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CHAPTER 2

OFF
Done By: Mahzawati HZ SMR 2008
Why it was called First World War?

Because it was the first time in history that many
countries of the world were involved in a war
Why?
1. Rise of Germany

2. Colonial Race

3. Naval Race
4. Countries distrust each other

5. Conflict in Balkan States
1. Rise of Germany

Germany France

Franco-Prussian War

Otto Von Bismarck

Alsace Lorraine

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2. Colonial Race

Germany and Italy
angered the fact that
Britain, France and others had
extended their control world wide and
they had
secured the markets for their manufactured
goods.

Germany and Italy also wanted
to obtain their
shares of colonies.

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Why Germany build up military policy in 1898?
Aim to controlling world commerce and industry

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3. Naval Race

•Britain saw Germany
as threat to her
position as
“Mistress of the
Sea”
•Thus naval arms race
between Britain and
Germany began

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4. Countries distrust with each other
Countries began to distrust with one another at the
same time they felt the need to have friends to
support them in times of trouble.
TRIPLE ALLIANCE TRIPLE ENTENTE

Germany Britain

Italy France

Austria- Hungary Russia

Two opposing groups before the
1st World War (before 1914) 8
5. Conflict in Balkan States

Russia

Austria-
Hungary

Serbia

Wished to control
Immediate cause of 1st World War was Sarajevo Incident
Assassination of
Archduke Franz
Ferdinand of the
Austro-Hungarian
Empire & his wife,
Countess Sophie
on 28 June 1914
in Sarajevo

Franz Ferdinand, Archduke of Austria
and his Wife Sophie, Duchess of
Hohenberg one hour before their
deaths, June 28, 1914 10
•Cause of 1st World War:
Sarajevo Incident
•When? 28 June 1914
•Where? Sarajevo,
capital city of Bosnia
Herzegovina
•Killer? Gavrilo Princip,
Serbian descent
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Quizzes
on the causes of the 1st World War

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Why?
1. Rise of Germany

2. Colonial Race

3. Naval Race
4. Countries distrust each other

5. Conflict in Balkan States

What was the immediate cause
Sarajevo Incident 13
of 1 World War?
st
How 1st World War began?

Sarajevo Incident 28 June 1914 Gavrilo Princip

28 July 1914 Serbia
Austria Hungary

1 August 1914
Germany 3 Au Russia
gust
4A 1914
ugu France
st 1
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1st World War Britain
began
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Quizzes
on the countdown to War

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2.1 THE FIRST WORLD WAR (1914 – 1918)

28th June Achduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife were assassinated

28th July Austria declared war on Serbia

29th July Austrian troops attacked Belgrade, capital of Serbia

1st Aug Russia supported Serbia. Germany declared war on Russia

3rd Aug Germany declared war on France

4th Aug Britain declared war on Germany
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What were the 2 opposing groups
during 1st World War (until
1918)?
Triple Triple Entente
Alliance POWERS
CENTRAL THE ALLIES

• Britain
• Germany
• Russia
• Austria-Hungary
• France
• Turkey
• Italy
• Bulgaria
• Japan
• USA
Germany Schlieffen Plan

France Plan Seventeen

Britain Plan W

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Schlieffen Plan
Who made it? Count Von Schlieffen

Which country made it? Germany

What was the plan? •Germany’s plan to
invade northern France
through Belgium.
•Plan was created to GermanyRussia
prepare Germany from France
an attack on two fronts; N

-Western Front=France
-Eastern Front=Russia.
Plan Seventeen

Which country made it? France

What was the plan? A plan in which
French troops would
not wait for Germany
to attack but would be
ready to strike
Plan W

Which country made it? Britain

What was the plan? A plan to help France, if
attacked by Germany

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Quizzes
on the Military Planning

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Schlieffen Plan
Who made it? Count Von Schlieffen

Which country made it? Germany

What was the plan? •Germany’s plan to invade
______________through
Northern France Belgium.

