Comparison b/w HRM & HRD

Dimensions 

HRM
independent function with independent sub-function A service & reactive Function to improve the efficiency of people & administration Salary & economic rewards 
Only Seeks An An

HRD
integrated system consisting of interdependent sub-system A proactive function to develop the total organization its culture on challenges, creativity & motivation Of all the managers 
Focus Seeks

Status Orientation Aims Incentives used Responsibility Morale Productivity Relationship    

of HR Manager 

satisfaction & Morale as the cause of improved performance 

Improved

performance as the cause of improved satisfaction 

Improved

Case Study
Mariam has been a data processing supervisor for two years. She is in the process of selecting a candidate for a programmer trainee position she has created. Her plan is to develop the trainee into a system analyst within two years. Since this is a fast track, she needs a candidate whose aptitude and motivation is high. Fourteen candidates applied for the job in the employment section of the human resource department. Six were women, eight were men. An employment specialist screened the candidates for mariam using a carefully prepared interview format that included questions to determine job-related skills. Six candidates, three women and three men, were referred to mariam. Mariam then conducted structured, in-depth interviews and further narrowed the selection to one woman and two men. Her boss, a company vicepresident, agrees with her judgement after hearing mariam¶s description of the candidates. However, mariam¶s boss feels particularly unsure of the abilities of the female candidate. From the selection interview, past job experience and education, there is a no clear indication of the candidate¶s ability to perform the job. the vice-president is insistent that Mariam should screen the candidate with a programmer aptitude test devised by a computer manufacturing firm. The test had been given four years ago and some of the most successful current analysis had scored high on it. Mariam went to the human resource department and asked them to administer the test of the questionable candidate. The human resource manager informed her that the company policy had been to do no testing of any kind during the last two years. Mariam explained that the request had come from a vice-president and asked that she be given a decision on her request by Friday.

Case Study- 2
Rane is a Branch Manager of a reputed Bank and has earned a reputation for efficient operations. Recently, a divisional manager telephones Rane that a new Branch Office was to be opened in another city. The divisional manager also informed Rane that senior management is highly pleased with the way his branch office has been functioning in the past and would like him to recommend someone from his office for promotion as Branch Manager to manage the new Branch. Rane started analysis of his subordinate staff to determine who might make a good manager. He has narrowed his choice down to two persons within his office: Ms. Anita and Mr. Malla. Both Anita and Malla are young persons in early Forties. Each has a management degree from reputed institutes. Anita usually seems more effective and tactful when dealing with customers. Both have low absenteeism record and either one would probably make a satisfactory manager for the new branch of the bank. Rane has an impression that most people prefer male supervisors and women generally are not really interested in career and as manager might develop aggressive female tendencies. As such Malla may be an effective manager in a new work place. Hence he recommended Malla for promotion as a branch manager in the bank¶s new branch. Questions:1) If you were Rane, whom would you recommend as head of the new Branch? Give arguments in favor of your recommendation. 2) As HR Manager, how would you handle Anita¶s feelings of being ignored?

Human Resource Development
HRD is an organized learning experience aimed at matching the organizational need for Human Resource with the individual need for career growth and development.

Organization Change etc Trained & Developed Employees Healthy Organizational Climate Organizational Effectiveness . Skills & Attitude Work Culture.HRD Model Human Resource Development Plans Individual Development Plans Organizational Development Plans Knowledge.

HRD in Indian Industry  Private Sectors    L&T Asian Paints Voltas etc  Public Sectors    BHEL SBI Indian Oil etc .

.Career Planning Career Planning is the systematic process by which one selects career goals and path to these goals.

Career Planning and Manpower Planning .

Career Planning and Succession Planning .

premature firing. .Succession Planning Succession Planning is the process of ensuring that qualified persons are available to assume key managerial positions whenever these fall vacant due to untimely death. resignations and retirements.

Important Terminologies      Career Goal Career Path Career Progression Career Counseling Mentoring .

Objectives of Career Planning     To attract and retain right type of persons in the organization To map out careers of employees suitable to their abilities and willingness To provide guidance and encouraging employees to fulfill their potentials To achieve higher productivity and organizational development .

Process of Career Planning Identifying individual needs and aspiration Analyzing Career opportunities Identifying Match and Mismatch Formulating and Implementing strategies Reviewing Career plans .

