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Engineering Project

Recommendations (14)

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At a recent meeting, members discussed ways in
which to achieve an equality relationship during process capability
analysis for manufacturing purposes Whereas product
quality in manufacturing is often evaluated using process capability
analysis, the process capability index (PCI) assesses product quality
via quantification measurements. Consequently, process yield is
closely related to PCI. In addition to providing valuable process or
product-related information for quality control engineers, process yield
reflects the degree of product quality in an enterprise. As
is well known, Cp, Cpk and Cpm are commonly used PCIs in
manufacturing. While the sample statistic is utilized to approximate the
population parameters, , A and B are not the unbiased estimators of
Cp, Cpk and Cpm. Additionally, the probability density functions (PDFs)
of these indices are difficult to obtain, thus complicating the computing
task of the confidence interval for these indices.
Otherwise, the most commonly used index Cpk has an inequality
relationship, not a one-by-one relationship, with process yield.
The inability to achieve an equality relationship makes it
impossible to construct the confidence interval of process yield through
Cpk and other indices.
Therefore, we recommend developing a standardized
procedure to determine the process yield through PCI in order to
generate the confidence interval. To do so, the
confidence interval of process yield can be constructed based on the
index Spk, which is defined by Boyles (1994) as having a one-by-one
relationship with process yield. The confidence interval of process yield
can then be approximated according to Spk by adopting a repeated
sampling method called Bootstrap Simulation. Next, reliability of the
simulation results can be confirmed by performing verification analysis.
Additionally, the effect of various combinations of simulation parameters
can be determined using sensitivity analysis. As anticipated,
the proposed standardized procedure involves use of a Visual Basic-
based application program for engineers without a statistical background.
Importantly, in addition to providing another means of
obtaining the confidence interval of process yield based on bootstrap
simulation, the proposed method can be easily implemented in
enterprises to determine product more precisely and facilitate decision
making. (NOTE : Add 1-2 more sentences that describe more
thoroughly how the proposed method contributes to a particular field or
Our management supervisors recently
expressed concern over how to avoid a degraded system
performance in wireless communications. Despite
the increasing application of wireless communications in daily life,
the data rate of a wireless network is markedly lower than that of
a cable network, i.e. a significant difference in speed of
downloading audio or video information.
Although the recently developed multi-input multi-output (MIMO)
system can significantly increase the transfer speed, its system
performance is substantially lower than that of conventional
methods, i.e. a single-input single-output (SISO) method.
(NOTE : Add 3-4 more sentences that describe characteristics
of the problem or statistics that reflect its severity)
For instance, MIMO and SISO
systems differ with respect toe signal-to-noise ratio (SNR)
by several decibels in an indoor environment.
A loss of several decibels in SNR markedly
degrades system performance. Hence, although
implementing a MIO system yields a higher data rate, the
error probability of information is extremely high and data
should be delivered repeatedly.
Therefore, we recommend developing an advanced
channel coding scheme for MIMO systems to reduce the SNR loss
since some erroneous information should be averted without
transferring again. Nevertheless, the capacity of channel coding is
limited, i.e. the code can not ensure that MIMO systems perform as well
as SISO systems. To do so, a joint signal detection
and channel coding scheme can be developed. An effective means of
detecting signals deemed appropriate for the MIMO system can then
be identified. Next, a reliable advanced channel coding scheme can be
designed, capable of eliminating most communication errors.
Additionally, a detection and coding scheme can be jointly designed to
achieve a low data error rate in MIMO systems. As
anticipated, the joint detection and decoding capabilities of the
enhanced MIMO systems closely match those of SISO systems.
, thus upgrading the system performance of MIMO significantly
and yielding a high data rate without a high data error rate. (NOTE :
Add 2-3 more sentences that describe more thoroughly how the
proposed method contributes to a particular field or sector)
Further details can be found at