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AIR POLLUTION

Roz Ayu bt Ismail


Hasmida bt Mohd Nasir
Norul Fatihah bt Mohammed Noah
Mohamad Amirrun Nazrie bin Suhaimi
Indoor Air Quality
Y Referring to the air quality within and around buildings and structures,
especially as it relates to the health and comfort of building occupants.
Y Can be affected by microbial contaminants, gases, particulates, or any
mass or energy stressor.
Y Common Pollutant:
- Radon
- Molds
- Carbon Monoxide
- Volatile Organic Compound
- Asbestos Fibers
- Carbon Dioxide
- Ozone

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indoor_air_quality
Indoor Air Quality Modeling

Y Developed by Indoor Environment


Management Branch, US
Environment al Protection Agency
(EPA).
Y Analyzing the impact of sources,
sinks, ventilation, and air cleaners
on indoor air quality.
Y Allowed calculation of indoor
concentrations as a function of
time.

http://www.epa.gov/appcdwww/iemb/model.htm
Ôass ala ce

Volume = V
Co ce tratio = C

Q, Ca Q, C
¢mission ecay
Rate =¢ Rate = k

Source Si k

ACCUMULATION = IN + G¢N¢RATION ± OUT - CONSUMPTION


Ôass ala ce

Volume = V
Co ce tratio = C

, Ca ,C
¢mission ecay
Rate =¢ Rate = k

Source Si k

ACCUMULATION = IN + G¢N¢RATION ± OUT - CONSUMPTION


Rate of
Rate of polluta t Rate of polluta t Rate of polluta t Rate of polluta t
polluta t
= e teri g box + e teri g box from - leavi g the box by - leavi g box by
i crease i
from outside i door emissio leakage to outdoors decay
box
Ôass ala ce

Volume = V
Co ce tratio = C

, Ca ,C
¢mission ecay
Rate =¢ Rate = k

Source Si k

Rate of
Rate of polluta t Rate of polluta t Rate of polluta t Rate of polluta t
polluta t
= e teri g box + e teri g box from - leavi g the box by - leavi g box by
i crease i
from outside i door emissio leakage to outdoors decay
box
Equation 7-27 (pg 598)

 ൌ ‘Ž—‡‘ˆ‘šǡ
 ൌ ‘…‡–”ƒ–‹‘‘ˆ‘ŽŽ—–ƒ–ǡ
 ൌ ƒ–‡‘ˆ ˆ‹Ž–”ƒ–‹‘‘ˆƒ‹”‹–‘ƒ†‘—–‘ˆ„‘šǡ
ƒ ൌ ‘…‡–”ƒ–‹‘‘ˆ’‘ŽŽ—–ƒ–‹‘—–†‘‘”ƒ‹”ǡ
 ൌ ‹••‹‘”ƒ–‡‘ˆ’‘ŽŽ—–ƒ–‹–‘„‘šˆ”‘‹†‘‘”•‘—”…‡ǡ
 ൌ ‘ŽŽ—–ƒ–†‡…ƒ›”ƒ–‡‘ˆ”‡ƒ…–‹‘”ƒ–‡…‘‡ˆˆ‹…‹‡–ǡ
General Solution for Equation 7-27:

Steady-state Solution for Equation 7-27:

k=0, ambient concentration negligible,


initial indoor concentration=0:
'  AIR POLLUTION CONTROL
OF STATIONARY SOURCES

G  

G
      

   
      
Gaseous Pollutant

Absorption

Adsorption

Combustion
Absorption
Y Transfer pollutant from gas phase to liquid
phase.(mass transfer process)
Y The removal of the pollutant gas takes place in
three steps:
I. Diffusion of the pollutant gas to the surface of the
liquid.
II. Transfer across the gas/liquid interface.
III. Diffusion of the dissolved gas away from the
interface into the liquid.
Y The example is spray chamber and
tower/column.(see figure 7.26 and 7.27)
Y Amount of the absorption for a nonreactive solution is govern by
partial pressure.
Y Henry's law give relationship between partial pressure and
concentration.
Pg = KHCequi
Y Where,
O = Partial pressure of the solute in the gas above the solution.
= Concentration of the solute
H = constant with the dimensions of pressure divided by
concentration.
Y Eq. above implies that Pg is must increase as the liquid accumulates
more pollutant or else it will come out of solution.
Y Since the liquid is removing pollutant from the
gas phases, this means the partial pressure is
decreasing as gas is cleaned. Reverse what we
want to happen.
Y The easiest way to settle this problems by run
the gas and liquid in countercurrent flow.
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Adsorption

Y The gas is bonded to a solid (mass transfer)


Y Pressure vessels having a fixed bed are used to hold the
adsorbent (figure 7-29)
Y Common adsorbents is active carbon (charcoal), molecular
sieves, silica gel, and activated alumina.
Y The common property of these adsorbents is a large Dzactivedz
surface area per unit volume after treatment.
Y They are very effectives for hydrocarbon pollutant. In
addition, they can capture H2S and SO2.
Y One special form of molecular sieve can also capture NO2.
Y Except active carbons, adsorbents have a drawback that they
preferentially select water before any of the pollutant. So,
water must remove from the gas before it is treated.
Y All adsorbents are subject to destruction at high
temperature (1500C for active carbon, 6000C for
molecular sieves, 4000C for silica gel, and 5000C for
activated alumina ). At this temperatures they are very
inefficient and in fact, their activity is regenerated!
Y Relation between the amount of pollutant adsorbed
and the equilibrium pressure at constant temperature
is called an adsorption isotherm. Equation by
Langmuir :
W = __aCR*__
1 + bCg*
The time to breakthrough:
tB = Zt Ȃ !

