PRINCIPLES OF CROP GROWTH SIMULATION MODELLING

Nitrogen-limited production

The Rice System and boundary at field level
Radiation, CO2 Temperature, O2

Nitrogen Soil N uptake

PROCESSES OF CROP GROWTH I. N demand by crop
‡ Potential N demand ‡ Potential N uptake

II. N availability in the soil
‡ Indigenous soil N supply ‡ N fertilizer application

III. Nitrogen-driven crop growth
‡ Actual crop N uptake ‡ N translocation ‡ Effects of N limitations on crop growth

I. N demand by crop

Basic assumption: crop strives towards maximal N content
Fr (
1

dr matter)

0.06 0.05 0.04 0.03 0.02 0.01 0 0 0.5 1 1.5 2
seedbed NMINL NMAXL

Development stage ( )

Stem N content } 50% leaf N content

Pa icle
2.0 i

c

te t = f( i cr
a icle at har est (% )

at fl weri

)

1.5

1.0

0.5

0.0 0 50 100 i cr 150 200 250 (k ha ) 
1

at fl weri

1. Daily potential N demand by leaves (NDleaf): NDleaf = N%max(Wleaf +HWleaf) - Nleaf (kg N ha-1 d-1) 2. Daily potential N demand by crop (NDcrop): NDcrop = NDleaf + NDstem + NDpanicle (kg N ha-1 d-1)
Translocation

3. Daily maximum N uptake by crop is physiologically limited: max is 8 kg N ha-1 d-1 => Potential N uptake = minimum(NDcrop,8)

I. N availability in the soil

Indigenous soil N supply
‡ Mineralization (SOM turnover) ‡ N in rain ‡ Biological N fixation In ORYZA2000: no dynamic soil N modelling Soil N supply estimated from : 1. (total N uptake in 0-N trials )/duration 2. fine-tuning by model calibration At IRRI: Soil N supply 0.5-0.8 kg N ha-1 d-1

Fertilizer N supply
Fertilizer application x recovery fraction Recovery fraction is calculated from experiments
1

Aggarwal et al., 1997 Peng and Cassman, 1998

9 7 6 4 3

PI
1

Flowering

Maturity

1

1

Development stage

Total soil N availability
1. Indigenous soil N supply + 2. Fertilizer application x recovery fraction

Unrecovered fertilizer N is either ³lost´ or carried over to next season¶s crop

III. Nitrogen-driven crop growth

Actual crop N uptake
Crop N demand

Actual N uptake = minimum (demand, supply)

Soil N supply (indigenous + fertilizer)

N redistribution
Panicle
N translocation

Stem Leaf

N loss

N uptake

Soil

Effect of N in crop on growth 1. Leaf photosynthesis
Van Keulen and Seligman, 1987

In ORYZA2000: Adapted based on Shaobing Peng data

2. Leaf expansion rate
Leaf expansion reduction factor = f (actual N% leaf, maximum N% leaf)

3. Accelerated leaf death rate
Accelerated leaf leaf death factor = f (actual N crop, maximum N crop)

Light y

Development rate

Photosynthesis

LAI

N

Development stage

Partitioning Leaves N Assimilate pool Stems N

Biomass

Panicles N Maintenance respiration Growth respiration Roots

Stem N uptake

Crop model Nitrogen-limited Production
Indigenous soil N

Leaves N uptake

Soil N available

Net fertilizer N supply

Input 1. Weather data: daily temperature, radiation => Weather data file

2. Management, additional: fertilizer N application, fertilizer N recovery, soil N supply => Experiment data file 3. Crop characteristics, additional: Max and min N contents of organs, Max N uptake, etc => Crop data file

Experimental data file
*--------------------------------------------------------------------* * 6. Nitrogen parameters * *--------------------------------------------------------------------* SOILSP = 0.8 ! Indigenous soil N supply (kg N/ha/d) (0.8) * Table of fertilizer rate (kg N/ha) (second column) versus days after sowing * in the seed-bed (!) (first column) FERTIL = 0., 0., 11., 0., 12., 60., 13., 0., 29., 0., 30., 60., 31., 0., 66., 0., 67., 60., 68., 0., 94., 0., 95., 45., 96., 0., 366., 0. * Table of recovery fraction of Nitrogen in the soil (-) second column * versus development stage (DVS) (first column) STANDARD VALUE RECNIT = 0.0, 0.30, 0.2, 0.35, 0.4, 0.50, 0.8, 0.75, 1.0, 0.75, 2.5, 0.75

Output ‡ Time course of leaf area index, biomass of various crop organs ‡ Time course of crop N contents and crop N uptake ‡ Yield, yield components

7

6

Leaf Area Index

5

4

IR 2, Los Baños Dry season 1992
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 T IME 70 80 90 100 110 120

3

2

1

0

18000

18000

16000

Biomass Total Panicle

16000

14000

14000

12000

12000

10000

10000

8000

8000

6000

6000

4000

Leaves
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 T IME 70 80 90 100 110 120

4000

2000

2000

0

0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 TIME 70 80 90 100 110 120

225 kg N ha-1

0 kg N ha-1

Fraction leaf N ( kg kg±1)
0.05

0.04

Nmax

N content in leaves

0.03

0.02

Nmin
0.01

225 kg N ha-1
DVS

0.00 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2.0

0.05

Nmax
0.04

0.03

0.02

Nmin
0.01

0.00 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2.0 DVS

0 kg N ha-1

Development stage

Y eld (kg/ ha) 11

IR 2; 1993 DS 17 treatments 0-400 kg N ha-1 D fferent splits

N supply (kg/ ha) 400

N uptake (kg/ ha) 300

y Observed
o S mulated

400 N supply (kg/ ha)

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