Prof. and HOD Psychology VVN Degree College Bangalore.

Memory consists of the following ‡ Learning ‡ Storage ‡ Retrieval

Why do we forget?

Repress unpleasant memories .Because we ± Get a weak impression by not attending. Let the impression decay by not repeating. Allow interference from other impressions.

How can we avoid this? ‡ By  Getting a strong impression. .  Lifting repression.  Repeating (or reciting) what we have learned.  Avoiding interference.

Getting a strong impression ‡ This depends on concentration ( sustained attention) ‡ We can achieve this by a)Forming a habit of bringing the mind back every time it wanders. .

Getting a strong impression (contd) a) Acquiring a deep and permanent interest. One important aspect of interest is understanding. (Transcribe) .

b) Relaxing. . c) Reducing worry and emotional conflict . yet maintaining a slight amount of tension while concentrating.

Concentration exercise - .

Concentration exercise- .

‡ Reciting to your self [recitation]. but often [spaced learning]. ‡ Repeat for longer than you need to learn [over learning]. .Repeating ‡ This helps better when you ‡ Understand what you repeat [concentration]. ‡ Study a little at a time.

‡ Tell yourself that you can [autosuggestion].Repeating [contd.] ‡ Repeat wholes rather than parts [whole learning]. . ‡ Keep learning and recall conditions similar [reintegration]. ‡ Use Von Restoff effect [contrasts].

. 2. Sleeping after study. ‡ You can avoid interference by 1. Resting /relaxing before and after study.Avoiding interference ‡ Much of forgetting occurs in the first fifteen minutes. Memorizing just before recall. 3.

‡ 1. 3. 4. Reducing the strength of resistance.. You can avoid repression byIncreasing the strength of memory. Free association. 2. Saying alphabet slowly to yourself. .Avoiding repression .

‡ Encode information in more than one way. ‡ Use visual imagery. ‡ Take your time. ‡ Over learn. ‡ Take time out. . ‡ Add meaning.In brief ‡ Pay attention.

‡ Simply using memory will not help. ‡ There are different ways of using memory. .Some methods to improve memory .. but using memory in certain ways will help.

Improving Memory . 4. 2. 5. Context and retrieval. 3. Organizing and mnemonics. Minimizing interference. . Memory can be improved by Elaborative rehearsal. ‡ 1. Periodic retrieval.

d. Ask questions.Elaborative rehearsal . Connect with real life experiences. c. Use imagery. b. e. You can elaborate by Review after study. [ shopping list] . ‡ a.

10. 3. Shopping list Soap Bananas Bread Soap powder Flowers Thread Serving spoon Six glass tumblers Eggs Perfume . 6. 4.Using imagery . 8. Example 1‡ 1. 7. 5. 2. 9.

Example 2‡ Binoculars sunflower light house apple pen leaf butterfly violin ball brush banana mask. .Using imagery .

Example 3.Organs of the Digestive System ‡ Mouth stomach pancreas liver gall bladder small intestine large intestine .Using imagery .

You can use the periodic retrieval chart given below - .Periodic retrieval .. ‡ Recite often in a methodic way so that you will not forget information.

