3G Core Network Engineering by René ANDREESCU

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3G Core Network Engineering by René ANDREESCU

Why a third generation?

3G Core Network Engineering by René ANDREESCU ‡ The goal of the UMTS (universal mobile telecommunications system) is to deliver multimedia services to the user in the mobile domain. UMTS and multimedia services have a significant impact not only on the RF (radio frequency) network, but also on the core network architecture. Care must be taken to allow current GSM (global system mobile) operators to protect their infrastructure investments when their networks are upgraded to support UMTS.

3G Core Network Engineering by René ANDREESCU

Network Architecture

3G Core Network Engineering by René ANDREESCU

RAN Interfaces

3G Core Network Engineering by René ANDREESCU Frequency Allocation .

3G Core Network Engineering by René ANDREESCU Network Architecture .

3G Core Network Engineering by René ANDREESCU Network Architecture .

while the UTRAN (UMTS terrestrial radio access network) manages the radio packet transmission and resource management. Packet routing and transfer within the core network are supported by definition of new logical network nodes called   GGSN (gateway GPRS [general packet radio system] support node) and SGSN (serving GPRS support node). The SGSN handles packet delivery to and from mobile terminals. The GGSN acts as a physical interface to the external packet data networks (e.g. Each SGSN is responsible for delivering packets to the terminals within its service area.. . the Internet). GGSN and SGSN are capable of supporting terminal data rates up to 2 Mbps. The GGSN is basically a packet router with additional mobility management features.3G Core Network Engineering by René ANDREESCU The core network handles call control and mobility management functionalities. and it connects with various network elements through standardized interfaces.

. The UMTS network architecture inherits most of its structure from the GSM model in the UTRAN.3G Core Network Engineering by René ANDREESCU  A UTRAN consists of one or more RNSs (radio network subsystems). which in turn consist of base stations (Node Bs) and RNCs (radio network controllers).  The RNS performs all of the radio resource and air interface management functionalities.

while the GSM reuse factor is typically N = 4.3G Core Network Engineering by René ANDREESCU Spectrum of Two WCDMA Carriers with 5 MHz Channel Spacing (Unlike GSM and TDMA. the same carriers can be used in all of the cells. Thus.) . the reuse factor for this system is N = 1.

3G Core Network Engineering by René ANDREESCU WCDMA Carrier .

.84 Mcps Time slot structure: 15 slots/frame Frame length: 10 ms Modulation: QPSK Detection: based on pilot symbols Intra-frequency Handover: soft Inter-frequency Handover: hard Spreading factors: Up-link: 4..256 Down-link: 4.3G Core Network Engineering by René ANDREESCU ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Duplex method: FDD/TDD Channel spacing: 5 MHz Carrier chip rate: 3.512 FDD .

3G Core Network Engineering by René ANDREESCU Used Modulations .

3G Core Network Engineering by René ANDREESCU In CDMA new channels are created by assigning more spreading codes. . As long as the interference is low enough. we can open up a new channel for communication.

3G Core Network Engineering by René ANDREESCU Spread Spectrum Techniques .

3G Core Network Engineering by René ANDREESCU Direct-Sequence ± Spread Spectrum ( DSSS) .

3G Core Network Engineering by René ANDREESCU .

3G Core Network Engineering by René ANDREESCU Principles emission Data 8 bit code Data x Code receive Code Data x Code .

3G Core Network Engineering by René ANDREESCU Valid receiver Received signal 8-bit Code Signal x Code Integration Valid 1 Valid 0 .

3G Core Network Engineering by René ANDREESCU Invalid receiver Received signal Other code Signal x code integration In practice: Gold code 32 bits .

3G Core Network Engineering by René ANDREESCU x=1+X2+X5 Gold code generator basis .

3G Core Network Engineering by René ANDREESCU Direct-Sequence ± Spread Spectrum ( DSSS) .

.3G Core Network Engineering by René ANDREESCU If we want to exploit the multi-path channel. Direct-Sequence ± Spread Spectrum ( DSSS) .. but we gain frequency diversity. the despreading becomes a bit more complicated .. ..

3G Core Network Engineering by René ANDREESCU .

we get Hence. QUICK EXAMPLE: Assuming a spreading factor M=512 and an optimal processing gain of Gp=M. we can have 51 other users (with their own spreading codes and equal power) in our system. and a required (Eb/N0) of 10 dB for proper reception. if we regard the other users as jammers. . compared to the wanted signal: This expression gives us a simple way of calculating how many users we can have in our system.3G Core Network Engineering by René ANDREESCU ‡ The jamming gain (J/C) tells us how much stronger a jamming signal can be.

only despreading of each user and detection.3G Core Network Engineering by René ANDREESCU ‡ The jamming margin gives us a conservative measure on the number of users. since it assumes that we do not use any advanced detection scheme . ‡ Since a base-station has knowledge about the spreading codes of all users in a cell.. . it can detect all users jointly and thereby perform interference cancellation. This is called multi-user detection and requires high processing power of the base station..

‡ Another advantage of CDMA is that we can establish channels with different spreading factors. we can use the same frequency band in all cells in a cellular system. . and transmit simultaneously in the same frequency band. allowing different data rates. ‡ An advantage of CDMA is that the establishment of new ³channels´ can be done as long as the interference is kept below a certain level. This gives a flexibility which we do not have in FDMA and CDMA.3G Core Network Engineering by René ANDREESCU ‡ Since users in a cell are separated by codes.

