Research Methods

Assist. Prof. Dr. Sevinc KURT Cyprus International University

Research Methods

Research Methods and Statistics are tools.

Concern is: ‡How to use them? ‡When to use them?

Ways of Knowing (Kerlinger, 1986) Kerlinger, 1986)
1. Method of Tenacity (Always Believed)

2. Method of Intuition (Feels Good)

3. Method of Authority (Respected Source)

4. Method of Science (Empirical/Objective

Control . Explanation 3.The Goals of Science? Science? 1. Prediction 4. Description 2.

.Scientific Methodology Scientific Methodology = a systematic analysis of the rational and experimental principles which guide an inquiry.

Theory = an integrated set of principles that explain and predict facts 2.Scientific Method involves: 1. Hypothesis = a prediction of what is the case (fact) based on theory 3. Observation = a comparison of hypothesis to what is the case .

. .Merely transporting facts from one resource to another doesn·t constitute research.No contribution to new knowledge although this might make existing knowledge more accessible.No contribution to new knowledge. .Gathering information from resources such books or magazines isn·t research.What Research Is Not Research isn·t information gathering: . Research isn·t the transportation of facts: .

What Research Is Research is: ‡³«the systematic process of collecting and analyzing information (data) in order to increase our understanding of the phenomenon about which we are concerned or interested. ‡Research is an ORGANIZED and SYSTEMATIC way of FINDING ANSWERS to QUESTIONS .

research is usually a systematic and objective search for reliable information . p7) Scientific. systematic or other approach used to study a problem An acceptable approach to acquire dependable & useful information about our problem so we can then analyze the information Regardless of the discipline.What is Research Systematic inquiry directed toward to creation of knowledge (Groat Wang.

4. Requires collection and interpretation of data. question. 8. or hypothesis.Research Characteristics 1. . Cyclical (helical) in nature. Accepts certain critical assumptions. 5. Often divides main problem into subproblems. 3. Requires clear articulation of a goal. Follows a specific plan or procedure. 7. 6. Originates with a question or problem. 2. Guided by specific problem.

Advance knowledge. good research projects should: . Identifying this problem can actually be the hardest part of research. In general.Address an important question. .Research Projects Research begins with a problem. . -This problem need not be Earth-shaking.

.Research Project Pitfalls The following kinds of projects usually don·t make for good research: . .Correlating data sets.Self-enlightenment.Problems with yes / no answers. .Comparing data sets. .

-The process to be clearly explained so that it can be reproduced and verified by other researchers. -Highly ethical standards be applied.HighHigh-Quality Research Good research requires: -The scope and limitations of the work to be clearly defined. -Data be adequately analyzed and explained. -All limitations be documented. .

Literature reviews. Experts.Sources of Research Problems Observation. Professional conferences. .

-Add up to the total problem. Identify subproblems: -Completely researchable units. . -Must be clearly tied to the interpretation of the data. -Determine the process of the research.Stating the Research Problem Once you·ve identified a research problem: -State that problem clearly and completely. -Small in number.

-Hypotheses can direct later research activities since they can help determine the nature of the research and methods applied. intelligent guesses as to the solution of the problem. . -There is often a 1-1 correspondence between a subproblem and a hypothesis.Hypotheses Hypotheses are tentative.

Delimitations All research has limitations and thus certain work that will not be performed. . The work that will not be undertaken is described as the delimitations of the research.

Importance of the Study Many research problems have a kind of theoretical feel about them. it will prove difficult to convince others that the problem in question is worth study. . -What is the research project·s practical value? Without this justification. Such projects often need to be justified.

or hypothesis 4. question. Decide the specific research problem. Interpret the findings and state conclusions or summary regarding the problem Research Process and Design (Umbach) 19 . Determine the design and methodology 5. Select a general problem 2. Review the literature on the problem 3. Analyze data and present the results 7.The Research Process ³Seven Phases 1. Collect data 6.

The Research Spiral .

or hypothesis Analyze and present data Interpret findings Decide design and methodology Statistical tables Integrative diagrams 21 Research Process and Design (Umbach) . 11) Select a general problem Conduct literature review State conclusion/ generalization about problem Exhaustive review Preliminary search.The Research Process (M & S. p. later expanded Collect data Select specific problem. research question.

Research Design Research Design y Research design describes how the study was conducted What is general plan How research is set up What happens to the subjects What were methods of data collection Research Design and Methodology (Kurt) 22 .

correlational. single-subject) Nonexperimental (descriptive.Three Major Categories of Research Design y Quantitative Experimental (true. comparative. ex post facto) Qualitative y Mixed Methods y 23 . quasi.

