A.R.manikandan K.Kirankumar

What Is Nanotechnology

What is Nanotechnology?

Nanotechnology is the art and science of manipulating matter at the nanoscale

   Nanotechnology is the use of very small particles of material. the properties of the material actually become affected.NANOTECHNOLOGY IN CIVIL ENGINEERING INTRODUCTION:   Nanotechnology is not a new science and it is not a new technology. The size of the particles is very important because at the length scale of nanometer. A nanometer is a billionth of a meter. ³Nanotechnology is an enabling technology that allows us to developling technology materials with improved or totally new properties´i..e. 10-9m. to examine the nature of our world at an ever smaller scale. .

NANOTECHNOLOGY IN CONSTRUCTION  The construction business will inevitably be a beneficiary of this nanotechnology.and. steel and glass .  Glass is made self-cleaning. Paints are made more insulating and water repelling.  Concrete is stronger. .  Steel is made tougher. more durable and more easily placed. many more.  In fact it already is in the fields of concrete.

Nano composit e 4. 3.titanium oxide(tio2 ) .partcle sise 2.INTRODUCTION TO NANO MATERIALS  Nano particle:It is defined as a with at least one dimension less than 200nm. It is quantum dots if they are small enough (typically sub 10nm) such that jumps in energy levels occur.  Nano composite: It is produced by  adding Nano particle to a bulk  material in order to improve the  bulk material¶s properties.carbon nanotub es 1.

CARBON NANO TUBES (CNT)  They are cylindrical with nanometer diameter.  Thermal conduction is also very high along the tube axis .  They can be several millimeters in length they have 5 times the Young¶s modulus and 8 times the strength of steel.

 The addition of small amounts (1% wt) of CNT¶s can improve the mechanical properties of samples consisting of the main Portland phase and water.  Oxidized multi-walled Nano tubes (MWNT¶s) show the best improvements both in compressive strength (+ 25 N/mm2) and flexural strength (+ 8 N/mm2) compared to the samples without the reinforcement. .Contd««..

 It can oxidize oxygen or organic materials. and so added to paints. windows. tiles.TITANIUM OXIDE (TIO2)  Titanium dioxide is a widely used white pigment. . cements. or other products for sterilizing  When incorporated into outdoor building materials can substantially reduce concentrations of airborne pollutants.

thus it can be used for anti-fogging coatings or self cleaning windows.  Additionally. as TiO2 is exposed to UV light. it becomes increasingly hydrophilic.Contd«««  The process by which this occurs is that rain water is attracted to the surface and forms sheets which collect the pollutants and dirt particles previously broken down and washes them off. .

after all.NANOTECHNOLOGY IN CONCRETE  Nanotechnology can modify the molecular structure of concrete material to improve the material properties  Nano-concrete is defined as ³A concrete made with Portland cement particles that are less than 500 Nano-meters as the cementing agent´.  Concrete is. a macro-material strongly influenced by its nano-properties. .

Contd Nano technology can modify the molecular structure of concrete material to improve the material`s properties as shown in the chart Bulk properties Mec a ical properties Volu e sta ility dura ility Sustai a ility of co crete .

 Nano silica addition to cement based materials can also control the degradation of the fundamental C-S-H (Calcium Silicate Hydrate) reaction of concrete can caused by calciumleaching in water as well as block water penetration and therefore leads improvements in durability .NANO-SILICA  Packing of concrete can be improved by using nano-silica which leads to a densifying of the micro and nanostructure resulting in improved mechanical properties.

Contd«..  Hydration tests indicated that the Nano-cement had a more rapid hydration rate than Portland cement.  Nano-silica addition to cement based materials can also control the degradation of the fundamental C-S-H (calcium-silicate hydrate) reaction of concrete caused by calcium leaching in water as well as block water penetration and therefore lead to improvements in durability. .

y Consequently.VITAL ROLE OF GLASS IN BUILDINGS y The current state of art in cladding is an active system which track¶s sun wind and rain in order to control the building environment and contribute to sustainability. y Most of glass in construction is. there is lot of Reaserch being carried out on the application of nanotechnology to glass. one of the exterior source of buildings and the control of light and heat entering through through glazing is a major issue. y Research in to nanotechnological solutions to this centers about four different strategies to block light and heat coming through windows. .

Nanotechnology and glass(self cleaning) .

y Tio2 is hydrophilic and this attraction to water form sheets out of rain drops which then wash of the dirt particles broken down in the previous process. .Self cleaning glass using tio2 y Titanium dioxide is used nanoparticle form to coat glazing since it has a srerilizing and anti. y The particles catalyze powerfull reaction which breakdown organic pollutants.fouling properties. voltaile organic compounds and bacterial membranes. y Glass incorprating this self cleaning technology is avilable on the market today.


