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Mrs. Harsha Shah


Insulation Division
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 ?IL PR?DUCES GASES UNDER THERMAL /


ELECTRICAL STRSS.
 TYPES ? GASES AND RATE ?
PR?DUCTI?N DEPENDS ?N NATURE AND
EXTENT ? STRESS RESPECTIVELY.
 PR?VEN T? DETECT INCIPIENT AULT.
 ACILITY AVAILABLE, NEEDS EXPERTISE
?R INTERPRETATI?N ? RESULTS.
| 
 ?ne of the most important technique to indicate
the health of a transformer.
 Analogous to blood testing of Humans to detect
various Bio-Logical Abnormalities. However,
unlike diagnosis of blood, rules are not clearly
established for DGA.
 DGA, An Art & not A Science and interpretation
of results much depends on one¶s documented
experience.
   
    
 
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Î TYPE /AREA ? AULT
Î S?LUBILITY & DEGREE ? SATURATI?N ?
VARI?US GASES
Î TYPES & RATE ? ?IL CIRCULATI?N
Î TYPE ? ?IL PRESERVATI?N
Î KINDS ? MATERIALS IN C?NTACT WITH AULT
p 
  
p 

 Dry Weather, avoid contamination


 Clean, dry, leak proof glass or stainless steel
container.
 Equipment operating normally
 Take safety precautions.
 Sample bottle must be full without any air
trap completely sealed and should be
properly labeled.
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 |        
. L?CATI?N
2. MAKE
3. SERIAL NUMBER / TRANS ?RMER
NUMBER
4. TRANS ?RMER RATING
5. V?LTAGE RATI?
½ 
  

. DATE ? C?MMISSI?NING
2. DATE ? LAST ?IL ILLING
3. DATE ? LAST ?IL ILTRATI?N/ DETANKING /
T?PPING UP / TRANS ?RMER REPAIRS
4. DATE ? SAMPLING
5. ?IL V?LUME IN SYSTEM
6. ANY ABN?RMALITY IN W?RKING
   

. L?AD ?N DUTY : MAX & MIN


2. ?IL TEPERATURE : MAX & N?RMAL

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. TEST REP?RT N?. & DATE I TESTED AT ERDA


2. TEST RESULTS INCLUDING DATE ? TESTING
I TESTED IN ?THER LAB
   
 

     

 IRST DGA TEST : BE ?RE HEAT RUN TEST ?N


TRANS ?RMER
 SEC?ND DGA TEST : A TER HEAT RUN TEST ?N
TRANS ?RMER (2&24 HRS)
 THIRD DGA TEST : BE ?RE ENERGIZING
TRANS ?RMER (B.M.)
 ?URTH DGA TEST : WITHIN THREE M?NTHS ?
SERVICE
       
 ANNUALLY AS A R?UTINE CKECKING
 BE ?RE (LATEST DATA) & A TER ILTRATI?N
( RESH B.M.)/T?PPING UP
        
    
 BE ?RE ENERGISING TRANS ?RMER
 WITHIN THREE M?NTHS ? SERVICE
|  p  
  | ! "!#$
  $#!#%#!&
'(()*
. Hydrogen 5
2. ?xygen 50
3. Nitrogen 50
4. Hydrocarbons 
5. Carbon ?xide 25
Y    
 Ensure that gas concentrations are high enough to
warrant further investigation.
 Gas being present even in normal operating
condition without any fault being present.
 Gases might have formed on the occasion of
previous faults or during repairs by brazing,
welding etc., and not completely removed.
 Since gases are produced in normal ageing also,
the service duration of the oil has to be taken into
account.
 ½

  
  


  
   

GAS <4YRS IN PPM) 4-0 YRS (PPM) >0 YRS (PPM)


H2 00-50 200-300 200-300
CH4 50-70 00-50 200-300
C2H2 20-30 30-50 00-50
C2H4 00-50 50-200 200-400
C2H6 30-50 00-50 800-000
C? 200-300 400-500 600-700
C?2 3000-3500 4000-5000 9000-2000
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. Benchmark Results
2. Permissible Limit
3. IS Ratio Method
4. Muller¶s Ratio Method
5. Key Gas Method
6. TCG Content
7. Rate of Rise of Gas
x    
x  x x 
x   x 