45-6.10-10.10-8. 2 3 10/11/02 6.45-6.0010.0010.1 11/11/02 6.37 1 Subject . for 4minutes 9/11/02 6.1010.10-8.37 6 7 Subject .32 13/12/02 6.04 6/11/02 10.4 5 Subject -5 Subject .308.00 10/12/02 6.1010.50 10/11/02 6.308.30 4/11/02 9.50 13/11/02 6.409. 8pm.108.50 4/11/02 8.2 12/11/02 6. for 2minutes 9/12/02 5/11/02 8.37 8 Subject .50 12/11/02 6.30 2/11/02 7pm ± 8pm.308.No.00 13/12/02 6.356.30-6.30-9.2 Subject .409.4 5/11/02 7pm ± 8pm.10-8.30 4/11/02 7pm ± 8pm.40-9.50 2/11/02 8.306.456.40-9.10-10.04 3/11/02 10.35-6.14 6/11/02 10.55-7.40-9.1010.1010.306. 8pm. subject Study 1hour First reviewAfter reviewAfter 10 minutes.40-9.32 10/12/02 6.00 12/12/02 6.20 1/11/02 9.356.50 9/11/02 6.30-6.10-10. 8pm.45-6.10-8.556.14 3/11/02 10.55-7.556.308.00 Fourth reviewAfter reviewAfter I month.3 1/11/02 7pm ± 8pm.3 4/11/02 8.0010.35-6.00-10.409.37 10 Subject .0010.30 13/11/02 6.10-8.00-10.37 4 Subject . 2/11/02 8.55-7.556.20 2/11/02 9.1010. 8pm.32 12/12/02 6.50 5/11/02 10.409.55-7.306.20 Second reviewAfter reviewAfter I day.55-7.30-9.20 5/11/02 9.308. for 4minutes 2/11/02 10.306.04 2/11/02 10.1 Subject .356.30-9.14 5/11/02 10.556.50 11/11/02 6.14 4/11/02 10.456.40-9.10-10.0010.306.5 .35-6.108.409.04 Third reviewAfter reviewAfter I week.For 10 minutes 1/11/02 8.04 4/11/02 10.456.30-6.356.45-6.32 9/12/02 6.20 3/11/02 9.30-6.10-10.556. 5/11/02 8.30-9.108.356.00 11/12/02 6.30 3/11/02 7pm ± 8pm.14 9 Subject .30-9.35-6.00-10.45-6.456.00-10. 3/11/02 8.35-6.456.32 11/12/02 6. 1/11/02 8.00-10.30-6.50 3/11/02 8.



‡ a.Organization and mnemonics . Use any of the following to organize information Graphs Points Flow charts Mind maps Comparative tables Diagrams [use humor] . b.. c. d. e. f.

Paraventricular & anterior nuclei Meidal & lateral preoptic nuclei Ventromedial Dorsomedial Arcuate Lateral & Posterior nuclei Medial & lateral Mamillary. Pre & supra ± Mamillary nuclei . suprachiasmatic.A FLOW CHART Groups of Neurons belonging to the Hypothalamus Supraoptic area Preoptic area Tuberal area Mamillary area Supraoptic.


tegmentum Subthalamic nuclei Amygdaloid complex Septal areas Connections Thalamic nuclei Prefrontal cortex from Hypothalamus Hippocampal formation Hypophysis cerebri Anterior olfactory area Reticular formation .


.Mnemonics .. and are comfortable with. ‡ Some mnemonics are  Rhymes. ‡ You can use any mnemonic that you like best.  Method of loci.  Keyword method. ‡ Mnemonics are techniques to remember information.

Viscera and Soma. Circadian rhythm and Stress Do not forget sleep and emotions. Reproduction. Thirst and Fluids Are only few of its functions. Endocrines. Reward and Punishment are all the things The Hypothalamus controls in all living beings. .Rhymes Food. Temperature. Along with ANS.

Spaced learning. ‡ This can be done by 1.Minimizing interference . . Rest after studying. 2.

Context and retrieval .. mentally bring back the atmosphere of the place where you studied. . While recalling. 2. Study in a surrounding similar to the one where you will be tested. 1.

‡ All of the memory techniques we have discussed require active learning ‡ To learn actively make notes while learning .ACTIVE LEARNING ‡ You will notice that the term "active learning" has come up frequently. ‡ Active learning facilitates your memory by helping you attend to and process information.

Demonstration of active learning .no First learning I rehearsal II rehearsal . Sl.

it is almost completely learned. ‡ Besides. you will avoid misconceptions later. . if you understand the material correctly right away. ‡ It is the best possible process of trying to fix in mind for later use is being followed. ‡ When something is understood.UNDERSTAND THE MATERIAL.

SPOT WHAT IS TO BE MEMORIZED VERBATIM. as. go over the material or try to repeat at odd times. while going back and forth to classes. ‡ It is a good plan to use a marking symbol in your notebook to indicate parts which need to be memorized instead of just understood and remembered. ‡ If verbatim memory is required. for example. .