Nanotechnology in steel .

such as in bridges or towers.NANO TECHNOLOGY AND STEEL Need for Nanotechnology in Steel: Fatigue is a significant issue that can lead to the structural failure of steel subject to cyclic loading. . This can happen at stresses significantly lower than the yield stress of the material and lead to a significant shortening of useful life of the structure.

. less need for monitoring and more efficient materials use in construction prone to fatigue issues.NANO TECHNOLOGY AND STEEL  Stress risers are responsible for initiating cracks from which fatigue failure results and research has shown that the addition of copper Nano particle reduces the surface unevenness of steel which then limits the number of stress risers and hence fatigue cracking. Advancements in this technology would lead to increased safety.

 A new formula infuses steel with nanoscale copper particles.TEMPERATURE RESTRICTION  Above 750 F. this formula could maintain structural integrity at temperatures up to 1000 F. steel loses 50 percent of its strength. corrosion resistance and a good surface finish. . The new steel allows ultra-high strength to be combined with good formability. and at 1100 F. regular steel starts to lose its structural integrity.

 As an active solution.Fire and heat restriction  Fire protective glass is another application of Nanotechnology.  This is achieved by using a clear intumescent layer sand wiched b/t glass panels(an interlayer) formed of fumed of silica(sio2)Nanoparticle which turns into a rigid and opaque fire shield when heated.  For heat protection thin film coatings are being developed which are spectrally sensitive surface applications for window glass and filter out unwanted infared frequencies of light(which heat up a room) and reduce heat gain in buildings however this are effectively a passive solution. thermo chromatic technologies are being studied which react to temprature and provide insulation to give protection from heating whilst maintaining adequate lighting. .

 Sustainability is also enhanced by the use of higher cable strength as this leads to a more efficient use of materials.  High rise structures require high strength joints and turn leads to the need for high strength bolts .High strength cables  Current research in to the refinement of the cementite phase of steel to a nano size has produced stronger cables. especially in suspension bridges.  A stronger cable material would reduce the cost and the period of construction.

.HIGH STRENGTH BOLTS  The capacity of high strength bolts is realized generally through quenching and tempering and the microstructures of such products consist of tempered martensite.

 Vanadium and molybdenum Nanoparticle has shown that they improve the delayed fracture problems associated with high strength bolts. improving the steel micro-structure.Contd««« When the tensile strength of tempered martensite steel exceeds 1.  .200 MPa even a very small amount of hydrogen embrittles the grain boundaries and the steel material may fail during use.

y It has the mechanical properties of conventional steel. technology(Sweden). y Resistant to corrosion due to the presence of very hard nanometer-sized particles. y It has a modified nano structure that makes it corrosion resistant. . y It is an alternative to conventional stainless steel. y The use of stainless stell reinforcement in concrete structures is limited as it is cost prohibitive.but at a lower cost. y Desirable qualities of high young s modulus and high strength. (America).Two products in international market Sandvick Nanoflex y Produced by sandvick materials Mmfx2 steel y Produced by mmfx steel corp.

. there by becoming more opaque at the touch of button.Other technologies«««« y A third strategy. involves photo chromic technologies which react to changes in light intensity. y all these applications are intended to reduce energy using in the cooling buildings. that produces a similar outcome by a different process. y Electro chromic coatings are being developed that react to changes in applied voltage by using tungesten oxide layer.


. lignocelluloses are twice as strong as steel.  Currently. however. research in these areas appears limited.NANO TECHNOLOGY IN OTHER DISCIPLINES Nanotechnology and wood  Wood is also composed of nanotubes or ³nanofibrils´.

NANOTECHNOLOGY AND COATINGS  Nanotechnology is being applied to paints and insulating properties. giving very limited paths for thermal conduction  This type of paint is used. pores and particles. produced by the addition of nano-sized cells. for corrosion protection under insulation since it is hydrophobic and repels water from the metal pipe and can also protect metal from salt water attack .

y Production of Aero gels is done by sol-gel process. .Elimination of toxic gases y The absorption carbon monoxide is done by cuprous salt and absorption hydrocarbons is done by using a complex Nanomaterial. carbon monolithic Aero gels).(i. y Adsorption capacity measurements show that modified hydrophobic carbon Aero gels are excellent adsorbents for different toxic organic compounds from water.e.

77 729.84 184.43 .Contd««« pollutant carbonmonoxide hydrocarbons nitrogenoxides Particulate meter Total pollution load Pollution/day 421.45 12.37 110.

at best. nanotechnology offers the possibility of great advances whereas conventional approaches. .CONCLUSION In conclusion. offer only incremental improvements.

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