Personality & Emotion
What is Personality?
Heredity Environment Situation
Theories of Personality
Type Trait Psychoanalytic Social Learning Humanistic
muscular. self conscious. callous fond of physical activity Ectomorph: tall. plump. sociable. reserved Fail to reveal complexities of personality Eg MBTI
. thin. restrained.Type Theories
Places personalities into identifiable (discrete) categories Endomorph:short.noisy.relaxed Mesomorph:heavy. easy going .
Enduring attribute of a person that appears consistently on a variety of situations Serves as the unit of analysis Trait theorists are concerned with finding a set of basic traits which describe personality and also measure it Assessment happens in two ways: person describes himself by answering about attitude. behavior and feeling (personality inventory) others describe him (rating scale) Trait theory recognizes continuity of personalities Eg Big five personality inventory
Mind an iceberg conscious. preconscious. superego
. unconscious Personality components: id. ego.
Social Learning Theory
Behavior is learnt (including attitudes. Some personal variablesthat will determinethe behavior ina perticular situation are: Competencies: KSA Cognitive strategies: habitual ways of selectively attending to information in the environment Subjective value outcome: differential importance given to outxcome Self regulatory systems and plans: towards goal achievement lead to differences in behavior
. fear. self insight) Two ways of learning: reinforcing the direct experience and by observing others The theory focusses on what an individual does in a given situation. skills.
Emphasis on man¶s potential for self direction and freedom of choice Importance to subjective experience Emphasis on man¶s positive nature and push towards self actualization Emphasis on here and now rather than childhood experiences
Psychometric Testing: The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
Extroverted or Introverted (E or I) Sensing or Intuitive (S or N) facts vs. gut Thinking or Feeling (T or F) logic vs. flexible & spontaneous 10
. emotion Perceiving or Judging (P or J) orderly & incontrol vs.
Psychometric Testing: Sixteen Primary Traits
Psychometric Testing: The Big Five Model
working in consistent and predictable ways. They are strong-willed people who enjoy challenges. and what to know "how" and "why". These people tend to be independent and results driven. The bottom line is their focus tends to be on the bottom line and results. Decisive. Cautious & Correct. constantly check for accuracy. These people are often focused on details and quality. They prefer being behind the scene.
.I. It helps people explore behaviour across four primary dimensions: Dominance: Direct. taking action. and immediate results. They are often good listeners and avoid change and conflict Conscientiousness: Concerned. These individuals tend to be very social and out going. They prefer participating on teams. and entertaining and energizing others. These people tend to be your team players and are supportive and helpful to others. Influence: Optimistic & Outgoing.C.Other Psychometric Tests Used
Thomas DiSC Profiling The D. Steadiness: Sympathetic & Cooperative.S. They plan ahead. Learning Model The DISC Profile is a non-judgemental tool for understanding behavioural types and personality styles. sharing thoughts. Driving.
Other Psychometric Tests Used
Hermann Brain Dominance Instrument (HBDI) leftbrain_rightbrain. how much attention contact and recognition you want from others Control: how much influence and responsibility you exercise how much you want others to lead and establish procedures Affection: how close and warm you are with others and to what extent you want others to show warmth and affection to you
.docLeft brain and right brain predominance FIRO B: leadership styles in relation to interpersonal relationships Inclusion: how much generally you include others in your life.
completer) People oriented (coordinator. monitor. evaluator and specialist)
. implementer.Other Psychometric Tests Used
Belbin Team Role Profiling Assesses nine team roles: Action oriented (shaper. team worker or resource investigator) Cerebral roles (plant.
Major Personality Attributes Influencing OB
Locus of control Machiavellianism Self-esteem Self-monitoring Propensity for risk taking Type A personality
Locus of Control
Conditions Favoring High Machs Direct interaction Minimal rules and regulations Distracting emotions
Self-Esteem and Self-Monitoring
High Risk-taking Managers Make quicker decisions. Require more information before making decisions.
. Exist in larger organizations with stable environments. Operate in smaller and more entrepreneurial organizations. Low Risk-taking Managers Are slower to make decisions. Risk Propensity Aligning managers¶ risk-taking propensity to job requirements should be beneficial to organizations. Use less information to make decisions.
Achieving Personality-Job Fit (John Holland)
Personality Types Realistic Investigative Social Conventional Enterprising Artistic
Holland¶s Typology of Personality and Congruent Occupations
Relationships among Occupational Personality Types
Intense feelings that are directed at someone or something.
Feelings that tend to be less intense than emotions and that lack a contextual stimulus.
.What Are Emotions?
A broad range of emotions that people experience.
Emotions. Original OB focus was solely on the effects of strong negative emotions that interfered with individual and organizational efficiency. Emotions of any kind are disruptive to organizations.
.Why Emotions Were Ignored in OB
The ³myth of rationality´ Organizations are not emotion-free.
What Are Emotions? (cont¶d)
Felt versus Displayed Emotions
Variety of emotions Positive Negative Intensity of emotions Personality Job Requirements Frequency and duration of emotions How often emotions are exhibited.
. How long emotions are displayed.
Facial Expressions Convey Emotions
. the more likely people are to confuse them.Emotion Continuum
The closer any two emotions are to each other on the continuum.
Display emotions more frequently. Are better at reading others¶ emotions. Men Believe that displaying emotions is inconsistent with the male image. Experience emotions more intensely. Are more comfortable in expressing emotions. Have less need to seek social approval by showing positive emotions.Gender and Emotions
Women Can show greater emotional expression.
. Are innately less able to read and to identify with others¶ emotions.
Gender and Emotions: Reasons for Differences
Genetic: Innate ability to read others Socialization practices: men taught to be tough and showing emotions is inconsistent with this image Need for Social Approval: high in women show more emotions like happiness
External Constraints on Emotions
Decision Making Emotions are an important part of the decision-making process in organizations.OB Applications of Understanding Emotions
Ability and Selection Emotions affect employee effectiveness.
. Motivation Emotional commitment to work and high motivation are strongly linked. Leadership Emotions are important to acceptance of messages from organizational leaders.
characterize high performers. not high IQ scores.Ability and Selection
Emotional Intelligence (EI) Self-awareness Self-management Self-motivation Empathy Social skills Research Findings High EI scores.
Deviant Workplace Behaviors Negative emotions can lead to employee deviance in the form of actions that violate established norms and threaten the organization and its members. Productivity failures Property theft and destruction Political actions Personal aggression
.OB Applications of Understanding Emotions
Interpersonal Conflict Conflict in the workplace and individual emotions are strongly intertwined.
Emotions & Work life Balance 1