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Chiu

ECE 581 Fall 2009

Oversampling ADC

–1–

Advanced Analog IC Design Oversampling ADC Professor Y. Chiu

ECE 581 Fall 2009

Nyquist-Rate ADC

• The “black box” version of the quantization process

• Digitizes the input signal up to the Nyquist frequency (fs/2)

• Minimum sampling frequency (fs) for a given input bandwidth

• Each sample is digitized to the maximum resolution of the converter

Vref

bn

A/D

...

b1

Analog input Digital output

fs

–2–

Advanced Analog IC Design Oversampling ADC Professor Y. Chiu

ECE 581 Fall 2009

PSD • Input signal must be

band-limited prior to

sampling

f • Nyquist sampling places

f m=fs/2

stringent requirement on

the roll-off characteristic

PSD AAF

of AAF

• Often some oversampling

is employed to relax the

f AAF design (better phase

fm fs response too)

PSD

can be linear-phase

– 3 –f

fm Mfs

Advanced Analog IC Design Oversampling ADC Professor Y. Chiu

ECE 581 Fall 2009

Oversampling ADC

• Sample rate is well beyond the signal bandwidth

• Coarse quantization is combined with feedback to provide an accurate

estimate of the input signal on an “average” sense

• Quantization error in the coarse digital output can be removed by the

digital decimation filter

• The resolution/accuracy of oversampling converters is achieved in a

sequence of samples (“average” sense) rather than a single sample; the

usual concept of DNL and INL of Nyquist converters are not applicable

Vref

bn

OSR

...

A/D d1 b1

fs

–4–

Advanced Analog IC Design Oversampling ADC Professor Y. Chiu

ECE 581 Fall 2009

• Nyquist-rate converters

• Oversampling converters

OSR = fs/2fm

|X(jf)| |X(jf)|

f f

fm =fs /2 2fs 3fs fm fs/2

|X(jf)| |X(jf)|

f f

2fs 3fs fs/2

Sub-sampling Band-pass oversampling

–5–

Advanced Analog IC Design Oversampling ADC Professor Y. Chiu

ECE 581 Fall 2009

Oversampling ADC

• Predictive type

– Delta modulation

• Noise-shaping type

– Sigma-delta modulation

– Multi-level (quantization) sigma-delta modulation

– Multi-stage (cascaded) sigma-delta modulation (MASH)

–6–

Advanced Analog IC Design Oversampling ADC Professor Y. Chiu

ECE 581 Fall 2009

Oversampling

Nyquist Oversampled

bn

A/D ... A/D M

b1

Decimation filter

fs Mf s

2 OSR = M

Δ /12

PSD PSD

Δ2/1

f

-f s/2 fs/2 -Mf s/2 -f s/2 fs/2 Mf s/2

Sample rate Noise power Power

Nyquist fs Δ2/12 P

Oversampled M*fs (Δ2/12)/M M*P

–7–

Advanced Analog IC Design Oversampling ADC Professor Y. Chiu

ECE 581 Fall 2009

Noise Shaping

PSD

Vi H(f) A/D

f

-Mf s/2 -f s/2 fs/2 Mf s/2

Push noise out of signal band Mfs

e

― H(f) 1 2

― H-1 (f) 1 Vi H(f)

f

fs/2 Mf s/2

Large gain @ LF, low gain @ HF e e

→ Integrator?

1 2

–8–

Advanced Analog IC Design Oversampling ADC Professor Y. Chiu

ECE 581 Fall 2009

Σ

z-1

First-order

Δ ΣΔ modulator

Vi ∫ A/D Do

D/A

• Output subtracted from input to avoid integrator saturation

–9–

Advanced Analog IC Design Oversampling ADC Professor Y. Chiu

ECE 581 Fall 2009

E(z)

z −1

X(z) H(z) Y(z) H(z) = 1− z −1

Y( z )

Y ( z ) = H( z ) ⋅ [ X( z ) − Y ( z ) ] + E( z ) STF = = z −1 ← Delay

X( z )

H( z ) 1

⇒ Y( z) = ⋅ X( z ) + ⋅ E( z )

1+ H( z ) 1+ H( z ) Noise Transfer Function :

Y( z )

⇒ Y ( z ) = z −1 ⋅ X( z ) + (1− z −1 ) ⋅ E( z ) NTF = = 1− z −1 ← HP

E( z )

– 10 –

Advanced Analog IC Design Oversampling ADC Professor Y. Chiu

ECE 581 Fall 2009

2

f

∝ 2sin π fm

Δ2 1

N =∫

2

fs

2

e ⋅ ⋅ NTF df

PSD 0

12 fs 2

2

Δ2 1 m f

f

= ⋅ ⋅ ∫ 2sin π df

12 fs 2 0 fs

2

f Δ 2

1

fm

f

fm fs/2 ≈ ⋅ ⋅ ∫ 2π df

12 fs 2 0 fs

In - band quantization noise :