3G Core Network Engineering by René ANDREESCU ‡ The available radio resource is shared among users in a multiple access scheme. . ‡ For CDMA systems. ‡ When we apply a cellular structure. and the number of users depends on code properties and the capacity to perform interference cancellation (multi-user detection). we can reuse the same channel again after a certain distance. ‡ For FDMA and TDMA the tolerance against interference determines the possible cluster size and thereby the amount of resources available in each cell. ‡ In cellular systems the limiting factor is interference. we use cluster size one.

3G Core Network Engineering by René ANDREESCU Codes and their use .

SF describes the ratio of the information data rate (represented by the bit duration Tbit ) to the rate of the spreading code (represented by the chip duration Tchip ) CDMA Equation .3G Core Network Engineering by René ANDREESCU Important terms when talking about spread spectrum are the socalled spreading factor SF and the spreading gain SG.

3G Core Network Engineering by René ANDREESCU Let us denote the signal level before despreading the chip energy to interference ratio Ec/I [dB] and the signal level after despreading the bit energy to interference ratio Eb/I [dB]. Eb/I [dB] and SG are related by: CDMA Equation . Than Ec/I [dB].

Therefore. The orthogonality factor (OF) for e.g.3G Core Network Engineering by René ANDREESCU The factor OF [dB] describes the degree of orthogonality between wanted user signal and interference signal. CDMA Orthogonality . in a Gaussian noise environment the wanted user signal level is increased by an amount of SG dB. Gaussian noise equals 0 dB.

3G Core Network Engineering by René ANDREESCU The reference sensitivity is the minimum receiver input power measured at the antenna port at which the bit error rate (BER) does not exceed a value of 10-3 . This testcase determines the tolerable noise figure of the receiver front end.7 dBm. The cumulative value of the incoming signal power is -106. Reference Sensitivity Level Testcase . The wanted user signal level before despreading Ec/I is -117dBm The reference channel is a 30 ksps channel which yields an SF of 128.

As an example we can take the Okumura-Hata propataion model for an urban macro cell with base station antenna height of 30m. because it offers better results for urban areas. In this case the Okumura-Hata model is used. mobile antenna height of 1. the cell range R can be easily calculated for a known propagation model. for example the OkumuraHata or the Walfish-Ikegami model.3G Core Network Engineering by René ANDREESCU From the calculated link budget.5m and carrier frequncy of 1950 MHz: Propagation Model . and it converts the maximum . The propagation model describes the average signal propagation in that environment. allowed propagation loss in dB to the maximum cell range in kilometers.

The MORANS scenario offers path-loss information in a 25m grid to every base station.3G Core Network Engineering by René ANDREESCU Simulating the MORANS scenario (Mobile Radio Access Network reference Scenarios ) a second model can be used. The model which was used to calculate the path loss matrices is a modified COST-Hata model: . d Heff Diff Clutter Distance between receiver and transmitter in km Effective height of transmitter in m Diffraction value according to Deygout Clutter dependent correction factor MORANS Propagation Model .

and the service mix is defined as the percentage of the subscribers who use these separate bearers. Table shows examples for these bearers. Integration of Service Mix . . That can be done using the load factor.are defined.).3G Core Network Engineering by René ANDREESCU The RLB as described previously does not offer the possibility to calculate the allowed path-loss for users with different services (speech. The term service mix means that several service profiles (so called ´bearers´). which is calculated for uplink and downlink in different ways... data.

the service mix is not included. Uplink Load Factor . integrated by making a linear combination of the separate parameters. It can be . weighted by that leads to Equation.3G Core Network Engineering by René ANDREESCU The uplink load factor can be written as As in Eqution can be seen.

Parameters used in uplink load factor calculation .3G Core Network Engineering by René ANDREESCU .

the service mix is not included.3G Core Network Engineering by René ANDREESCU The downlink load factor can be written as As in Eqution can be seen. This relationship is shown in Equation. Downlink Load Factor . Therefor the . individual services are integrated by linear combination. which ones are using carrier k. where is the percentage of subscribers.

3G Core Network Engineering by René ANDREESCU . Parameters used in downlink load factor calculation .

which use different carriers are presented. 20 RLB and Service Mix .3G Core Network Engineering by René ANDREESCU Integrating the load factor in the RLB can be done in the same way for up. The next Table shows an example for the extended RLB. The parameters for the individual bearers can be found in Table of slide nr.and downlink using the following equation: . In this example two groups.

3G Core Network Engineering by René ANDREESCU Cell Search .

3G Core Network Engineering by René ANDREESCU Open loop Power Control ( PC ) .

3G Core Network Engineering by René ANDREESCU .

3G Core Network Engineering by René ANDREESCU WCDMA Power Control .

3G Core Network Engineering by René ANDREESCU Gain of fast Power Control in WCDMA .

3G Core Network Engineering by René ANDREESCU Rx and Tx power versus interference levels .

3G Core Network Engineering by René ANDREESCU WCDMA Power Control in Soft Handover .

3G Core Network Engineering by René ANDREESCU Softer Handover .

3G Core Network Engineering by René ANDREESCU Soft Handover .

3G Core Network Engineering by René ANDREESCU Soft Handover with Iur connection .

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