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Advanced Analog IC Design Oversampling ADC Professor Y.

Chiu
ECE 581 Fall 2009

Oversampling ADC

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Advanced Analog IC Design Oversampling ADC Professor Y. Chiu
ECE 581 Fall 2009

Nyquist-Rate ADC
• The “black box” version of the quantization process
• Digitizes the input signal up to the Nyquist frequency (fs/2)
• Minimum sampling frequency (fs) for a given input bandwidth
• Each sample is digitized to the maximum resolution of the converter

Vref

bn
A/D

...
b1
Analog input Digital output
fs

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Advanced Analog IC Design Oversampling ADC Professor Y. Chiu
ECE 581 Fall 2009

Anti-Aliasing Filter (AAF)


PSD • Input signal must be
band-limited prior to
sampling
f • Nyquist sampling places
f m=fs/2
stringent requirement on
the roll-off characteristic
PSD AAF
of AAF
• Often some oversampling
is employed to relax the
f AAF design (better phase
fm fs response too)

DF AAF • Decimation filter (digital)


PSD
can be linear-phase

– 3 –f
fm Mfs
Advanced Analog IC Design Oversampling ADC Professor Y. Chiu
ECE 581 Fall 2009

Oversampling ADC
• Sample rate is well beyond the signal bandwidth
• Coarse quantization is combined with feedback to provide an accurate
estimate of the input signal on an “average” sense
• Quantization error in the coarse digital output can be removed by the
digital decimation filter
• The resolution/accuracy of oversampling converters is achieved in a
sequence of samples (“average” sense) rather than a single sample; the
usual concept of DNL and INL of Nyquist converters are not applicable

Vref

bn
OSR

...
A/D d1 b1

Analog input Digital output Decimation filter


fs

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Advanced Analog IC Design Oversampling ADC Professor Y. Chiu
ECE 581 Fall 2009

Relaxed AAF Requirement


• Nyquist-rate converters
• Oversampling converters
OSR = fs/2fm
|X(jf)| |X(jf)|

f f
fm =fs /2 2fs 3fs fm fs/2
|X(jf)| |X(jf)|

f f
2fs 3fs fs/2
Sub-sampling Band-pass oversampling

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Advanced Analog IC Design Oversampling ADC Professor Y. Chiu
ECE 581 Fall 2009

Oversampling ADC
• Predictive type
– Delta modulation
• Noise-shaping type
– Sigma-delta modulation
– Multi-level (quantization) sigma-delta modulation
– Multi-stage (cascaded) sigma-delta modulation (MASH)

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Advanced Analog IC Design Oversampling ADC Professor Y. Chiu
ECE 581 Fall 2009

Oversampling
Nyquist Oversampled

bn
A/D ... A/D M
b1
Decimation filter
fs  Mf s
2 OSR = M
Δ /12
PSD PSD
Δ2/1

f
-f s/2 fs/2 -Mf s/2 -f s/2 fs/2 Mf s/2
Sample rate Noise power Power
Nyquist fs Δ2/12 P
Oversampled M*fs (Δ2/12)/M M*P
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Advanced Analog IC Design Oversampling ADC Professor Y. Chiu
ECE 581 Fall 2009

Noise Shaping
PSD

Vi H(f) A/D
f
-Mf s/2 -f s/2 fs/2 Mf s/2
Push noise out of signal band Mfs


e
― H(f) 1 2
― H-1 (f) 1 Vi H(f)
f
fs/2 Mf s/2
Large gain @ LF, low gain @ HF e e
→ Integrator?
1 2
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Advanced Analog IC Design Oversampling ADC Professor Y. Chiu
ECE 581 Fall 2009

Sigma-Delta (ΣΔ) Modulator


Σ
z-1

First-order
Δ ΣΔ modulator
Vi ∫ A/D Do

D/A

• Noise shaping obtained with an integrator


• Output subtracted from input to avoid integrator saturation
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Advanced Analog IC Design Oversampling ADC Professor Y. Chiu
ECE 581 Fall 2009

Linearized Discrete-Time Model


E(z)

z −1
X(z) H(z) Y(z) H(z) = 1− z −1

Signal Transfer Function :


Y( z )
Y ( z ) = H( z ) ⋅ [ X( z ) − Y ( z ) ] + E( z ) STF = = z −1 ← Delay
X( z )
H( z ) 1
⇒ Y( z) = ⋅ X( z ) + ⋅ E( z )
1+ H( z ) 1+ H( z ) Noise Transfer Function :
Y( z )
⇒ Y ( z ) = z −1 ⋅ X( z ) + (1− z −1 ) ⋅ E( z ) NTF = = 1− z −1 ← HP
E( z )

Caveat: E(z) may be correlated with X(z) – not “white”!