.STUDY IMPORTANT ITEMS FIRST. ‡ Psychological research shows that the items that you study first in a study session are most strongly remembered. doing the most important items first is a good principle in fighting against procrastination. ‡ Besides.

. that will help you understand the material and be able to use it in context (e. Analyze the material and strive to intensify the impressions the material makes. on an exam). examples.. ‡ Reduce the material to be remembered to your own self-made system or series of numbered steps.APPLY THE MATERIAL. illustrations.g. . ‡ Make your own applications. etc.

the better memory you will have for the material. ‡ Key word will help you form a variety of associations among the points you wish to remember. . ‡ Make a list of key words most useful in explaining the idea or content of the lesson. ‡ The richer the associations.USE KEY WORDS.

.Use the Method of Loci. ‡ Locate all the things you need to remember in places you are familiar with. mentally. a picture of this place in your mind will help you. ‡ When you want to recall.

TEACH IT. . ‡ Try making the idea clear to a friend without referring to your book or notes.

‡ Actually write exam questions on the material that you think may appear on the test. . ‡ Then write the answers to your own questions. ‡ Since you now have the chance. consult the text or your notes to improve your answers.CREATE EXAM QUESTIONS.

NOW WE GO ON TO EXAMINATION SKILLS ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Why do you do poorly in exams? Because You do not prepare well You cannot remember You do not understand questions You do not plan your time You are stressed and anxious .

You lose marks if ‡ You do not use correct language ‡ do not write clear answers ‡ do not understand questions correctly ‡ do not organize time ‡ try to cheat the evaluators .Even when you do all these.

So how do you avoid this? Phases In coping Before the examination During the examination .

pens. admission/hall ticket. and organizing your answer accordingly .Before the examination . pencils etc ‡ Understanding how your answers are marked. ‡ Studying effectively ‡ Understand the meaning of key words in a question. time table. ‡ Regular mundane things to remember timing of the exams.

Before the examination .contd ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Taking care of yourself Food Sleep Entertainment Relaxation .

Some DOS ‡ Do ‡ Eat a balanced meal before coming to the examination ‡ Get at least SIX HOURS of sleep before the exam. ‡ Come pared for all contingencies ( water. sanitary pad. a few boiled sweets etc) . ‡ Finish all your daily personal care activities.

Some DONTS ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Don t Stay all night and study before an exam. Hall. Give upon rest and entertainment. . Miss meals. Study till the moment you enter the exam.

‡ The DETER strategy can help you do your best on any test. .The DETER Strategy for Taking Tests ‡ To do well on a test. ‡ But you must also have a strategy for taking the test that allows you to show what you know. Each letter in DETER reminds you what to do. you must have good knowledge of the information that is being tested.

. you will not be able to demonstrate what you know.‡ D = Directions ‡ Read the test directions very carefully. ‡ If you do not follow the directions. ‡ Only by following the directions can you achieve a good score on the test. ‡ Ask your teacher to explain anything about the test directions you do not understand.

decide how much time you will spend on each item. ‡ Planning your time is especially important for essay tests where you must avoid spending so much time on one item that you have little time left for other test items. ‡ If there are different points for items. plan to spend the most time on the items that count for the most points. ‡ Only by knowing the entire task can you break it down into parts that become manageable for you. .‡ E = Examine ‡ Examine the entire test to see how much you have to do. ‡ T = Time ‡ Once you have examined the entire test.

. ‡ Also make sure to review the test directions to be certain you have answered all items required. ‡ Using the DETER strategy will help you do better on tests and get better grades. you will have time to review your answers and make them as complete and accurate as possible. ‡ R = Review ‡ If you have planned your time correctly. you may not get to answer items that test things you know.‡ E = Easiest ‡ The second E in DETER reminds you to answer the items you find easiest first. ‡ If you get stuck on a difficult item that comes up early in the test.

‡ In fact. ‡ Further. too much anxiety can interfere with your studying. a little anxiety can jump start your studying and keep you motivated.Test anxiety ‡ Test Anxiety ‡ WHAT IS TEST ANXIETY? ‡ Too much anxiety about a test is commonly referred to as test anxiety. ‡ However. too much anxiety may block your performance during the test. .