Combustion
Y Alternatives method of control when the
contaminant in the gas stream is oxidizable to an
inert gas.
Y Use   Olame incineration method if:
1. Gas stream have net heating value (NHV)
greater than 3.7 MJ/m3.
2. None of the byproducts of combustion be
toxic.(eg. Trichloroethylene produces
phosgene,which was used as a poison gas in world
war 1.)
Y Flame incineration is applied to varnish cooking,
meat-smokehouse, and paint bake-oven
emissions.
Y Use catalytic incinerator if :
Y Catalytic material enable oxidation to be carried out
in gases that have an +( , '-.,
Y Catalytic combustion is has successfully been applied
to printing-press, varnish cooking, and asphalt-
oxidation emissions.
Y Problem in design catalytic reactor is to determine the
volume and dimensions of the catalyst bed for a given
conversion and flow rate.
Y See example 7-9 that show how to estimating the
dimension and volume of the catalyst.
Flue gas desulfurization (FGD)

*Flue gas desulfurization systems fall into 2 broad


categories:
Nonregenerative Ȃ reagent used to remove sulfur
oxides is discarded
Regenerative Ȃ reagent used is recovered and reused
Nitrogen Oxide (NOx)
*Result from combustion processes
*Produced from :
 oxidation of N2 bound in the fuel
 Reaction of O2 and N2 in the combustion air (T>1600K)
 Reaction of N2 in the combustion air with hydrocarbon
radicals
Control technologies for NOx

a) Prevent the formation of NOx during the


combustion process
 By reduce the flame temperature
 Alternatives:
Minimizing operating Lean combustion
temperature Staged combustion
Fuel switching Low NOx burners
Low excess air Secondary combustion
Flue gas recirculation Water/steam injection
b) Convert NOx formed during combustion into N2
and O2
Selective catalytic reduction (SCR)

Combustion NH3 injected NH3


upstream of
process NOx N2 + O2
catalyst bed
Selective noncatalytic reduction (SNCR)

Urea injected Urea NH3


into flue gas converted NOx N2 + O2
(870-1090oC) into NH3
Nonselective catalytic reduction (NSCR)
è Use 3-way catalyst
è Require reducing agent
è Need larger boiler

*Reduction capabilities
 Prevention: 30-60 %
 SCR : 70-90 %
 SNCR : 30-50 %
   

*Cyclones
Y For particle sizes greater than 10µm in diameter
How its works?
Particle accelerated through a spiral motion
Imparts centrifugal force to the particles
Hurled out of the spinning gas
Impact on cylinder wall
Slide to the bottom of the cone
Removed through valving system
Reverse flow cyclone
Standard reverse flow cyclone proportions
Y The efficiency of collection of various particle sizes
(Õ) can be determined from an empirical
expression and efficiency graph (
/G012',3)
Where
0.5 = cut diameter, the particle size for
which the collection efficiency is 50%
µ = dynamic viscosity of gas, Pa.s
B = width of entrance, m
H = height of entrance, m
ɖp = particle density, kg/m3s
Qg = gas flow rate, m3/s
Ú = effectiveness number of turns made in
traversing the cyclone
Y The value of Ú may be determined approximately by the
following:

Y Where L1 and L2 are the length of the cylinder and cone


respectively
Y For further understanding, letǯs go through ex 10-7
pg 617
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Mechanically cleaned (shaker) baghouse (a) and pulse-jet-clean baghouse (b)
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Y The dust cake is removed by directing a pulsed jet
of compress air into the bag.
Y Example 7-11 (page 620)
Y Solution:
1. Nothing that the air-to-cloth ratio units of m/s
are equivalent to m³/s.m², calculate the net cloth
area required with one compartment off line for
cleaning:
A = Q/V
= 20 m³/s/0.01m³/s. m²
= 2000 m²
2. The net number of bags is the total area divided
by the area of one bag:
2000 m²/(ɕ)(0.15 m)(12 m) = 353.67 or
354 bags
3. With one-eighth of the bags off line, an additional
one-eighth of the net number required:
354bags/8 = 44.25 or 44 bags
4. The total number of bags is 354 + 44 = 398.
Liquid scrubbing
Y Used when the particulate matter to be collected is
wet, corrosive, or very hot, the fabric filter may not
work.
Y Typical scrubbing applications include
i. Control of emission of talc dust
ii. Phosphoric acid mist
iii. Foundry cupola dust
iv. Open heart steel furnace fumes.
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enturi scrubber
Electrostatic Precipitation (EPS)
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