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‡³«the systematic process of collecting and analyzing


information (data) in order to increase our understanding of
the phenomenon about which we are concerned or
interested.

‡Researchis an ORGANIZED and SYSTEMATIC way of


FINDING ANSWERS to QUESTIONS
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‡ experimental
‡ survey
‡ case study
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‡ ethnography
‡ action research
‡ cross-sectional and longitudinal
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‡ the definition of a theoretical hypothesis;
‡ the selection of samples of individuals from known
populations;
‡ allocations of samples to different experimental
conditions;
‡ introduction of a planned change on one or more of
the variables;
‡ measurement on a small number of the variables;
‡ control of other variables. x
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‡ Allied to the deductive approach;

‡ Are economical but you need time to


design and pilot the questionnaire;

‡ Often involve q¶aires but can also involve


structured observation.

xx
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j. Behaviour.

2. Attitudes /Beliefs / Opinions.

3. Characteristics.

4. Expectations.

5. Self-classification.
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6. Knowledge. x
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‡ ability to collect large amounts of data;

‡ the relatively cheap cost at which these data


may be collected;

‡ perceived as authoritative by some;

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A) The more respondents can be involved

B) The easier coding and pre-coding becomes

C) The easier quantification, comparison


and measurement becomes

x
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á) The easier it becomes to analyse statistically

E) The greater reliability likely

  is about accuracy, consistency, precision


and lack of error- the ability to produce results
which are dependable, repeatable.

&!

But, the more structured the techniques...


A) The less possibility for understanding
respondents meanings and motives

B) The greater the possibility of problems


arising e.g. do all respondents interpret q¶s the same
way?


&!

But, the more structured the techniques...

C) The more the richness of qualitative accounts is lost

á) The less it tells us about the subjective world


of the respondents««hence the need for a
µphenomenological /naturalistic ¶ inquiry.


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‡ áata collection starts without any


formal theoretical framework.

‡ Theory is developed from data by a series ¦




of observations, which leads to 
‡ the generation of predictions that are
‡ tested in further observations, which may
‡ confirm or otherwise the predictions.

Theory is grounded in continual reference to the data.

.
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‡ Firmly rooted in the inductive approach.

‡ áeveloped out of field work in anthropology.

‡ Purpose : to interpret the world the way the


µlocals¶ interpret it.

‡ Is time consuming./ problems of access.

‡ Linked to participant observation.


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e.g. Qualitative and quantitative, Primary and secondary data.


e.g. Interviews can be part of exploratory work ±

Which method??? No easy answers.


Bear in mind your research objectives
first.


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refers to the use of different methods within one


study in order to ensure that the data are telling you
what they think they are telling you.

e.g semi-structured interviews alongside q¶ares to ensure


greater confidence in your conclusions.


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î   were your work to be


repeated by another researcher, would the
same result be produced?

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Are your findings generalisable to other contexts, e.g. other


organisations?

Particularly applies to single case studies.


Be clear about your claims - if you do not claim that it is
possible to generalise to other settings then say so.


R 

l The main research strategies are experiment, survey, case study,


grounded theory, ethnography and action research. Again, you
should not think of these as discrete entities. There may be a
combination of some of these in the same research project.

l Research projects may be cross-sectional or longitudinal.

l Multi-method approaches to research mean that different


Purposes may be served and that triangulation of results is
facilitated.


R 

låou should take care to ensure that your results are valid and
reliable.

låou should always think carefully about the ethical issues implied
by the choice of your research strategy.


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