulb from storage. Place old light bulb in trash. Climb ladder. Twist light bulb in a counter clock-wise direction until it is free of the socket. Replace Cover. Descend ladder. Place ladder under light to be changed. Insert new light bulb into socket.  Too Much Detail Get ladder from storage. Remove new light bulb from package. Carry ladder back to storage. Ensure light switch is in the off position.Conducting a Job Safety Analysis Break Identified Job into KEY Components  Too much detail makes the Job Safety Analysis cumbersome. Remove light cover. Turn in a clock-wise direction until tightened. Remove old light bulb. Carry ladder and light bulb to light needing changing. .

 Too Little Detail Get a ladder and new light bulb. . Put ladder away and throw out old light bulb.Conducting a Job Safety Analysis Break Identified Job into KEY Components  Too little detail may omit hazards. Change bulb.

Conducting a Job Safety Analysis Break Identified Job into KEY Components  The correct amount of detail breaks the job into components that make sense in terms of the overall job.  When evaluating a task. such as "changing a light bulb" remember that you do not want too much detail. change bulb.  Right Amount of Detail Get ladder and new light bulb. Use ladder. keep your focus on obtaining the right amount of detail. Put tools and supplies away. or too little detail.  Generally limit the number of components to 10 or less. Place ladder under light to be changed. .

pedestrian/fork-lift traffic)? Is there adequate access and egress to and from the work area? Are workers exposed to temperature extremes? Is the lighting adequate? Is the work done outdoors? Can the weather create a hazard? . it is not complete.  While the list is comprehensive.g.Conducting a Job Safety Analysis Questions to Ask about each Sub-task Sub This following list of questions is intended to help focus your effort at identifying and controlling hazards. (e.  Questions to ask « Does the layout of the location or process create hazards. and you'll need to think about the sub-tasks and the particular hazards they present.

etc.)? Are chemicals used? Does the worker come into direct contact with the chemicals? .)? Do the tools or equipment create a hazard? Is there excessive noise or vibration? Can any part of the worker's body or clothing be caught in the equipment? Is the tool or equipment appropriate for the task (strength.Conducting a Job Safety Analysis Questions to Ask about each Sub-task ±Con¶t SubDoes the task require entering a confined space? Is the work done at heights (from a ladder. size. roof top. power. etc.

holes.)? Are workers exposed to electrical hazards? Are there excavations. etc. steam. pushing or pulling)? Is there risk of repetitive motion injury? . fatigue. or falling objects? Does the process start and stop automatically? Are robotics used in the process? Can human factor issues (training.Conducting a Job Safety Analysis Questions to Ask about each Sub-task ±Con¶t SubAre the chemicals released into the air (gas. etc. carrying. mists. electricity. fitness. or floor openings in the work area? Are the workers exposed to stored energy hazards such as. vapors.) create a hazard? Is there risk of injury from material handling such as lifting. line pressure.

along with an estimate of the severity of the resulting injury. you'll need to rank these tasks and start addressing the most serious first. .  One method for ranking tasks considers the probability of the hazard causing injury. they are an estimate of the outcome and the likelihood of the injury occurring.Conducting a Job Safety Analysis Ranking Hazardous Tasks  Once you've identified the jobs that have the potential to or are in fact injuring workers. The next three slides presents this method for ranking hazardous tasks. These are not necessarily precise predictions of when and how severe an injury may be.

may cause serious injury or illness 2 ± Marginal. may cause minor injury or illness 1 ± Negligible. will not cause injury or illness .Conducting a Job Safety Analysis A Method to Prioritize Hazardous Tasks  Consider the severity of an injury if something were to go wrong while doing a task.  Look at the four categories under "Severity³. Severity 4 ± Catastrophic. may cause death 3 ± Critical.

likely to occur frequently 4 ± Probable. will occur several times 3 ± Occasional. likely to occur 2 ± Remote. so unlikely it can be assumed that it will not occur .Conducting a Job Safety Analysis A Method to Prioritize Hazardous Tasks  Next think about how often the worker is exposed to the hazard using the categories found in the "Probability" table. unlikely but possible 1 ± Improbable. Probability 5 ± Frequently.

Conducting a Job Safety Analysis A Method to Prioritize Hazardous Tasks  Multiply the "Severity" rank by the "Probability" rank.  This method can help you decide which is more important. address the highest scored tasks first. an infrequent job that has the potential to kill a worker. or a frequent job that is injuring workers. .  Organize the hazardous tasks by their score from highest to lowest.

Conducting a Job Safety Analysis JSA Sample Form .

Ä Personal protective equipment is also used while engineering controls are being installed.Conducting a Job Safety Analysis Eliminating or Controlling Hazards  Now that you've identified the job and evaluated its sub-tasks and their hazards. you need to identify ways to eliminate or control these hazards. control the hazard at its source with engineering controls or limit exposures using administrative controls. ³Transfer the Risk´ Ä If elimination is not possible. Ä The best method to protect workers is to eliminate the hazard at the source. personal protective equipment must be used. Ä If engineering or administrative controls are not enough to reduce the exposure to an acceptable level. .

the better Isolate the hazard ± enclose a hazardous machine Substitution .substituting a toxic chemical with one having a lower toxicity .Conducting a Job Safety Analysis Eliminating Hazards  Totally eliminate the hazard or process ± mostly unrealistic CONTROL METHOD HIERARCHY  Engineering Controls .changing the process or re-engineering to eliminate or minimize the hazards. The most effective control measure The more reliable or less likely a hazard control can be circumvented.

Conducting a Job Safety Analysis Eliminating Hazards  Administrative Controls ± Tighten up procedures and safe work practices including use of hazardous materials Alarms. signs and warnings Training Exposure limitations ± time limits on hazardous duties Buddy system  Personal Protective Equipment ± is acceptable as temporary control method Respirators Hearing protection Eye protection Hardhats Protective clothing including shoes .

.Controlling Hazards Summary  If the hazard can not be eliminated. steps must be taken to control the worker's exposure to it through: Engineering Controls Administrative Controls Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) Combinations of Controls  Combinations of Controls may need to be used if the hazard can't be completely controlled by engineering controls alone.

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