Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
Presented To: Presented by:
Dr. Yogesh C. Joshi
Jignesh Khadela(09F17) Pradeesh
Mayank Rathore(09M23) Krishnan(09M28)
G.H. PATEL POSTGRADUATE INSTITUTE OF BUSINESS MANAGEMENT Sardar Patel University January 3, 2011
OBJECTIVES OF OUR STUDY
To study the evolution of OECD. To know the member countries of OECD. To study the organizational structure and working pattern of OECD. To know the role and functions of OECD. To study how OECD impacts international trade and its relevance in present day scenario. To know about achievements, challenges and its future potential.
identifying good practices. The OECD originated in 1948 as the Organization for European Economic Co-operation (OEEC). seeking answers to common problems. to help administer the Marshall Plan for the reconstruction of Europe after World War II.INTRODUCTION
OECD is an international economic organization of 34 countries founded in 1961 to stimulate economic progress and world trade. its membership was extended to non-European states. OECD defines itself as a forum of countries committed to democracy and the market economy.
. providing a setting to compare policy experiences. Later. and coordinating domestic and international policies of its members. led by Robert Marjolin of France.
Yugoslavia had observer status in the organization starting with the establishment of the OECD until its dissolution. Australia. It consisted of the European founder countries of the OEEC plus the United States and Canada. with Japan joining three years later. a European Nuclear Energy Agency was set up under the OEEC. to bring the European Economic Community of the six and the other OEEC members together on a multilateral basis.
. The Convention was signed in December 1960 and the OECD officially superseded the OEEC in September 1961. In 1958. and New Zealand also joined the organization. During the next 12 years Finland. Following the 1957 Rome Treaties to launch the European Economic Community.EVOLUTION OF OECD
In the 1950s the OEEC provided the framework for negotiations aimed at determining conditions for setting up a European Free Trade Area. the Convention on the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development was drawn up to reform the OEEC.
Article 1 of the OECD Convention defines the Organisation¶s mission as being to: Support economic growth Boost employment Raise living standards Maintain financial stability Assist other countries¶ economic development Contribute to growth in world trade
34 member countries
AUSTRALIA AUSTRIA BELGIUM CANADA CHILE CZECH REPUBLIC DENMARK ESTONIA FINLAND FRANCE GERMANY GREECE HUNGARY ICELAND IRELAND ITALY JAPAN KOREA LUXEMBOURG MEXICO NETHERLANDS NEW ZEALAND NORWAY POLAND PORTUGAL SLOVAK REPUBLIC SPAIN SOUTH KOREA SWEDEN SWITZERLAND TURKEY TRIESTE UNITED KINGDOM UNITED STATES
Countries invited to membership talks
CHILE ESTONIA ISRAEL RUSSIA SLOVENIA
BRAZIL CHINA INDIA INDONESIA SOUTH AFRICA
decisions taken by consensus
Discussion and implementation Representatives of member countries and of invited non-members work with the OECD Secretariat on specific issues
Analysis and proposals Secretary-General Deputy Secretaries-General Directorates
.WHO DRIVES OECD¶S WORK?
Oversight and strategic direction Representatives of member countries and of the European Commission.
OECD¶s WAY OF WORKING
multilateral inspection and a peer review process through which the performance of individual countries is monitored by their peers. and includes regular projections of short and medium-term economic developments.OECD¶S WAY OF WORKING
OECD's work is based on continued monitoring of events in member countries as well as outside OECD area. after which committees discuss policy regarding this information. and then governments implement recommendations. The OECD Secretariat collects and analyses data. the Council makes decisions. all carried out at committee-level.
Mutual examination by governments.