3

Δπ 2 2 Δ 2 2fm π 2

= ⋅ ⋅

N ≈2

e ⋅ 12 fs 3

12 3M3

– 11 –

Advanced Analog IC Design Oversampling ADC Professor Y. Chiu

ECE 581 Fall 2009

SC Implementation

CI

Ф1 CS Ф2

Vi

Do

Ф2 Ф1

+VR 1-b

-VR DAC

• SC integrator

• 1-bit ADC → simple, ZX detector

• 1-bit feedback DAC → simple, inherently linear

– 12 –

Advanced Analog IC Design Oversampling ADC Professor Y. Chiu

ECE 581 Fall 2009

Second-Order ΣΔ Modulator

INT1 INT2

D/A

Signal Transfer Function :

In - band quantization noise :

STF = z −2

2 4

Noise Transfer Function : Δ π

N2e ≈ ⋅

(

NTF = 1− z −1 ) 2

12 5M5

Doubling OSR (M) increases SQNR by 15 dB (2.5 bit/oct)

– 13 –

Advanced Analog IC Design Oversampling ADC Professor Y. Chiu

ECE 581 Fall 2009

1-bit

Vi α z-1 β z-1 Do

A/D

α ≈1 2

β ≈1 1-bit

D/A

Y( z ) = 2

α ( z − 1) E( z )

X( z ) + 2

2 jy

z + α −1 z + α −1 z-plane

x

• Insensitive to component mismatch 0 1

• Less correlation b/t E(z) and X(z)

– 14 –

Advanced Analog IC Design Oversampling ADC Professor Y. Chiu

ECE 581 Fall 2009

180 L=6

160

Modulator transfer function : L=5

140

( 2L + 1) ⋅ M2L +1

(

Y ( z ) = z −n X ( z ) + 1 − z ) E( z )

L=4

−1 L

120

100 π 2L L=3

80 L=2

60

L=1

40

In - band quantization noise : 20 L=0

2 2L

Δ π 0

N2e ≈ ⋅

12 ( 2L + 1) ⋅ M2L +1 -20

-40

1 2 4 8 16 32 64

OSR

• Potential instability for 3rd- and higher-order single-loop ΣΔ modulators

– 15 –

Advanced Analog IC Design Oversampling ADC Professor Y. Chiu

ECE 581 Fall 2009

ΣΔ ADC output (1-bit) Nyquist ADC output

+1

-1

• Digital codes only display an “average” impression of the input

• INL, DNL, monotonicity, missing code, etc. do not directly apply in ΣΔ

converters → use SNR, SNDR, SFDR instead

– 16 –

Advanced Analog IC Design Oversampling ADC Professor Y. Chiu

ECE 581 Fall 2009

Tones

Vi = 0 ...

T

Vi = 0.001 ...

2000*T

• The output spectrum corresponding to Vi = 0 results in a tone at fs/2, and

will get eliminated by the decimation filter

• The 2nd output not only has a tone at fs/2, but also a low-frequency tone –

fs/2000 – that cannot be eliminated by the decimation filter

– 17 –

Advanced Analog IC Design Oversampling ADC Professor Y. Chiu

ECE 581 Fall 2009

Tones

• Origin – the quantization error spectrum of the low-resolution ADC

(1-bit in the previous example) in a ΣΔ modulator is NOT white, but

correlated with the input signal, especially for idle (DC) inputs.

(R. Gray, “Spectral analysis of sigma-delta quantization noise”)

• Approaches to “whitening” the error spectrum

– Dither – high-frequency noise added in the loop to randomize the

quantization error. Drawback is that large dither consumes the input

dynamic range.

– Multi-level quantization. Needs linear multi-level DAC.

– High-order single-loop ΣΔ modulator. Potentially unstable.

– Cascaded (MASH) ΣΔ modulator. Sensitive to mismatch.