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Advanced Analog IC Design Oversampling ADC Professor Y. Chiu
ECE 581 Fall 2009

First-Order Noise Shaping


2
  f 
∝ 2sin π  fm
Δ2 1
N =∫
2
  fs  
2
e ⋅ ⋅ NTF df
PSD 0
12 fs 2
2
Δ2 1 m   f 
f

= ⋅ ⋅ ∫ 2sin π  df
12 fs 2 0   fs  
2
f Δ 2
1
fm
 f
fm fs/2 ≈ ⋅ ⋅ ∫ 2π  df
12 fs 2 0  fs 
In - band quantization noise :
3
Δπ 2 2 Δ 2  2fm  π 2
= ⋅   ⋅
N ≈2
e ⋅ 12  fs  3
12 3M3

Doubling OSR (M) increases SQNR by 9 dB (1.5 bit/oct)

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Advanced Analog IC Design Oversampling ADC Professor Y. Chiu
ECE 581 Fall 2009

SC Implementation
CI

Ф1 CS Ф2
Vi
Do
Ф2 Ф1

+VR 1-b
-VR DAC
• SC integrator
• 1-bit ADC → simple, ZX detector
• 1-bit feedback DAC → simple, inherently linear

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Advanced Analog IC Design Oversampling ADC Professor Y. Chiu
ECE 581 Fall 2009

Second-Order ΣΔ Modulator
INT1 INT2

Vi z-1 z-1 A/D

D/A
Signal Transfer Function :
In - band quantization noise :
STF = z −2
2 4
Noise Transfer Function : Δ π
N2e ≈ ⋅
(
NTF = 1− z −1 ) 2
12 5M5
Doubling OSR (M) increases SQNR by 15 dB (2.5 bit/oct)
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Advanced Analog IC Design Oversampling ADC Professor Y. Chiu
ECE 581 Fall 2009

2nd-Order ΣΔ Modulator (1-Bit Quantizer)


1-bit
Vi α z-1 β z-1 Do
A/D

α ≈1 2
β ≈1 1-bit
D/A

Y( z ) = 2
α ( z − 1) E( z )
X( z ) + 2
2 jy
z + α −1 z + α −1 z-plane

• Simple, stable, highly-linear (2) (2)


x
• Insensitive to component mismatch 0 1
• Less correlation b/t E(z) and X(z)

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Advanced Analog IC Design Oversampling ADC Professor Y. Chiu
ECE 581 Fall 2009

Generalization (Lth-Order Noise Shaping)


180 L=6

160
Modulator transfer function : L=5
140
( 2L + 1) ⋅ M2L +1
(
Y ( z ) = z −n X ( z ) + 1 − z ) E( z )
L=4
−1 L

SQNR Improvement [dB]


120
100 π 2L L=3

80 L=2
60
L=1
40
In - band quantization noise : 20 L=0
2 2L
Δ π 0
N2e ≈ ⋅
12 ( 2L + 1) ⋅ M2L +1 -20
-40
1 2 4 8 16 32 64
OSR

• Doubling OSR (M) increases SQNR by (6L+3) dB, or (L+0.5) bit


• Potential instability for 3rd- and higher-order single-loop ΣΔ modulators

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Advanced Analog IC Design Oversampling ADC Professor Y. Chiu
ECE 581 Fall 2009

ΣΔ vs. Nyquist ADC’s


ΣΔ ADC output (1-bit) Nyquist ADC output

+1

-1

• ΣΔ ADC behaves quite differently from Nyquist converters


• Digital codes only display an “average” impression of the input
• INL, DNL, monotonicity, missing code, etc. do not directly apply in ΣΔ
converters → use SNR, SNDR, SFDR instead

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Advanced Analog IC Design Oversampling ADC Professor Y. Chiu
ECE 581 Fall 2009

Tones

Vi = 0 ...
T

Vi = 0.001 ...
2000*T
• The output spectrum corresponding to Vi = 0 results in a tone at fs/2, and
will get eliminated by the decimation filter
• The 2nd output not only has a tone at fs/2, but also a low-frequency tone –
fs/2000 – that cannot be eliminated by the decimation filter

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Advanced Analog IC Design Oversampling ADC Professor Y. Chiu
ECE 581 Fall 2009

Tones
• Origin – the quantization error spectrum of the low-resolution ADC
(1-bit in the previous example) in a ΣΔ modulator is NOT white, but
correlated with the input signal, especially for idle (DC) inputs.
(R. Gray, “Spectral analysis of sigma-delta quantization noise”)
• Approaches to “whitening” the error spectrum
– Dither – high-frequency noise added in the loop to randomize the
quantization error. Drawback is that large dither consumes the input
dynamic range.
– Multi-level quantization. Needs linear multi-level DAC.
– High-order single-loop ΣΔ modulator. Potentially unstable.
– Cascaded (MASH) ΣΔ modulator. Sensitive to mismatch.

