You are on page 1of 38

m 



         



m       
   
m       
       
       
m  

        
 
m Ú  


m   :
 


     
 

     
  

 


m     
  :
 
     

 
  
  
   
  


 
m À  


 
   
  
    


m    


 
       

 
 
     

 
Ú        
    
m î
 
  
 
 
 

 

 


 

à    
m   
   
 
  
 

m    

  

  
 !
m    
 " 
 
   
    

   !
m #  
 

 
     !$
  
   
 % 

&
 
   !    


 !
m
 !mÚ

m 
m #Ú    Ú  

#Ú
 
'! Ú     

# 
     

   
  !

(! Ú ) 
# 
#   

  
 !
CONTD͙.
u!Úîî
* 
 Ú
   
 
 + ,

-!Ú    . 



$  
m   
  m 

m


m #.î ,$ î  
 
 
  


  
!
m 

 
!!!


 
  
!
m 
  
     

  

 
 
!
m #      
 

!
Contd͙..
m         
   
m       
 
 
 
 
    
m 
 

m     
  

 

m /         
 
 
m 0 
0 
  
 
 


      1
!
Contd͙..
m #  
î  
  
  

 

  
  
 
m )         
m       

  
 
m       2
  
  
Contd͙
î

m 2


 
m  
m$ !
m         
   3 
m #
        # 
     
    
 
!
ñ          
m       

 


   
!
m *           

     !
m 
        

 
        
 
  
!
m #      
   
 
 !
Contd͙.

m 
     
 


m 
  

!
î
Contd͙.
m Ú  
!, 

  
!
m        
î!
,4
m *,5        

  
m * 5,       
 

 !
m        
    
m ñ  moopol  lly omp   m  podu
d

 d podu ,   dmd u 


  ly lopd.
m Bu    my lo ub u
o   podu.  
dmd u  ly p  l .   p  l  y
    mll   podu d

  o.
m T  b ll o
oupu o
moopol  lly omp  

m   o u   by   o  w  m l
u   ul o m l o, po dd   p 
d    bl o
'u

)#
8 )

: B
î
3
;

,

6u-789
Contd͙.

m #    


    


 7 !
)  î!
)
,4 !
)#9<7,5    

   !
)957 5,)   

  
 !
CONTD͙
m To ll   b ll o
oupu .î. (6u   
m   
  p   p u  (po   o d u
m ñ   6, ATC  , (po  o
u ,  
moopol   omp o    po
 o
 2 p u .
m AND A BP  Rñ 2 IN TOTAL.
m A    p
 omp   m  , moopol  lo u
lo, po
 b    o u.
CONTD͙

m $Ú)##.î î #+î î+ÀÚÀ# # 5)# #.îÚ$,


î),/ ,ÀÚ$# !
m $Ú 4)# #.îÚ$, ,î)= î î/!
m $Ú <)# #.î/#.îÚ$,$/ ,, +À î  #
$/$$ $/>#.î+À î  ? À/#$/$/>#À
,À3 î) +À/>)  5) 
m         
m À     

   
   

  
   
   
 
!
m #     
    (6!
m À           


       
@    

  1
 @    
    !
m
 
"ñ Ú
"# m "$%
m    
 T   y dmd u modl  
o pl     oollu  ol opol   du   
 o
 u       m  p  o
 
podu.
m T  dmd u  dw o   ump o   

  
. T  o 
  
m    m  uppl    
   o
 
podu d   pow
ul 
lu    p l  p 
o
  ommod y. :
Ônder oligopoly, a firm has two choices
m T 
  o      
m   o

  podu. î
m    duy 
ully w o
 

  
    p  o
  podu,  w ll lo
mo o
 uom o   l. I u  , 
 
   

 
 !
Contd͙͙.
m T  od op o
o  
m  o   
m I   
m low   p ,  ol l w ll ,
bu  o pu up  l y mu bu    l

m lo
ollow u  w   p  u. I
   l
m m 
l  p  u     o w    d ,  
m
w 
 d   p  u w ll u

  lo d my



  up w  dd l.
m T  ol opol ,  
o o d u  p , d y o ll
   podu    p l  m  p . T 
m,
ow, omp w  o o  o   b  o
ul y,
podu d , 
l  , d   , d ou,

, w, p l o

, .
Contd͙.

m I   bo d  m, w  ll


o       
d o u y    m l
u u ju blow  
po  opod  o  
 . Du    d o u y
  m l o u 
dw. T   bu o
 

    
m  
 u l b um  oupu ON
w    MC u 
    MR u

om blow.
Contd͙͙

m T  dmd u   d  po 
B. W    p   R.  p u ,

m ll 2 u  o
oupu. I


m d d o    R. 2 p
u ,  lo  l  p o
 
m  d  l om dow o
 u  w   lo o
 u . I
,   podu low   p 
o R.  p u ,  omp o 
  duy w ll m   p 
u. I l w   b p  u o

R. 6    l by oly 


u . T 
m do o    
ol u d w   
p  u.
m    
m Most businesses charge different prices to different
groups of consumers for what is more or less the same
good or service! This is price discrimination and it has
become widespread in nearly every market.
m 

  o  ou
w  
m     
 
   
 
o  d l ood o  ,

o o o o d w  o.
m I  mpo o       d

 p 

o similar goods  o pu p  d  m  o.
Contd͙.
m * 
   


  
 A
   
  

  
  


  

  

 

 12
 
    
.
m   
m  
  
  
 
  
   !# 

    
 
   )

 
'876 '8:6 !

m  
   


     

   
 
 !
Ã
m budl p   ,     u  o
 ud o ll
podu    omplmy o  m  podu.
o buy,   oll o o
  pu   ow 
   ompd o pu    podu
d  dully. o mpl,  m  l my o

 
d oud p  w  uom pu  bo 
d l m d  owo p oo p y DVD   
low  
bo m w pu d ply. I
  mpl    l my pomo   : DzBuy
bo   d l m d   owo p oo p y
DVD d  25%.dz
Two part tariff
m A     p     u  w    

 
  
 
    !
î    
:
m ummb p d ou  lu u   opp  lub  
    ul

o dm  o o   po  o
l d
lo   
o you pu 
m mum p  w     dm  o
 d lo
p d

m o   
o b omb d w  p d 

m d  d w      ul
 plu  p o


m loyly d o lub
m  &    
m P  
o jo  podu   l l mo ompl  
p  
o    l podu. To b  w    
wo dmd u. T      o

dmd u ould b d

. Dmd
o o
podu ould b   
o   o  podu.
Coum o
o podu ould b mo p  l 
    oum o
  o  podu (d
 
o mo    o       podu
p .
Contd͙
m To ompl    
u , bo podu, bu  y 
podud jo ly,    ommo m l o u. T 
 ompl      podu o
u o lo. T  
podu o ould b l  d        y  b 
podu (
d o  omplm  podu o, o  y
ould b l  d        y  b podud by  
m pu (
d o  ub u  podu o. Alo,
podu o o
  jo  podu ould b 
d popo o
o   bl popo o.