Types of Waste

‡ Smruthy Jacob BIMS

WASTE
It refers to materials that are not prime products (i.e. products produced for the market) for which the generator has no further use for own purpose of production, transformation or consumption, and which he discards, or intends or is required to discard.

CLASSIFICATION OF WASTE
‡ Based on composition ‡ Based on sources ‡ Based on effects on environment

BASED ON COMPOSITION
SOLID WASTE SLUDGE LIQUID WASTE

Less than 70% of water

Contains about 3% to 25% of solid

Contains less than 1% of solids

BASED ON SOURCES OF WASTE

INDUSTRIAL WASTE

HOSPITAL WASTE SOURCES OF WASTE

RADIOACTIVE WASTE

MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE

ELECTRONIC WASTE

INDUSTRIAL WASTE

INDUSTRIAL WASTE
‡ Produced by factories, mills and mines ‡ It is considered hazardous as they contain toxic items ‡ They are highly toxic to humans, animals and plants; are corrosive, highly inflammable or explosive and reactive when exposed to certain items ‡ E.g.: metals, chemicals, paper, pesticide, dye, rubber ‡ India generates around 7 million tonnes every year

HOSPITAL WASTE

HOSPITAL WASTE
‡ Generated during the diagnosis, treatment or immunization of humans or animals or in research/testing activities in these fields ‡ These are highly infectious and can be a serious threat to human health if not managed scientifically. ‡ E.g.: syringes, swabs, bandages, body fluids, anatomical waste ‡ It is estimated that 4kg of waste generated in hospital at least 1kg would be infected.

MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE

MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE
‡ Garbage generated mainly from residential and commercial complexes. ‡ With rising urbanization and change in lifestyle and food habits, the amount of municipal solid waste has been increasing rapidly and its composition changing. ‡ E.g.: Household waste, construction and demolition debris, sanitation residue, and waste from streets. ‡ In 1947 cities and towns of India generated 6 million tonnes of waste it raised to 48 million tonnes in 1997 and 300 million tonnes in 2007

RADIOACTIVE WASTE

RADIOACTIVE WASTE
‡ Generated primarily from nuclear generation; small quantities are derived from military sources and a variety of uses in medical, industrial and university establishment.

Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material Uranium and phosphate mining and a number of other industrial activities also generate mountains of radioactive waste referred to as "tailings,"

Transuranic Waste Waste containing plutonium and other elements heavier than uranium. It comes mainly from the nuclear weapons industry

ELECTRONIC WASTE
Electronic waste popularly known as E-Waste can be defined as electronic equipment or product connected with power, plug, batteries which have become obsolete due to:

Advancement in technology Changes in fashion, style and status Nearing end of their useful life

TYPES OF E-WASTE
‡ Electronic Devices: such as computer servers, main frames, monitors, and TV and display devices, Refrigerators, Air Conditioners, microwave ovens. ‡ Telecommunication Devices: such as Cellular phones, pagers, calculators, audio and video devices, printers, scanners, fax mile. ‡ Recording Devices: such as DVD·s, Cd·s, Floppies, printing cartridges, military E-Waste, automobile catalytic converters. ‡ Electronic Components: such as chips, processors, mother board, printed circuit board, industrial electronics such as sensors, alarms, sirens, security devices, automobiles electronic devices.

BASED ON EFFECTS ON ENVIRONMENT

‡ Non hazardous waste ‡ Hazardous waste

NON-HAZARDOUS WASTE
‡ Non-hazardous are those that cause no immediate threat to human health and the environment. ‡ Routinely generated waste such as paper, cardboard, glass, wood, plastics, scrap, metal containers, dirt, and rubble. ‡ Nonhazardous waste is segregated and recycled whenever possible.

HAZARDOUS WASTE
´Hazardous wastes means any waste which by reason of any of its physical, chemical, reactive, toxic, flammable, explosive or corrosive characteristics causes danger or is likely to cause danger to health or environment, whether alone or when in contact with other wastes or substances.µ Hazardous Waste (Management & Handling) Rules, 1989.

HAZARDOUS WASTE
Environmental Protection Agency (US): There are two ways a waste material is defined to be hazardous ‡ By its presence on EPA- developed list ‡ By evidence that the waste exhibits ignitable, corrosive, reactive and toxic characteristics

EPA-HAZARDOUS WASTE CATEGORIES
Listed Wastes Characteristic Wastes

Listed Waste
Specific types of waste from nonspecific source (F) ‡ E.g. Halogenated solvents, non-halogenated solvents, electroplating sludge and cyanide solutions from plating bath

Listed Waste
Specific types of waste from specific sources (K) ‡ E.g. Oven residue from production of chrome oxide green pigments, brine purification mud's from mercury cell process in chlorine production

Listed Waste
Specific substance identified as acute hazardous waste that are discarded commercial chemical products, off specification specific, container residues and spill residues (P) ‡ Eg. Arsenic oxide, potassium silver cyanide and toxaphene