•Plan was created to prepare
Germany from an attack on two
West
fronts; France from the _________ N
& ___________
Russia from the East.
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Plan Seventeen

Which country made it? France

What was the plan? A plan in which French troops
not wait for Germany to attack
would __________________
but would be ready to strike

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Plan W

Which country made it? Britain

What was the plan? France
A plan to help ____________,
if attacked by Germany

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Russian leader, Russia lost Russia joined
Lenin signed a truce 25% of its the war by
with Germany & territories to giving support
Austria Hungary Germany to Serbia
known as 8 1
Treaty of Litovsk 7 Thus on 1 August
2 1914, Germany
In 1918, the declared war on
Russian Russia
withdrew 6 3
earlier from General Von
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the war 5 Two Battles fought in Hindenberg and
Germany Eastern Front: Ludendorff
won. were sent to the
Russia 2) Battle of Eastern Front
were Tannenberg
defeated 3) Battle of Masurian
Lake
Eastern front

Eastern Front

Western Front

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Quizzes
on the Eastern Front

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How Russia joined the war? by giving support to Serbia
When Germany declared war on Russia? on 1 August 1914
Who were the 2 Germans General Von Hindenberg and
sent to Eastern Front? General Von Ludendorff
8 1
7 Battle of Tannenberg
What were the two Battles
fought in Eastern Front? 2
Battle of Masurian Lake
Who won the Battles? Germany won.
6 3 it? In 1918
Russian withdrew earlier from the war. When was
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What was the agreement? Treaty of Litovsk
Who was the Russian leader that signed a Lenin
truce with Germany & Austria Hungary?
What was the term under Russia lost 25% of its
the Treaty? territories to Germany 30
3 August •Germany declared war on France
1914 •Germany used the SCHLIEFFEN PLAN to invade France

4 August •Britain sent ULTIMATUM to Germany, asking
Germany to withdraw.
•Germany refused and Britain declared war.
Thus 1st WORLD WAR BEGAN.

Sept •First battle fought on Western Front at MARNE
•Germany lost the battle. Schlieffen Plan failed.
1 July •Battle at the VALLEY of SOMME took place.
1916 •The British and French attacked Germans positions.
•British army tanks were used for the first time.
•Both suffered heavy casualties.
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600,000 French and British men and ½ million German soldiers died.

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Conscription:
to make compulsory
young men to join army

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•From the start of the war until
1918, British Navy formed
blockage to stop passage of
shipping to or from Germany
and her allies

•German fought back by singking
Allied ships.
The sinking of Lusitania
on 7 may 1915.

Lusitania ship
-Belonged to British
-Sailed from New
York to Liverpool
-Over 1,000
passangers and crew
were drowned.
-Many of them
Americans
The only one major naval battle fought in 1916 called
Battle of Jutland.
Germany launched
torpedo attacks on Germans used new naval warfare
Allied shipping called U-boats or submarines
• First time that airships were used in war

German used airships called Zeppelins

2 uses of Zeppelins:
1) To spot enemy ships,
and report their positions
to the waiting submarines

2) For bombing raids

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More countries become involved in the
war between 1914 - 1917
July 1914 Turkey Central Power

Nov 1914 Russia declared war on Turkey
Germany sent military help to Turkey,
Thus war spread in Middle East

1915 United States
Allies
of America

Why USA joined 1) Sinking of Lusitania. May american were killed
the war? 2) Too many German spies in the United States
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3) To free the world from aggression
Reasons why German surrendered?

They suffered a shortage of food, weapons and
other supplies

German troops were exhausted and morale was
low
• The Big Four
Leaders of World 1) British PM - David Lloyd George
War 1 gathered at
2) French PM - George Clemenceau
Versailles on
18 January 1919 3) US President - Woodrow Wilson
to write a formal
treaty for peace. 4) Italian PM - Vittorio Orlando
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Treaty of Versailles on 28 June 1919
Germany Woodrow Wilson suggested Fourteen points Allies
to become basis for the peace treaty

1)Territorial Losses 2) Military Limitations
•Germany had to return Alsace •German army was limited to
and Lorraine to France 100,000 men
•Germany lost parts of Prussia •German allowed to have 6
and Silesia to Poland battleships
•Germany was forbidden to
build warships, tanks,
submarines or aeroplanes

3) War Reparations
•Germany had to pay
6.6 million pounds to
the allies 41
Signing the Treaty of Versailles
Other points under Peace Treaty:
5) Formation of League of
Nation
4) Creation of new •When formed? 1920
boundaries •Aims: 1) To promote international
Austria-Hungary cooperation
empire was abolished 2) To achieve peace & security
•First meeting? January 1920
Austria Hungary •How many members? 42 countries
•Germany – not allowed to join in
Poland •USA – never joined in
•Russia – became member in 1934
Czechoslovakia •Why League failed? Because
Yugoslavia members were did not want to join
forces (Army) to preserve peace.
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• The Parisians had a
parade after the signing
of the Treaty at
Versailles marking the
end of World War I.
Notice the sign at the
top of this photograph
that reads: "Vive
Wilson."

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1) Millions soldiers
and people were died
and wounded

5) German 2) Farmland,
empire were Factories and
reduced industrial areas
were damaged

4) Boundaries
were redefined 3) The League of
Nations formed
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