Group 1B ‡ Maryann Andrew ‡ Nikita Bowman ‡ Patrice Douglas ‡ Catherina Maria Gonsalves ‡ Anupana Himendranauth ‡ Sara Louanne Scott ‡ Nikita Shaw

osteoporosis is a condition that causes bones to become more porous. This gradually makes them weaker and more brittle. less solid and less dense. Therefore.Definition & General Description "Osteo" means bone. that is. and "porosis" means porous. .

However. development of this disease is dependent on a number of factors including: ‡ Low calcium (mineral) intake ‡ Tobacco use ‡ Eating disorders ‡ Sedentary lifestyle ‡ Excessive alcohol consumption ‡ Corticosteroid and other medications ‡ Hyperthyroidism ‡ Medical conditions and procedures that affect bone health ‡ Hormone levels .Etiology The exact cause of osteoporosis is not yet known.

After that. so to speak and the more likely the development of osteoporosis while advancing in age. When one is young. the less bone is "in the bank . Peak bone mass is reached around age 30. The lower the peak bone mass. ‡ The development of osteoporosis depends on the peak bone mass attained and how rapidly it is lost later. . but slightly more is lost than gained.Histopathology ‡ New bone is continuously made and old bone is broken down (resorption). the body makes new bone faster than it breaks down old bone and bone mass increases. ‡ Histopathological changes that can be noted in osteoporosis include: í Development of enlarged spaces and canals that become filled with fibrous and fatty tissues. í Thin trabeculae. bone remodeling continues.

leading to fractures without major trauma. Normal bone structure Osteoporosis histopathology .Histopathology These changes contribute to decreased bone mass and micro-architectural deterioration of bone.

Clinical Picture Spine deformation Various fractures resulting from osteoporosis .

sometimes severe.Signs & Symptoms Back pain ‡ Back pain. as a result of a fractured or collapsed vertebra ‡ Loss of height over time ‡ A stooped posture/ spine deformation ‡ Fracture of the vertebra. hip or other bone ‡ Muscle and joint aches ‡ Thin. wrist. brittle and weak bones .

Diagnosis ‡ Conventional radiography ‡ Measuring bone mineral density using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry or single energy xray absorptiometry ‡ Blood test (to diagnose underlying problems) ‡ Investigations for cancer with metastasis to the bone ‡ Tests for Cushing s Syndrome Scanner used to measure bone density with dual energy x-ray absorptiometry .

there are concerns about its safety. ‡ Physical Therapy: physical therapy programs may help build bone strength and improve posture. balance and muscle strength. Calcitonin and Teriparatide (Forteo). especially when started soon after menopause. ‡ Hormone Therapy: Estrogen.Treatment ‡ Medication: Available to help slow bone loss and maintain bone mass. and since other treatments are available. can help maintain bone density. . hormone therapy is generally not a first-choice treatment anymore. includes Bisphosphonates. Raloxifene (Evista). However.

Though lifestyle may be adversely affected. Hip fractures are most common leaving about half of patients with an inability to walk independently. osteoporosis has no bearing on life expectancy. .Prognosis Osteoporosis causes many patients to become severely disabled as a result of weakened bones.

anhb.com/lectures/bones.lab.com/health/osteoporosis/DS 00128 .Bibliography/ References ‡ Human Anatomy and Physiology.htm ‡ http://www.html ‡ http://www.au/mb140/MoreAbou t/bonedynamics.mayoclinic.uwa.edu.pathguy. Fourth Edition ‡ http://www.