Essentials of effective Career Planning         Top Management support Expansion Clear Goals Motivated and Hardworking Staff Proper Selection Fair Promotion Policy Internal Publicity Continuity .

.Career Development Career Development is essential for implementing Career Plans.

Process of Career Development Career Need Assessment Career Opportunities Need-Opportunity Alignment Individualized Techniques Performance Appraisal MBO Career Counseling Monitoring career Moves .

A few days back you have been completed your formal investigation and with the exception of Rajan. You have been his supervisor for the past three months. all seems to be meeting the targets set by you. you begin to wonder whether some of the remedial training is needed for people like him.Case Study. Along with numerous errors. Recently you have been asked by the management to find out the contributions of each employee in the accounts section and monitor carefully whether they are meeting the standard set by you.3 Rajan has been employed for six months in the accounts section of a large textile company in Tirupur. As you look into Rajan¶s performance review sheets again. Rajan¶s work is characterized by low performance-often does 20% less then other clerks in the department. .

how would you go about introducing a remedial training programme? 3) Should you supervising him more closely? Can you do this without making it too obvious to him and coworkers? 4) Should you discuss the situation with Rajan? .Questions 1) As Rajan¶s supervisor can you find out whether poor performance is due to poor training or some other cause? 2) If Rajan is inadequately trained.

Human Relations .

psychological and social environment. cooperatively and with economic.Human Relations is an area of management practice which is concerned with the integration of people into a work situation in a way that motivates them to work productively. .

Importance of Human Relations     Higher performance Optimum use of resources Morale justification Understanding of human factors .

Approaches to Human Relations    Negative Approach Natural approach Positive approach .

Components of Human Relations Work Environment Leader Work Work Group .

Techniques of Human Relations         Integration Employee Participation Congenial work Environment Open Communication Adaptive Leadership Resolving Conflicts Conditioning Behavior Personnel Counseling .

Collective Bargaining .

´ . attempt to arrive at agreements covering the conditions under which employees will contribute and be compensated for their services.³Collective Bargaining refers to a process by which Employers on one hand and representatives of Employees on other.

Types of Collective Bargaining     Distributive Bargaining Integrative Bargaining Attitudinal Bargaining Intra-organizational bargaining .

To ensure the participation of trade Unions in industry. . To promote Industrial democracy.Objectives of Collective Bargaining     To maintain cordial relations between Employer and the employee. To avoid the need for government intervention as collective bargaining is a Voluntary process.

Employee Empowerment .

´ .John Newstrom and Keith Devis .³Empowerment is any process that provides greater authority through the sharing of relevant information and the provision of control over factors affecting job Performance.

Elements of Empowerment    Self-competence Meaningfulness Impact (Influence) .

Approaches to Empowerment     Helping employees achieve Job Mastery Allowing more Control Providing successful Role Models Giving more support .

Importance of Empowerment     Knowledge Workers Cut throat competition Speed and flexibility Globalization .

Barriers to Empowerment      Incongruent organizational culture Love for authority Fear of retribution by superiors Fear of a retribution by subordinates Dependency of subordinates .

Participative Management .

³Participation refers to the mental and emotional involvement of a person in a group situation which encourages him to contribute to group goals and share in the responsibility of achieving them.´ .Keith Device .

Degrees of Participation 
  

Communication Consultation Code-termination Self management

Objectives of Worker¶s Participation in management
Economic Objective Social Objective Psychological objectives 

 

Importance of Worker¶s Participation in management 
    

Mutual understanding Higher productivity Industrial harmony Industrial democracy Less resistance to change Creativity and innovation

Forms of Worker¶s Participation in management 
   

Suggestion schemes Workers committee Joint management council Worker directors Co-partnership

Business Ethics .

Business Ethics Guide for behavior CORE VALUES Transparency Fairness Accountability Responsibility .

Four corporate governance ethical values (³RAFT´) 1. Fairness ´In its decisions and actions.µ 2.µ 4.µ . Transparency ´The board should disclose information in a manner that enables stakeholders to make a meaningful analysis of the company·s actions. Responsibility ´The board should assume responsibility for the company·s assets and actions and be willing to take corrective actions to keep the company on its strategic path. the board should ensure that it gives fair consideration to the interests of all stakeholders of the company. Accountability ´The board should be able to justify its decisions and actions to stakeholders affected by the company and give account to those stakeholders who require the board to do so 3.