Two commonly used research methodologies: -Quantitative. -Qualitative.Common Methodologies Methodologies are high-level approaches to conducting research. -The individual steps within the methodology might vary based on the research being performed. (Lately Mixed research methodology is also used) - .

Research Design: Qualitative or Quantitative? Quantitative? Words QUALITATATIVE START Are the data primarily in the form of Numbers or Words Numbers QUANTITATIVE Does the researcher have control over an independent variable? No Experimental True experimental Yes is random assignment used? No Quasi experimental Yes Nonexperimental is the study investigating how variables change together? No Correlational Survey Yes .

interviews Inductive .Methodology Comparison Quantitative Qualitative Explanation. prediction Test theories Known variables Large sample Standardized instruments Deductive y y y y y y Explanation. description Build theories Unknown variables Small sample Observations.

Methodology Comparison .

Methodology Comparison .

Quantitative Research .

Qualitative Research .

Mixed Methods Research .

Identifying a Research Problem .

What is a Research Problem .

The Research Problem .

The Research Problem .

The Research Problem .

The Research Problem .

The Research Problem .

The Research Problem .

The Research Problem .

The Research Problem .

The Research Problem .

The Research Problem .

The Research Problem .

The Research Problem .

The Research Problem

The Research Problem

Reviewing The Literature

Reviewing The Literature .

Reviewing The Literature .

Reviewing The Literature .

Reviewing The Literature .

Reviewing The Literature .

Reviewing The Literature .

Reviewing The Literature .

Reviewing The Literature .

Reviewing The Literature .

Reviewing The Literature .

Reviewing The Literature .

Reviewing The Literature .

Reviewing The Literature .

Types Of Research Design ‡ experimental ‡ survey ‡ case study ‡ comparative ‡ grounded theory ‡ ethnography ‡ action research ‡ cross-sectional and longitudinal .

has been used in social psychology. y Method of the natural sciences = positivist y 63 .Experimental Design Rare in Social Studies.

‡ the selection of samples of individuals from known populations. ‡ allocations of samples to different experimental conditions. ‡ introduction of a planned change on one or more of the variables. ‡ control of other variables.Experimental Design Experiment Sir Isaac Newton Involves: ‡ the definition of a theoretical hypothesis. 64 . ‡ measurement on a small number of the variables.

y 65 . y Data collected by questionnaire or structured interview from a sample of respondents y Looking for patterns of association / correlation.Survey Survey Cross sectional design.

Survey Surveys ‡ Allied to the deductive approach. ‡ Are economical but you need time to design and pilot the questionnaire. 66 . ‡ Often involve q¶aires but can also involve structured observation.

4. 5. Self-classification. Expectations.Survey Research questions appropriate for a survey 1. 3. Characteristics. Attitudes /Beliefs / Opinions. 10 67 . 6. Knowledge. Behaviour. 2.

‡ the relatively cheap cost at which these data may be collected. 68 . ‡ perceived as authoritative by some.Survey Main advantages of survey ‡ ability to collect large amounts of data.

Survey The more structured the techniques. A) The more respondents can be involved B) The easier coding and pre-coding becomes C) The easier quantification. comparison and measurement becomes 69 ...

precision and lack of error.. 70 .Survey The more structured the techniques. consistency. D) The easier it becomes to analyse statistically E) The greater reliability likely reliability is about accuracy. repeatable..the ability to produce results which are dependable.

.g. A) The less possibility for understanding respondents meanings and motives B) The greater the possibility of validity problems arising e. the more structured the techniques.Survey But.. do all respondents interpret q¶s the same way? 71 .

72 ..Survey But. the more structured the techniques.. C) The more the richness of qualitative accounts is lost D) The less it tells us about the subjective world of the respondents««hence the need for a µphenomenological /naturalistic ¶ inquiry.

Family. y If qualitative likely to use inductive approach. y Can be both quantitative and qualitative.Case Study Detailed / Intensive analysis of a single case. y 73 . Community. School. Organisation.

y 74 . key issue is not Generalisability but development of ideas / theory = inductive.Case Study Issue of Generalisability. how can a single case be representative. y Case study offers intensive examination of a single case.

Comparative Research y Comparison. impact of legislation if we compare to a different setting 75 . learn more about social phenomena = welfare state.

which may ‡ confirm or otherwise the predictions. which leads to GTI ‡ the generation of predictions that are ‡ tested in further observations. 76 . Theory is grounded in continual reference to the data. ‡ Theory is developed from data by a series Barney Glaser of observations.Grounded theory ‡ Data collection starts without any formal theoretical framework. .

