This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

Uploaded by Lakesh Kansakar

A paper presentation on Data Encryption by Bibek Shrestha, Lakesh Kansakar and Manish Modi of 061 batch of Institute of Engineering, Nepal. This presentation was delivered on Locus(a national technological competition held each year by IOE). It grabbed the second prize in that competition.

Welcome to Scribd! Start your free trial and access books, documents and more.

Find out moreINTRODUCTION

Cryptography is the science of secret using mathematics to encrypt and decrypt data. Scrambling a message so that it¶s contents are not readily accessible. Decryption is the reverse of encryption. Enables storage of sensitive information (from one¶s personal diary to secrets of a nation). Depends upon particular known as ciphers. algorithms

A process to convert plaintext (unencrypted text) into cipher text (encrypted text). Keys are the soul of modern encryption.

Encryption Yesterday

MASKING or Substitution is«

Individual characters being shifted by n numbers down or up the alphabetic table. HELLOSIR becomes NKRRUYOX (A -> G)

VEILING or Transposition is..

Covering up of plaintext by first changing them into blocks of n characters each and exchanging the position of characters in each block. (1234->3142) 1234 Plain text: DATA ENCR YPTI ONRE PORT 3142 Cipher: TDAA CERN TYIP ROEN RPTO

Simple Mathematics based algorithm and easier to decrypt.

Encryption Today

Based on a specific µkey¶ or µpassword¶ and the encryption algorithm alters itself such that different keys will produce different cipher texts.

**The algorithm can be either
**

symmetrical (single key) or asymmetrical (two keys ± one for encryption and one for decryption).

Symmetric Encryption

Encryption Process

Decryption Process

Fig: Simple process of symmetric encryption

Symmetric Encryption

Are of two types. Stream Cipher (text encrypted and decrypted a letter at a time) Block Cipher (blocks of text encrypted or decrypted at a time) Following common types of algorithm. Data Encryption Standard (DES) International Data Encryption Algorithm IDEA) RC2 and RC4 Advance Encryption Standard (AES) DES encryption has already been broken. Algorithms like AES, IDEA, RC2 and RC4 and also 3-DES are very strong encryption system and to crack them takes a lot of time.

Encrypted by IDEA Unencrypted

Encrypted by 3DES

**Disadvantage of Symmetric Encryption
**

Keys can be transmitted only through secure channels. Data is not certified, so the authenticity of received cipher text is not verified. If there are n number of users connected in a network, number of keys to facilitate 1 to 1 communication between each user becomes

nC =n(n-1)/2 2

Third Party Accessing The Information

Asymmetric Encryption

Global User accessing Public Key

A Uses his Private Key to decrypt cipher text

Server Containing Encrypted Text

Message Transmitted Using A¶s Public Key

A

Fig: Simple process of asymmetric encryption

**Rivest, Shamir, Adleman (RSA)
**

Use of two keys suppose K1 and K2. Encryption by K1 and Decryption by K2 or vice versa. Impossible to derive K1 from K2 or vice versa. Basis of RSA algorithm is that it is easy to multiply two large prime numbers, but very difficult to find its prime factors. A public key Algorithm.

Plain Readable Text

Public Key

1010101010101

Private Key

Plain Readable Text

DIAGRAM

**Disadvantage of Asymmetric System
**

Speed

Disadvantage of Asymmetric Key Encryption Is about 1000 times slower than symmetric encryption. Encrypted text is about double that of plaint text.

Symmetric

Asymmetric

**Modern techniques of encryption
**

Modern technique Hybrid encryption system Plain text is encrypted using Symmetric encryption The generated key is then encrypted using receiver¶s public key.

Examples PGP ± Pretty Good Privacy

SSL ± Secure Socket Layer

**Modern techniques of encryption
**

Plain Readable Text

Plaintext is encrypted with session key

Session Key is encrypted with public key

Encrypted Session Key + Cipher Text

Data Authenticity

Z

User wants to Send message to

A

B

B receives

message

Z intercepting Data from A and Sending it to B

A

B

**Hash function and Digital signature
**

Hash Function

Digital Signature with private Key

Message Digest Plaintext

Private Key

+ Signature

Working of Hash Function and Digital Signature

**About Digital Signature
**

Implemented through public-key encryption Used to verify the origin and contents of a message. Uses the private key of the sender to verify his/her authenticity.

**About Digital Certificate
**

Digitally signed and issued by Certificate Authority. Verifies that the public key attached to the certificate belongs to the party stated.

Example of Digital Certificate

Yahoo Messenger ³ymsg.exe´ digitally signed by Yahoo Inc.

**Applications and Services
**

Military secrets Telecommunication E-commerce and E-business Internet banking Internet voting Music piracy

Military Secrets

MILITARY communication.

MILITARY Arms and ammunition information.

MILITARY database.

**E-commerce and E-business
**

Secure internet communication and exchange of information. Electronic transactions Use of credit cards and debit cards. Privacy in internet content like emails. Digital authenticity of data. Non-repudiation ensures honesty.

**Time Based Cryptography
**

Encryption for specific period of time Decryption cannot be done until particular interval of time or specific date

Applications

Tender filling Will and Property Secrets Time encrypted checks

101010101001100001101010

**Thank you Questions?
**

Bibek Shrestha Lakesh Kansakar Manish Modi

BCT - 061 Institute of Engineering Pulchowk

**Basic Process ² Asymmetric Encryption
**

Two large prime numbers A and B C=A*B Other 2 prime numbers D and E chosen such that (D * E) mod (A-1)(B-1) = 1 Public Keys are (E,C) Private Keys are (D,C) To encrypt X (X ^ E) mod C = encrypted text Y To decrypt Y (Y ^ D) mod C = decrypted text X

**Simplified Example of asymmetric key
**

A = 47 and B = 71 C = A * B = 3337 (A ± 1)(B ± 1) = 46 * 70 = 3220 D = 79 and E = 1019 (79 * 1019) mod 3220 = 1 Encrypt password (79, 3337) Decrypt password (1019, 3337) To encrypt 2001 (2001 ^ 79) mod 3337 = 2563 To decrypt 2563 (2563 ^ 1019) mod 3337 = 2001 Original Keys Given by RSA C= 114,381,625,757,888,867,669,235,779,976,146,612,010,218,296,721,242,362,562,561,84 2,935,706,935,245,733,897,830,597,123,563,958,705,058,989,075,147,599,290,026,879,5 43,541 encryption key (E)= 9007 (E, C)

Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

We've moved you to where you read on your other device.

Get the full title to continue

Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.

scribd