Listed Waste
Specific substance identified as hazardous waste that are discarded commercial chemical products, off specification specific, container residues and spill residues (U) ‡ Eg. Carbon tetrachloride, DDT, Xylene

CHARACTERISTICS WASTES
Characteristics wastes, which are wastes not specifically identified elsewhere that exhibit properties of ignitability, corrosivity, reactivity or toxicity

IGNITABILITY(D001)
‡ It is a liquid other than a aqueous solution containing less than 24% alcohol by volume ‡ It is not a liquid and is capable of causing fire through friction, absorption of moisture, or spontaneous chemical changes; and when ignited, burns so vigorously and persistently that it creates a hazard ‡ Eg. Gasoline, alcohol

CORROSIVITY (D002)
‡ It is aqueous and has a pH less than or equal to 2 or greater than or equal to 12.5 ‡ It is a liquid that corrodes steel at a rate greater than 6.35mm per year at a temp of 55C ‡ Eg. Acids, Alkalies

REACTIVITY (D003)
‡ It is normally unstable and readily undergoes violent change without detonating ‡ It reacts violently with water ‡ It is a cyanide or sulfide bearing waste that when exposed to pH level b/w 2-12.5 which will be sufficient enough to harm human health ‡ Eg: Explosives

TOXICITY (D003)
‡ Toxicity is the degree to which a substance is able to damage an exposed organism. Toxicity can refer to the effect on a whole organism, such as an animal, bacterium, or plant, as well as the effect on a substructure of the organism ‡ Eg: Chlorine, Ammonia

WASTE MANAGEMANT
‡ Collection,transport,processing, recycling or disposal of waste materials , usually ones produced by the human activity,in an effort to reduce their effect on human health or local aesthetics or aminity. ‡ Includes solid liquid and gaseous substances

‡ Basic waste management principles : - reduce environmental and health impacts - to save resources

WASTE MANAGEMENT HIERARCHY
PREVENTION
MOST FAVOURED OPTION

MINIMISATION REUSE RECYCLING

LEAST FAVOURED OPTION

ENERGY RECOVERY DISPOSAL

Reduce
‡ Necessary to determine the composition of the waste and the reasons for its creation. ‡ Requires specific knowledge of the production process unlike post creation process.

Reuse
‡ Using an item more than once. types 1. Conventional reuse-item is used as a number of times for the same function. Eg-doorstep delivery of milk in reusable bottles. 2. new life reuse-new use is found for the item. ‡ Reuse can have both financial, waste volume and environmental benefits.

Recycling
‡ Reprocessing of materials into new products. ‡ Prevents useful materials become wasted,reduces the consumption of raw materials,reduces energy uses. ‡ Greenhouse gas emissions. ‡ recyclables or recyclates - recyclable materials- serve as a raw material for production of a new product.

Rethink
‡ New way of looking at wastes. ‡ E.g. some rethink solutions may be counter intuitive, such as cutting fabric patterns with slightly more waste materials left the now larger scraps are then used for cutting small parts of the pattern, resulting in a decrease in net waste.

Procedure of waste management
‡ Waste disposal 1. Landfill 2. Incineration 3. Plasma gasification ‡ Waste recycling ‡ Waste processing

LANDFILL

Landfill
‡ Burying of the waste. ‡ Established in abandoned or unused quarries, and mining voids. ‡ By product- gas(green house gas)-generation of electricity using landfill gas extraction system.

Incineration
‡ Combustion of waste materials. ‡ Convert waste materials into heat, gas, steam, and ash. ‡ Carried on both large scale and small scale basis. ‡ Practical method of disposing hazardous waste materials. ‡ Produces heat that can be used as energy.

Plasma gasification
‡ Plasma-highly ionized and electrically charged gas. ‡ This process results in the elemental destruction of waste and hazardous materials.

RECYCLING

Waste recycling
‡ Breaking down of materials from waste steams into raw materials which are reprocessed either into the same material or a new product. ‡ Generally includes waste separation and material reprocessing.

Waste processing
‡ Range of activities characterized by the treatment and recovery of materials or energy from waste through thermal,chemical, or biological menas. ‡ Groups of processes. 1. biological processes 2. thermal processes

Waste prevention techniques
‡ By reducing the demand to be met. ‡ By using less or less harmful materials for meeting the demand- dematerialization. ‡ Process related waste prevention. ‡ Product related waste prevention. ‡ Service oriented waste prevention. ‡ Consumption related waste prevention.

Types of waste management
‡ Urban waste management ‡ Municipal waste management ‡ Radio active waste management

Examples of waste management in Japan(1997-2001)
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Recycle of tote bag Ibaraki recycling Citizen payoff Waste reduction coalition Waste exchange Alternate pulp Waste reduction

‡ Construction waste. ‡ Recycled goods ‡ Buy green

Thank you

´THANK YOU..µ

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