All relevant information required for exercising effective control and providing innovative direction to the company need to be acquired.´Ethics of governanceµ ³ Five ethical duties of directors are grounded in the four corporate governance values 1.µ . Care ´A director should devote serious attention to the affairs of the company. Conscience ´A director should act with intellectual honesty in the best interest of the company. Independence of mind should prevail to ensure the best interest of the company and its stakeholders are served.µ 2. Conflicts of interest should be avoided.

Effort needs to be put into ensuring company performance and conformance.3. This competence should be developed continuously. but also the courage to act with integrity in all board decisions and activities. Commitment ´A director should be diligent in performing director·s duties.µ 4. Sufficient time should be devoted to company affairs. Willingness to be regularly reviewed for competence is a prerequisite. Courage ´A director should have the courage to take the risks associated with directing a successful sustainable enterprise.µ 5.µ . Competence ´A director should have the knowledge and skills required for governing a company effectively.

Perhaps.4 Ramesh. The plant is a part of the multiproduct and multi plant conglomerate owned by a prestigious business house in India. He has been driven to the wall. Ramesh engaged powers------. shouted and walked out of the room swiftly.Case Study. AGM. Ramesh has reason for his sudden outburst. G. Materials. Ramesh joined a pulp making plant located at Harihar in Karnataka. Materials. perks. threw the resignation letter on his table. 25 lakh. as AGM Materials. designation and reputation of the conglomerate hired Ramesh away from the public sector steel monolith.he could even place an order for materials worth Rs. . As a manager material. is fuming and fretting. Obviously. He needed nobody¶s prior approval. details of the story will tell the reasons for Ramesh¶s is bill and why he put in his papers. barely four months after he took up his present assignment.M. He bumped into Kailash. The year was 1995 when Ramesh quite the prestigious SAIL plant at Vishakhapatnam.

materials arrived. Ramesh was curtly told that he should have known company rules before venturing. were received. Remesh felt fumigated and cheated. little did Ramesh realize that he needed prior approval to place an order for materials worth Rs. 12 lakh came from the vendor. accepted and used up in the plant. The accounts department withheld payment for the reason that the bill was not endorsed by Kailash.12 lakh. Kailash refused to sign of the bill as his approval was not taken by Ramesh before placing the order. A brief encounter with Kailash only aggravated the problem. Remesh decided to quit. . Trouble started when the bill for Rs. He placed the order.When he joined the eucalyptus pulp making company. He had presumed that he had the authority to place an order by himself worth half the amount of what he used to do at the mega steel maker.

Questions:1. 3. how effective is it? If you were Remesh what would have you done? . 2. Where have the system gone wrong? Was it really Ramesh¶s mistake? It so was there any solution? Does the company have an orientation programme? If yes. 4.

Absenteeism .

Absenteeism Absenteeism means the failure of a worker to report for work when he is scheduled to work. Number of mandays lost due to absence Absenteeism = Number of mandays scheduled to work X 100 .

Absenteeism in India .

Causes of Absenteeism            Nature of work Poor working conditions Sickness Accidents Lack of interest Absence of housing and transport facility Poor management system Lack of regular leave arrangement Rural ties Alcoholism and gambling Other causes .

Control over Absenteeism           Proper hiring Good working conditions Housing and transport facility Safety programmes Incentives Effective supervision Disciplinary actions Regular leave provisions Employee counseling Proper records .

MORALE .

Morale A mental condition or attitudes of individuals and groups which determines their willingness to cooperate. .

Importance of Morale .

Factors influencing Morale       Nature of work Working Conditions Supervision Interpersonal relations Management policies Personal factors .

Measurement of Morale   Observation Attitude or Morale surveys   Interview Method Questionnaire Method  Company Records and Reports .

Measures for Building high Morale           Proper work environment Job security Sound compensation system Sound promotion Policy Creation of whole jobs Job enrichment Grievance procedure Suggestion schemes Employee counseling Worker¶s participation in management .

Impact of Morale on Productivity High Productivity High Morale High productivity High Morale High morale Low Productivity Low Morale High Productivity Low Morale Low Morale Low Productivity Low Productivity .