 .1 1
.1 ± 1 1
1± 1 1
½    

+   |      

 N?T SUITABLE ?R NEW TRANS ?RMER


 INITIALLY SMALL QUANTITY ? GASES
DISS?LVED IN ?IL
 DURATI?N ? TEST IS VERY SH?RT
 VERY SMALL RISE IN GAS C?NCENTRATI?N

 

NEW GUIDELINE IS SUGGESTED BY


   W?RKING GR?UP ?R THE
INTERPRETATI?N ? DGA RESULTS
BE ?RE & A TER HEAT RUN TESTS.
 ½

      
½
      
 ½

  
p. O. p p
. O . .
. O . .
. . .
. . .
. . .
. . .
. . .
O   p p 
 ',*-./',*/ 012 ',*
 x = ANY GAS
 (x) = ?RIGINAL QUANTITY ? GAS X
 Sd (x) CAN BE TAKEN R?M TABLE - 4
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No. Criteria Range  Range 2
. (C2H2)2 (C2H2) <Sa (C2H2) <Sa(C2H2)

2. /t {[H2)2] (H2)  <2 ppm (v/v)/hr. <5 ppm (v / v) hr


{[CH4)2 (CH4)] 
{[C2H4)2 (C2H4)] 
{[C2H6)2 (C2H6)]} 
3. /t [(C?)2 (C?)] < 5 ppm (v/v) / hr. < 25 ppm (v / v)
hr
4. /t [(C?2)2 (C?2)] < 20 ppm (v/v) / < 00 ppm (v /
hr. v) hr
5. (C2H4)2 (C2H4) <  ppm (v/v) / hr. < 3 ppm (v/v) /
(C2H6)2 (C2H6) hr.

 Here t is duration of heat run test in hours, (X)2 and (X) are
concentrations of gas X, after and before the test.
 5 th criteria may only be used if increase in gas concentration of C2H4
& C2H6 BHRT & AHRT are > 0 Sa
Y  Y

 All in Range  No Thermal fault


 ?ne or more are > Range  < Range 2
ault caused by Load current or Leakage
flux * Close monitoring required for oil
during service.
 ?ne or more are > Range 2 *more analysis
during heat run test.
 |Y O  Y O  !!x
 p"|p Y  
x xY  |p"Y #Y 

3.64 MVA, 22.5/.73 kV


DATE ? C?MM. 5-2-88
RATI?S : 0 2 2
H2 049
CH4 6986
C2H2 476
C2H4 39998
C2H6 6462
C? 40773
C?2 94998
No Sign of any abnormality from out side.

ault diagnosis : Thermal ault

?bservation : Presence of hot sport in one of


the connecting leads having joint
$|Y O  O|$O %!!!x !!!x
 p"|  pO Y 
 pO&Y |Y  O |

3.22 MVA, 22.5/.73 kV


DATE ? C?MM. 28-5-82
RATI?S : 0 2 
H2 45
CH4 296
C2H2 4
C2H4 2228
C2H6 292
C? 68
C?2 458
No Sign of any abnormality from out side.
ault diagnosis : Thermal ault
?bservation : Top as well as bottom metallic
bolts used to hold stamping of the
transformer winding got melted.
 |Y  xYx |Ypx p
$p"| xYx p 'Y  $$ |p

8.4 MVA, 33/0.73 kV


DATE ? C?MM.?CT `76
RATI?S :  0 2
H2 23
CH4 39
C2H2 408
C2H4 469
C2H6 82
C? 632
C?2 490
ault diagnosis : Electrical discharges
?bservation : Electrical discharges on high
voltage leads inside the main tank
was observed. The wooden planks
used to isolate HV leads clearly
show sign of electrical discharges.
$|Y  xYx |Ypx p &  
$p"|&Y |Y Y 

33 kV
DATE ? C?MM. 984
RATI?S : 2 0 2
H2 240
CH4 26
C2H2 202
C2H4 5
C2H6 3
C? 99
C?2 64
ault diagnosis : Presence of severe electrical
discharges
?bservation : Total winding was damaged
significantly
Thank you