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Running Arguments …

Running Arguments
Session 2

David Shakespeare
(HBS Education)
for
Science Learning Centre
London

2005

Contact:
david.shakespeare@hbseducation.com
tel. 01525 405220
Adapted from Shakespeare, Naylor and Keogh 2003
Running Arguments …

Intended outcomes – a reminder
By the end of this course I intend that you …

• …increase the use of argument and debate in lessons –
and value it as part of teaching

• …are able to draw on a greater range of methods to
stimulate and sustain argument in class

• …are better able to manage debate and argument in class
and can change your own behaviour to positively affect the
response of pupils

Adapted from Shakespeare, Naylor and Keogh 2003
Running Arguments …

Overview: Session 2
• What happened?
Reflection on progress

• What works?
Building on your experience in school

• How can I make the changes in my practice
sustainable?
Creating a climate of enquiry in the classroom

Adapted from Shakespeare, Naylor and Keogh 2003
Running Arguments …

In a nutshell…
Reminders for ideas jotted
around outside for now

Reminders for ideas jotted
around outside for now

Adapted from Shakespeare, Naylor and Keogh 2003
Running Arguments …

Thought bubbles
- on your own

What I have learnt …
…about my pupils
…about my teaching
…about running arguments

Adapted from Shakespeare, Naylor and Keogh 2003
Running Arguments …

• Sharing Strategies collectively

• Now look at responses from other groups

Focus on:

We found the most effective …
We found the least effective …

and

The questions we are left with are …
(Add more to this as you see fit!)

Adapted from Shakespeare, Naylor and Keogh 2003
Running Arguments …

What do I do that affects how pupils
respond?
Revisiting the Dos and Don’ts

2. In pairs/threes, quickly re-sort the teacher actions out into
DO’s DON’Ts DEPENDS …

3. Focus on any contentious ones
…and reflect on when it is a DO and when a DON’T….

5. You have a commentary on the DOs and DON’Ts.

Adapted from Shakespeare, Naylor and Keogh 2003
Running Arguments …

Using video

For each teacher use the lesson observation notes
and record your thoughts

• IDEAS video
• Group-talk and Argument video

Adapted from Shakespeare, Naylor and Keogh 2003
Running Arguments …

A common issue:

Pupils simply may not have the strategies to
talk together effectively!

• Some pupils may lack the confidence to contribute to group
discussion

• Some pupils may dominate group discussion and prevent sharing
of ideas

Adapted from Shakespeare, Naylor and Keogh 2003
Running Arguments …

Using ‘Ground Rules’ in argument
e.g.

2. “Each person should be invited to speak”
3. “Don’t interrupt when someone is speaking”
4. “Give reasons for your answers”

Task

• Discuss the three possible Ground Rules on the handout
• Decide how suitable they are
• Add/alter/remove - to this list

Adapted from Shakespeare, Naylor and Keogh 2003
Running Arguments …

Pupils views of learning through argument
Video

Adapted from Shakespeare, Naylor and Keogh 2003
Running Arguments …

Creating a ‘climate of enquiry’ …

Value questioning and enquiry:
• Make time for questions and enquiry
• Listen to pupils’ ideas and questions
• Respond positively to questions
• Act as a role model
• Give credit for questions as well as answers
• Don’t pretend to know all the answers

Plan for questioning and enquiry:
• Provide a clear sense of purpose for enquiry
• Provide a meaningful context for enquiry
• Link enquiry with previous learning

Adapted from Shakespeare, Naylor and Keogh 2003
Running Arguments …

Creating a climate of enquiry contd.
Actively promote questioning and enquiry:
• Use suitable stimuli
• Use suitable activities
• Scaffold questioning and enquiry
• Collect questions
• Make questions visible

Manage discussion to support questions & enquiry:
• Emphasise cooperation and collaboration
• Involve everyone in discussion
• Use a variety of groupings
• Provide thinking time
• Suspend judgement

Adapted from Shakespeare, Naylor and Keogh 2003
Running Arguments …

Task: Creating a climate of enquiry
On your own: traffic light the ‘Climate of Enquiry’ components

- green (confident this is part of my teaching)
- amber (not sure)
- red (not a feature of my teaching) …

Select just one or two ambers or reds.

What can be done about them?

Jot ideas under ‘Possible Actions’ and if needed transfer to
the Nutshell sheet

Adapted from Shakespeare, Naylor and Keogh 2003
Running Arguments …

Reflection

 Review and reflect again on generating and running
arguments.
Prioritise the ideas in the Nutshell.

 Evaluations

Adapted from Shakespeare, Naylor and Keogh 2003
Running Arguments …

Have a safe journey home

Adapted from Shakespeare, Naylor and Keogh 2003