Job Satisfaction .

.Job Satisfaction Job Satisfaction is the end feeling of a person after performing a task.

Determinants of job Satisfaction  Environmental Factors      Job content Occupational level Pay and promotion Work group Supervision Age Gender Education level Marital Status Experience  Personal factors      .

Theories of Job satisfaction       Need fulfillment theory Equity theory Two factor theory Discrepancy theory Equity-discrepancy theory Social reference group theory .

Dissatisfaction) by Pestonjee     Job Management Social Relations Personal Adjustment .Measurement of job satisfaction   Job Satisfaction Index (Hoppock) S-D (Satisfaction .

Counseling .

Counseling  Counseling is the mean by which one person helps another through purposeful conversation.  . Counseling is a method of identifying practical solutions to life or work related problem.

Essential Elements      An empathic relationship The counselor and client relate well The counselor sticks closely to the client¶s problem The client feels free to say what they like An atmosphere of mutual trust and confidence exist .

Types of Counseling    Directive Non-directive Co-operative .

Employee Health .

Working conditions affecting health       Cleanliness Lighting Temperature and ventilation Freedom from noise Dust control Working space and seating arrangement .

Occupational hazards Chemical substance Biological hazards Environmental hazards Atmospheric conditions     .

Protection against health hazards   Preventive measures Curative measures .

2 cubic meters) Lighting Drinking water .Statutory provisions concerning Health         Cleanliness Disposal of waste Ventilation and temperature Dust and fumes Artificial humidification Overcrowding(14.

Employee Safety .

the factories act 1948 .Employee Safety An Industrial Accident is ³an occurrence in an industrial establishment causing bodily injury to a person which makes him unfit to resume his duties in the next 48 hours.´ .

000 Accidents frequency rate = Total no of men hours worked .Records and measurement of accidents No of injuries x 10.00.

000 Accidents Severity rate = Total no of men hours worked .No of men day lost x 10.00.

Causes of industrial accidents  Unsafe Conditions     The job itself Work schedules Psychological conditions Machinery and equipments   Unsafe acts Miscellaneous causes .

Measures to ensure Industrial safety    Safety policy Safety committee Safety engineering     Guarding of machines Material handling equipment Safety devices Plan maintenance   Safety education and training Role of government (Safety and Health Accidents reduction Plans) .

ropes and lifting Tackles Revolving machinery . chains.Safety provisions under the Factories Act           Fencing of machinery Work on or near machinery in motion Employment of young persons on dangerous Machines Striking gears and devices for cutting off power Self-acting machines Casing of new machinery Prohibition of employment of women and children near cotton openers Hoists and lifts Lifting machines.

gas etc Precautions in case of fire Safety officers .         Pressure plant Floors. Stairs and means of access Excessive weights Protection of eyes Precautions against dangerous fumes Precautions regarding the use of portable electric lights Precautions against explosive or inflammable dust.

Employee welfare .

´ .Oxford Dictionary ³ Labor welfare means anything done for the comfort and improvement. of the employees over and above the wages paid which is not a necessity of the industry. intellectual or social.Arthur James Todd .´ .³The efforts to make life worth living for workmen.

Importance of Employee Welfare .

Mines Act etc) State Government Employers (Like TISCO. SAHARA etc) Trade Unions (Ahmedabad Textile Labor Association. Seva sadan Society.Agencies of Employee Welfare      Central Government (Acts like Factories Act. the Depressed classes Mission Society) . Mazdoor Sabha etc) Other agencies (Social Service League.

Types of Welfare Services   Intramural Extra-mural      Hosing Education Transportation Recreation Consumer cooperative stores .

1970  . Crèche for 50 women workers.Statutory provisions concerning employee welfare  The Factories Act. Ambulance & Welfare Officer on 500 workers. canteen on 250 workers. rest room.1952 ( crèche for 50 workers. canteen on 250 workers) The Contract Labor (Regulation and Abolition) Act. Lunch room on 150 workers. educational Facilities for 25 children between 6 to 12. sickness allowances.1948 (First Aid Box. Lunch room on 150 workers. rest room. Welfare Officers for 300 workers )  The Mines Act. Crèche on 30 women workers)  The Plantation Labor Act. Housing Facilities.1951 (canteen for 150 workers.

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