Such an amplifier is called a multistage amplifier .INTRODUCTION If the voltage or power gain obtained from a single stage small signal amplifier is not sufficient for a practical application . we go for more than one stage of amplification to achieve required voltage and power gain.

INTRODUCTION In multistage amplifiers. the output of one stage is fed as the input to the next as shown in figure below .

Such cascade and cascode connections are also possible in FET amplifiers .INTRODUCTION A multistage amplifier using two or more single stage common emitter amplifier is called as cascaded amplifiers A multistage amplifier with CE as the first stage and CB as the second stage is called as cascode amplifier.

Comparison of various multistage configurations .

it is necessary to use a coupling network between the output of one amplifier and the input of the following amplifier. This type of coupling is called as inter stage coupling These coupling networks serves the following ± It transfers the ac output of one stage to the input of the next stage ± It isolates the dc conditions of one stage to the next stage ± It also provides impedance matching .Use of coupling schemes When amplifiers are cascaded.

Different coupling schemes ‡ Resistance Capacitance coupling or Capacitive Coupling ‡ Direct Coupling ‡ Transformer Coupling .

as well as the signal ground. common to both stages. .Capacitive Coupling Note that there is a single dc source (VCC).

.Direct Coupling Direct coupling is just what it sounds like two amplifier stages are direct coupled if the output of the first stage is connected to the input of the second without the use of capacitors.

. The turns ratio may be expressed as N1:N2 as shown in the figure. a:1 (where a=N1/N2). or 1:a (where a=N2/N1).Transformer Coupling N1 gives the number of turns in the primary coil and N2 is the number of turns in the secondary coil.

Frequency response ‡ The voltage gain and phase shift of the gain depend on the frequency range over which the amplifier operate ‡ In general the entire frequency range can be divided into three ranges ± Mid frequency range ± Low frequency range ± High frequency range .

Mid -Frequency range ‡ In this frequency range the voltage gain is practically constant and is not affected by the changes of the capacitances in the circuit ‡ The reactance Xc=1/WCc of the coupling capacitor in series between the amplifying stages is very small so that it can be neglected ‡ Therefore the voltage gain may be considered as Aom=1 .

Low frequency range ‡ In this frequency range . the circuit behaves like the simple high pass circuit as shown in figure ‡ From the circuit .

Low frequency range ‡ Where ‡ Therefore the magnitude of the voltage gain at low frequency response is ‡ And the phase angle is ‡ At f=fL. .

High frequency range ‡ Above the mid band frequency. the transistor behaves like the simple low pass circuit as shown in figure ‡ From the circuit. .

.High frequency range ‡ Therefore ‡ Let we get ‡ Therefore the magnitude of the voltage gain is ‡ and phase is ‡ .

Frequency response .

Analysis of cascaded RC coupled BJT amplifiers .

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