MAJOR WORK AREAS
Employment. social welfare
Ensure equal access to education for all Promote effective and accessible health systems Fight social discrimination and unemployment Bridge the gap between rich and poor
Analyse and publish comparative data Produce forecasts Develop policies for growth and stability Foster open markets Promote cross-border investment Share best practices Study how international development co-ordination helps developing countries Offer knowledge and experience to help countries or regions in the process of development
Environment. sustainable development
Bring together member countries to discuss fundamental energy issues through the international energy agency (IEA) and the nuclear energy agency (NEA) Make markets work for a healthier environment Use science and technology to benefit people everywhere Cut wastage and pollution
Promoting liberalisation in financial services and the development of international financial best practices Working to promote investment policy reform and international cooperation Analysing national tax systems and their impact on labour. capital and product markets Studying the consequences of ageing populations and their implications for insurance and pensions
Promote effective public administration Encourage companies to run their affairs better Ensure transparent and fair tax systems Foster fair competition Fight corruption Promote high ethical standards Encourage citizen-participation in policy-making
Improving understanding of member countries for how information and communications technologies (ICT) contribute to sustainable economic growth and social well-being and their role in the shift towards knowledge-based societies Development of indicators to benchmark countries' innovation performance A strong record on biotechnology-related topics through work that spans more than 25 years
technology. Offers expertise and ideas to over 100 non-member countries for their economic development. Monitors economic trends relating to trade. Publishes its economic statistics and other intellectual findings both online and offline.
. taxation and agriculture.FUNCTIONS OF OECD
Provides a platform for the governments of member nations. Offers peer reviews to member nations about their performance. environment. It also forecasts economic development and conducts in-depth analysis .
Safeguarding values while adapting to change. Defining a clear public service mission. Anti-Bribery Convention of Foreign Public Officials. Taking advantage of new technology.ROLE OF OECD
Anticipating problems. Providing guidelines for Managing conflicts of interest. Empowering public servants and citizens to report misconduct. Enhance technical cooperation in Central and Eastern countries. Development Assistance Committee
accounting for about two thirds of world imports and exports.
.IMPACT OF OECD ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE
World merchandise trade is dominated by OECD countries. The regulatory framework for foreign direct investment (FDI) has also liberalized in OECD countries. OECD merchandise trade is basically concentrated in manufactures. Intra-regional trade between countries in the European region has grown faster than trade between Europe and other OECD countries. and it is now more of the "intra-industry" type. The OECD area dominates world trade in merchandise.
but manufactured goods now account for more than 60 per cent of the total. is around 30-35 per cent(as on 2008). As new financial centres have emerged. Non-OECD exports consisted mainly of primary commodities. until the mid-1980s. and in particular of oil. NON-OECD REGIONSµ shares in world imports and exports. South-East Asian countries' shares amounted to 19 per cent in 2010)
. there has been a major redistribution of both exports and imports among them. trade in "other" private services has also increased in the non-OECD area since the late 1980s. but their share in non-factor services has remained well below that of OECD countries (for example.
The largest increase in demand for foreign goods emanated from South-East Asia. mainly from Japan. South-East Asian countries have been the largest non-OECD recipients of FDI flows. These FDI inflows have played a major role in facilitating technology transfer and development.
. Over the past decade or so. Non-OECD manufactured imports have risen as rapidly as manufactured exports.
Secretariat staff: more than 2500 OECD¶s total budget is ¼ 342.9 million (2008)
OECD¶s Secretary-General is Mr. Angel Gurría
As on 2008
.KEY FACTS OF OECD
Two official languages: English & French OECD¶s headquarters are located in Paris.
ACHIEVEMENTS OF OECD
The main highlights of the OECD are: Shifted to Think global. act local. OECD Economic surveys and Going for Growth. Continued focus on economic growth through innovation. OECD Fact book.
. Major publications include the OECD Economic Outlook.
Reduce costs to improve prevailing environmental conditions.
.CHALLENGES OF OECD
Improve data collection methods. Balancing global economic growth.
OECD centres (Berlin. Tokyo And Washington) which organise events to disseminate OECD s Works. studies A corporate magazine OECD observer. Radio and TV studios. An annual civil society forum.OECD COMMUNICATIONS
Publications (over 250 titles per year) A regularly updated website (statistics. Mexico City. )
OECD publishes regular outlooks. OECD Economic surveys provide individual national analyses and policy recommendations. Going for Growth presents comparative indicators and evaluations of national performance. annual overviews and comparative statistics.PUBLICATIONS
OECD publications are a prime vehicle for disseminating the Organisation's intellectual output. Among them: OECD Economic Outlook assesses prospects for member and major nonmember economies.
. OECD Factbook is a key reference tool for everyone working on economic and policy issues.
oecd.FOR MORE INFORMATION
References mentioned in the presentation: www.org/powerpointreferences