– 18 –

Advanced Analog IC Design Oversampling ADC Professor Y. Chiu

ECE 581 Fall 2009

E(z)

D/A

A/D DNTF

E(z)

• Idea: to further quantize E(z) and later subtract out in digital domain

• The 2nd quantizer can be a ΣΔ modulator as well

– 19 –

Advanced Analog IC Design Oversampling ADC Professor Y. Chiu

ECE 581 Fall 2009

INT1 INT2

E1(z)

Y1(z)

-1 -1

X(z) z z z-1

2

D/A

INT3

E2 (z)

E1(z) Y2(z)

-1

z DNTF (1-z-1)2

D/A

– 20 –

Advanced Analog IC Design Oversampling ADC Professor Y. Chiu

ECE 581 Fall 2009

( )

Y1 ( z ) = z −2 X( z ) + 1− z −1 E1 ( z ) ⇒ × z −1

2

( )

Y2 ( z ) = z −1E1 ( z ) + 1− z −1 E 2 ( z ) ⇒ × 1− z −1 ( ) 2

Y ( z ) = Y1 ( z ) − Y2 ( z )

( ) ( )

= z −3 X( z ) + z −1 1− z −1 E1 ( z ) − z −1 1− z −1 E1 ( z ) − 1− z −1 E 2 ( z )

2 2

( ) 3

(

= z −3 X( z ) − 1− z −1 E 2 ( z )) 3

modulator NTF (analog domain) and the DNTF (digital domain)

• A 3rd-order noise shaping on E2(z) obtained

• No potential instability problem

– 21 –

Advanced Analog IC Design Oversampling ADC Professor Y. Chiu

ECE 581 Fall 2009

Integrator Noise

N1 INT1 N2 INT2 E1

2

D/A

N3 INT3 E2

INT1 dominates

H(z) Y2the

(z) overall noise

Delay ignored Performance!

D/A

( ) ( ) 2

( )

Y = X + N1 + 1− z −1 N2 + 1− z −1 N3 + δ 1− z −1 E1 + 1− z −1 E 2

2

( ) 3

– 22 –

Advanced Analog IC Design Oversampling ADC Professor Y. Chiu

ECE 581 Fall 2009

References

1. B. E. Boser and B. A. Wooley, JSSC, pp. 1298-1308, issue 6, 1988.

2. B. H. Leung et al., JSSC, pp. 1351-1357, issue 6, 1988.

3. T. C. Leslie and B. Singh, ISCAS, 1990, pp. 372-375.

4. B. P. Brandt and B. A. Wooley, JSSC, pp. 1746-1756, issue 12, 1991.

5. F. Chen and B. H. Leung, JSSC, pp. 453-460, issue 4, 1995.

6. R. T. Baird and T. S. Fiez, TCAS2, pp. 753-762, issue 12, 1995.

7. T. L. Brooks et al., JSSC, pp. 1896-1906, issue 12, 1997.

8. A. K. Ong and B. A. Wooley, JSSC, pp. 1920-1934, issue 12, 1997.

9. S. A. Jantzi, K. W. Martin, and A.S. Sedra, JSSC, pp. 1935-1950, issue 12, 1997.

10. A. Yasuda, H. Tanimoto, and T. Iida, JSSC, pp. 1879-1886, issue 12, 1998.

11. A. R. Feldman, B. E. Boser, and P. R. Gray, JSSC, pp. 1462-1469, issue 10, 1998.

12. H. Tao and J. M. Khoury, JSSC, pp. 1741-1752, issue 12, 1999.

13. E. J. van der Zwan et al., JSSC, pp. 1810-1819, issue 12, 2000.

14. I. Fujimori et al., JSSC, pp. 1820-1828, issue 12, 2000.

15. Y. Geerts, M.S.J. Steyaert, W. Sansen, JSSC, pp. 1829-1840, issue 12, 2000.

– 23 –

Advanced Analog IC Design Oversampling ADC Professor Y. Chiu

ECE 581 Fall 2009

References

16. T. Burger and Q. Huang, JSSC, pp. 1868-1878, issue 12, 2001.

17. K. Vleugels, S. Rabii, and B. A. Wooley, JSSC, pp. 1887-1899, issue 12, 2001.

18. S. K. Gupta and V. Fong, JSSC, pp. 1653-1661, issue 12, 2002.

19. R. Schreier et al., JSSC, pp. 1636-1644, issue 12, 2002.

20. J. Silva et al., CICC, 2002, pp. 183-190.

21. Y.-I. Park et al., CICC, 2003, pp. 115-118.

22. L. J. Breems et al., JSSC, pp. 2152-2160, issue 12, 2004.

23. R. Jiang and T. S. Fiez, JSSC, pp. 63-74, issue 12, 2004.

24. P. Balmelli and Q. Huang, JSSC, pp. 2161-2169, issue 12, 2004.

25. K. Y. Nam et al., CICC, 2004, pp. 515-518.

26. X. Wang et al., CICC, 2004, pp. 523-526.

27. A. Bosi et al., ISSCC, 2005, pp. 174-175.

28. N. Yaghini and D. Johns, ISSCC, 2005, pp. 502-503.

29. G. Mitteregger et al., JSSC, pp. 2641-2649, issue 12, 2006.

30. R. Schreier et al., JSSC, pp. 2632-2640, issue 12, 2006.

– 24 –

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