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Advanced Analog IC Design Oversampling ADC Professor Y. Chiu
ECE 581 Fall 2009

Cascaded (MASH) ΣΔ Modulator


E(z)

X(z) H(z) Y(z)

D/A

A/D DNTF
E(z)
• Idea: to further quantize E(z) and later subtract out in digital domain
• The 2nd quantizer can be a ΣΔ modulator as well

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Advanced Analog IC Design Oversampling ADC Professor Y. Chiu
ECE 581 Fall 2009

2-1 Cascaded Modulator


INT1 INT2
E1(z)
Y1(z)
-1 -1
X(z) z z z-1

2
D/A

INT3
E2 (z)
E1(z) Y2(z)
-1
z DNTF (1-z-1)2

D/A
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Advanced Analog IC Design Oversampling ADC Professor Y. Chiu
ECE 581 Fall 2009

2-1 Cascaded Modulator


( )
Y1 ( z ) = z −2 X( z ) + 1− z −1 E1 ( z ) ⇒ × z −1
2

( )
Y2 ( z ) = z −1E1 ( z ) + 1− z −1 E 2 ( z ) ⇒ × 1− z −1 ( ) 2

Y ( z ) = Y1 ( z ) − Y2 ( z )
( ) ( )
= z −3 X( z ) + z −1 1− z −1 E1 ( z ) − z −1 1− z −1 E1 ( z ) − 1− z −1 E 2 ( z )
2 2
( ) 3

(
= z −3 X( z ) − 1− z −1 E 2 ( z )) 3

• E1(z) completely cancelled assuming perfect matching between the


modulator NTF (analog domain) and the DNTF (digital domain)
• A 3rd-order noise shaping on E2(z) obtained
• No potential instability problem

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Advanced Analog IC Design Oversampling ADC Professor Y. Chiu
ECE 581 Fall 2009

Integrator Noise
N1 INT1 N2 INT2 E1

X(z) H(z) H(z) Y1(z)

2
D/A

N3 INT3 E2
INT1 dominates
H(z) Y2the
(z) overall noise
Delay ignored Performance!

D/A
( ) ( ) 2
( )
Y = X + N1 + 1− z −1 N2 + 1− z −1 N3 + δ 1− z −1 E1 + 1− z −1 E 2
2
( ) 3

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Advanced Analog IC Design Oversampling ADC Professor Y. Chiu
ECE 581 Fall 2009

References
1. B. E. Boser and B. A. Wooley, JSSC, pp. 1298-1308, issue 6, 1988.
2. B. H. Leung et al., JSSC, pp. 1351-1357, issue 6, 1988.
3. T. C. Leslie and B. Singh, ISCAS, 1990, pp. 372-375.
4. B. P. Brandt and B. A. Wooley, JSSC, pp. 1746-1756, issue 12, 1991.
5. F. Chen and B. H. Leung, JSSC, pp. 453-460, issue 4, 1995.
6. R. T. Baird and T. S. Fiez, TCAS2, pp. 753-762, issue 12, 1995.
7. T. L. Brooks et al., JSSC, pp. 1896-1906, issue 12, 1997.
8. A. K. Ong and B. A. Wooley, JSSC, pp. 1920-1934, issue 12, 1997.
9. S. A. Jantzi, K. W. Martin, and A.S. Sedra, JSSC, pp. 1935-1950, issue 12, 1997.
10. A. Yasuda, H. Tanimoto, and T. Iida, JSSC, pp. 1879-1886, issue 12, 1998.
11. A. R. Feldman, B. E. Boser, and P. R. Gray, JSSC, pp. 1462-1469, issue 10, 1998.
12. H. Tao and J. M. Khoury, JSSC, pp. 1741-1752, issue 12, 1999.
13. E. J. van der Zwan et al., JSSC, pp. 1810-1819, issue 12, 2000.
14. I. Fujimori et al., JSSC, pp. 1820-1828, issue 12, 2000.
15. Y. Geerts, M.S.J. Steyaert, W. Sansen, JSSC, pp. 1829-1840, issue 12, 2000.

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Advanced Analog IC Design Oversampling ADC Professor Y. Chiu
ECE 581 Fall 2009

References
16. T. Burger and Q. Huang, JSSC, pp. 1868-1878, issue 12, 2001.
17. K. Vleugels, S. Rabii, and B. A. Wooley, JSSC, pp. 1887-1899, issue 12, 2001.
18. S. K. Gupta and V. Fong, JSSC, pp. 1653-1661, issue 12, 2002.
19. R. Schreier et al., JSSC, pp. 1636-1644, issue 12, 2002.
20. J. Silva et al., CICC, 2002, pp. 183-190.
21. Y.-I. Park et al., CICC, 2003, pp. 115-118.
22. L. J. Breems et al., JSSC, pp. 2152-2160, issue 12, 2004.
23. R. Jiang and T. S. Fiez, JSSC, pp. 63-74, issue 12, 2004.
24. P. Balmelli and Q. Huang, JSSC, pp. 2161-2169, issue 12, 2004.
25. K. Y. Nam et al., CICC, 2004, pp. 515-518.
26. X. Wang et al., CICC, 2004, pp. 523-526.
27. A. Bosi et al., ISSCC, 2005, pp. 174-175.
28. N. Yaghini and D. Johns, ISSCC, 2005, pp. 502-503.
29. G. Mitteregger et al., JSSC, pp. 2641-2649, issue 12, 2006.
30. R. Schreier et al., JSSC, pp. 2632-2640, issue 12, 2006.

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