HOW DO YOU KNOW IF YOU HAVE TEST ANXIETY? ‡ You probably have test anxiety if you answer YES to four or more of the following: ‡ I have a hard time getting started studying for a test. ‡ When studying for a test. I find many things that distract me. ‡ . ‡ I expect to do poorly on a test no matter how much or how hard I study.

and tension in my muscles. difficulty breathing. I find it difficult to understand the directions and questions. ‡ When taking a test. a headache. I experience physical discomfort such as sweaty palms. . I have difficulty organizing my thoughts. ‡ When taking a test.‡ When taking a test. an upset stomach.

‡ After a test. . ‡ When taking a test. I find my mind wandering to other things. I often draw a blank. ‡ I usually score lower on a test than I do on assignments and papers.‡ When taking a test. I remember information I couldn t recall during the test.

and after a test to reduce your test anxiety. ‡ Use good study techniques to gain cognitive mastery of the material that will be covered on the test.WHAT CAN YOU DO ABOUT TEST ANXIETY? ‡ Here are some things you can do before. during. . ‡ This mastery will help you to approach the test with confidence rather than have excessive anxiety.

‡ Maintain a positive attitude as you study. . ‡ Think about doing well. ‡ Think of the test as an opportunity to show how much you have learned. not failing.

Focus on positive selfstatements such as I can do this. Taking slow. ‡ Stay relaxed during the test.‡ Go into the test well rested and well fed. Stay away from junk foods. deep breaths can help. Eat a light and nutritious meal before the test. . Get enough sleep the night before the test.

Stay with your plan! .‡ Follow a plan for taking the test such as the DETER strategy ‡ Don t panic even if you find the test difficult.

and organizing your answer accordingly .‡ Understanding how your answers are marked.

forget about it temporarily. ‡ Once you finish the test and hand it in. ‡ There is nothing more you can do until the graded test is returned to you. Take the time that you need to do your best. ‡ Turn your attention and effort to new assignments and tests. .‡ Don t worry about other students finishing the test before you do.

‡ When the graded test is returned to you. ‡ Learn from your mistakes and from what you did well. . analyze it to see how you could have done better. ‡ Apply this knowledge when you take the next test.

‡ You have to control test anxiety to show what you know.‡ You have to know the material to do well on a test. .

Here s how you can relax ‡ Two Minute Body Stress Scanning ‡ Designed to take about two minutes but could be extended when you have time. ‡ Interrupt your thoughts stop thinking about your surroundings and switch your thoughts to your breathing. .

. jaw.‡ Take two deep breaths from you abdomen and exhale slowly. shoulders). ‡ Warm your hands momentarily. ‡ Scan yourself for tense or uncomfortable spots (forehead.

memory. ‡ Recall a pleasant thought. ‡ Take another deep breath and return to your activities.‡ DO two quick yoga exercises: "Head rotation"rotate your head around in a circular motion once or twice. or feeling just for a few seconds. . image.

but could be extended when you wish. ‡ This is a good exercise to use in the midst of chaos. or times when you feel you can only spare less than 1 minute.‡ The Quieting Response ‡ Designed to last 6-10 seconds. hectic circumstances. panic. .

panic. but could be extended when you wish.‡ The Quieting Response ‡ Designed to last 6-10 seconds. or times when you feel you can only spare less than 1 minute. ‡ This is a good exercise to use in the midst of chaos. ‡ . hectic circumstances.

‡ Smile- Outwardly or inwardly say to yourself: "Leave my body out of this." (You can say this aloud or say it to yourself silently.) ‡ Take two easy breaths. As you inhale, count from 1to 4 and exhale counting from 1 to 4. ‡ As you exhale the second breath, let your jaw go limp, and quickly spread some of this relaxed, loose feeling to tense muscle groups.

‡ Visualize to relax -----

Regular mundane things to remember
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Timing of the exams, Time table, Admission/hall ticket, Pens, pencils etc Using diagrams and charts as much as possible

Use these techniques to your advantage. . otherwise you may end up like this .

When you want to be like this!!!!!!! .