Presented By Zeelaf Naqvi BSS-6 A Dated: 15th Dec, 2010

Agenda setting (influence + role) of media «

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Prof. Maxwell McCombs & Prof. Donald Shaw in their Chapel Hill study (1968) mass media sets the agenda for public opinion by highlighting certain issues main effect of the news media was to set an agenda, i.e. to tell people not ´whatµ to think, but what to think ´aboutµ

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A function not a theory« Agenda-setting is believed to occur because: the press must be selective in reporting the news. News outlets act as gatekeepers of information and make choices about what to report and what not«

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Core: Agenda-setting is the creation of public awareness and concern of salient issues by the news media. Two basic assumptions underlie most research on agenda-setting: (1) the press and the media do not reflect reality; they filter and shape it; (2) there exists a correlation between the rate at which media cover a story and the extent to which people think that this story is important«

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combination of gatekeepers editors managers & external influences

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3-step approach: Agenda Setting: The relationship between the salience of a story and the extent to which people think that this story is important.

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Further research shows that people tend to attribute importance according to media exposure.

2. Agenda Cutting: As the press is selective when reporting the news, most of reality is not covered in the media and as a result, people do not regard such stories as important or even realize they exist, especially when they have no direct contact with the event or story in question. This effect is called Agenda Cutting. Example: reporting on outbreak of skin disease in Balochistan. 3. Agenda Surfing: The media tends to follow trends and thus ´surfsµ on the wave of topics originally mentioned in the opinion-leading media. Tracking all of the articles in opinion-media thus enables prediction of the stories that are going to be covered by the media in general in the near future, as well as prediction of the stories that are dying out. The Agenda Surfing effect can help you to place the right stories in the right media at the right time.

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The Agenda-Setting Theory comes from a scientific perspective, because it predicts that if people are exposed to the same media, they will place importance on the same issues. It can be proven false. If people aren·t exposed to the same media, they won·t feel the same issues are important. It has explanatory power because it explains why most people prioritize the same issues as important. It has predictive power because it predicts that if people are exposed to the same media, they will feel the same issues are important. It is parsimonious because it isn·t complex, and it is easy to understand. It has organizing power because it helps organize existing knowledge of media effects.

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The pictures in people·s minds about the outside world are significantly influenced by the mass media. The agenda-setting effects of the mass media also have significant implications beyond the pictures created in people·s heads. At the second level of agenda-setting, the salience of affective attributes mixed with the public·s cognitive pictures of these issues represents the convergence of attribute agenda-setting with opinion formation and change. Beyond attitudes and opinions, the pictures of reality created by the mass media have implications for personal behaviors«

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THANKYOU ALLu

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