77 . ‡ Is time consuming. ‡ Purpose : to interpret the world the way the µlocals¶ interpret it./ problems of access. ‡ Developed out of field work in anthropology. ‡ Linked to participant observation.Etnography ‡ Firmly rooted in the inductive approach.

y 78 .Etnography Ethnography Listens to and engages in conversations y Interviews informants y Collects documents y Develop understanding of culture and people·s behaviour within the context of that culture.

Action Research Action researcher and client = school. hospital. prison collaborate in the definition of a problem and development of a solution. y Emphasis is on problem solving / practical solutions which are validated through practise y 79 .

y Select a number of cases for study and thus allow for an explanation of variation. y Research data is collected at a single point of time.Cross Sectional Design Usually associated with social survey. y 80 .

y Can be both qualitative and quantitative y 81 .Cross Sectional Design Interested in looking at relationships between variables = draw causal inferences.

y 82 .Longitudinal Designs Involves time / costs. y Panel Study is based on a random sample. y Occurs over a period of time thus more able to draw causal inferences.

83 . unemployment. a sample of people who share a certain characteristic = age. y Problems of this approach are y Sample attrition Panel conditioning affects how respondents behave.Longitudinal Designs Cohort study.

g. Qualitative and quantitative. Bear in mind your research objectives first. 84 . e. Interviews can be part of exploratory work ± Which method??? No easy answers.MultiMulti-method approaches Approaches and strategies can be mixed and matched e. Primary and secondary data.g.

e. 85 .g semi-structured interviews alongside q¶ares to ensure greater confidence in your conclusions.MultiMulti-method approaches Triangulation: refers to the use of different methods within one study in order to ensure that the data are telling you what they think they are telling you.

Evaluation of Research Four Criteria for Evaluation of Research Reliability y Replication y Validity y Generalisability (External Validity) y 86 .

Interpreting Data y Reliability: were your work to be repeated by another researcher. would the same result be produced? y If so then your research may be judged as reliable 87 .

Replication y Close to reliability. steps you undertook in doing the research. y 88 . someone may wish to replicate your research. Thus need to spell out in detail definitions.

Validity Do your methods actually measure the issues you have been researching. y This relates to the integrity of your conclusions y 89 .

if you do not claim that it is possible to generalise to other settings then say so. Be clear about your claims . other organisations? Particularly applies to single case studies.g. e. Are your findings generalisable to other contexts. 90 .Generalisability Also known as external validity.

Again.  91 . survey. Research projects may be cross-sectional or longitudinal. case study. There may be a combination of some of these in the same research project. ethnography and action research.  Multi-method approaches to research mean that different Purposes may be served and that triangulation of results is facilitated. grounded theory. you should not think of these as discrete entities.Summary  The main research strategies are experiment.

Summary  You should take care to ensure that your results are valid and reliable. 92 .  You should always think carefully about the ethical issues implied by the choice of your research strategy.

Architectural Research Methods Linda Groat & David Wang Interpretive ²Historical Research Qualitative Research Correlational Research Experimental and Quassi Experimental Research Simulation and Modelling Research Logical Argumantation Case Studies and Combined Strategies .

How to Define Your Project
You must take time to think about your research as this will save you problems later. When you·re thinking about your research, ask yourself the five ¶Ws·: ² What is my research? ² Why do I want to do the research? ² Who are my research participants? ² Where am I going to do the research? ² When am I going to do the research? Sum up your research project in one sentence. Discuss your sentence with your tutor and revise if there is any confusion.

How to Decide Upon a Methodology 
The research methodology is the philosophy or general
principle which guides the research. 

Research methods are the tools you use to gather your
data. 

Qualitative research explores attitudes, behavior and
experiences.

How to Decide Upon a Methodology 
Examples of qualitative methodologies include action

research, ethnography, feminist research and grounded theory. 

Quantitative research generates statistics through the use of
large-scale survey research. 

Neither qualitative nor quantitative research is better ²
they are just different. Both have their strengths and weaknesses.

.  The term ¶triangulation· is used when a combination of qualitative and quantitative forms of inquiry are used.How to Decide Upon a Methodology  Your own intuition and the words you use will give pointers to whether qualitative or quantitative research is more appropriate for your chosen project.

.  The term ¶triangulation· is used when a combination of qualitative and quantitative forms of inquiry are used.How to Choose Your Research Methods  Your own intuition and the words you use will give pointers to whether qualitative or quantitative research is more appropriate for your chosen project.

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