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INTRODUCTION

IN MOST MODERN ELECTRICAL DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS, THE PREDOMINANT LOADS ARE RESISTIVE AND INDUCTIVE. 1) 2) RESISTIVE LOADS ARE INCANDESCENT LIGHTING AND RESISTANCE HEATING. INDUCTIVE LOADS ARE A.C. MOTORS, INDUCTION FURNACES, TRANSFORMERS AND BALLAST-TYPE LIGHTING.

POWER FACTOR

IN INDUCTIVE LOADS, THE MAGNETIC FIELD IS NECESSARY BUT IT PRODUCES NO USEFUL WORK THEREFORE IN AC CIRCUITS THE POWER SUPPLY UNIT HAS TO PROVIDE FOR TWO TYPE OF POWER COMPONENTS TO MEET THE REQUIREMENT OF THE LOAD NAMELY USEFUL & NOT USEFUL ENERGY THESE TWO TYPES OF POWER COMPONENTS ARE THE ACTIVE AND REACTIVE.

POWER FACTOR
  •IS A MEASURE OF HOW EFFECTIVELY THE POWER IS BEING CONVERTED INTO USEFUL WORK OUTPUT •INDICATES THE EFFECT OF THE LOAD CURRENT ON THE SUPPLY SYSTEM. POWER FACTOR = ACTIVE POWER   APPARENT POWER •MEASURES HOW MUCH THE MAINS EFFICIENCY IS AFFECTED BY BOTH PHASE LAG AND HARMONIC CONTENT OF THE INPUT CURRENT.

POWER FACTOR – PHASOR DIAGRAM
Real Power= Vrms * Irms Cosφ1

φ

To ta

la

1

App

pp

φ

aren t

are 2 nt p

fund

ame

ntal

Q=Reactive Power
pow er

ow er=

PHASE ANGLE φ = φ1 + φ 2
POWER FACTOR = COS

Vr ms *

Irm s to

D=Distortion Power
tal

φ = COS (φ1 + φ2)

POWER FACTOR versus LOAD CURRENT

 

POWER FACTOR CORRECTION ADVANTAGES
ADVANTAGES OF POWER FACTOR
 

3. 4. 5. 6.

REDUCES LINE LOSSES REDUCES LINE CURRENT IMPROVES LINE VOLTAGE IMPROVES VOLTAGE DROP

INDIRECT BENEFITS 10. BECAUSE OF THE REDUCTION IN CURRENT , HEATING POWER DISSIPATION LOSS WILL BE MINIMAL FOR THE SAME CONDUCTOR 11. POWER LOSS WILL BE MINIMAL 12. FREES UP SYSTEM CAPACITY

POWER FACTOR CORRECTION METHODS

 

2. 4. 3.

INJECTING THE REACTIVE POWER REQUIRED FILTER THE NOISY OR DISTORTED REACTIVE POWER SET THE CURRENT & VOLTAGE IN-PHASE

POWER FACTOR IMPROVEMENT EQUIPMENTS

 

• Static capacitors • Synchronous condensers • Phase advancers

STATIC CAPACITORS & SYNCHRONOUS CONDENSER

 

• • • •

DRAW LEADING CURRENT PARTLY OR COMPLETELY REDUCES THE LAGGING CURRENT POWER FACTOR IMPROVES SUITABLE FOR STATIC & DYNAMIC LOADING

POWER FACTOR IMPROVEMENT - CAPACITORS

 

 

 Active Power
 

 

Reactive Power
   

Available Active Power

  ELECTRICAL

LOAD CONNECTED TO THE SUPPLY WITH OUT CONNECTING CAPACITORS POWER FACTOR CAN BE IN THE RANGE OF 0.7 TO 0.8 REACTIVE POWER ALSO SUPPLIED BY THE POWER SOURCE ONLY

POWER FACTOR IMPROVEMENT - CAPACITORS

 

 

 Active Power
 

 

Reactive Power
   

Available Active Power

PHASE ADVANCERS
 

• • • •

MATCH THE STATOR WINDING CURRENT WITH THE SUPPLYVOLTAGE. USED IN MOTOR CONTROL APPLICATIONS. USED FOR DYNAMICALLY CHANGING LOADS & INDIVIDUALLOADS COSTLIER TYPICALLY, THE BEST SOLUTION USED TO IMPROVE POWERFACTOR IS A CAPACITOR BANK.IT IS A ECONOMICAL SOLUTION.

POWER FACTOR IMPROVEMENT FOR CONSTANT LOAD

 

ECONOMICAL & VIABLE SOLUTION USING CAPACITOR BANKS.

Power factor improvement for Variable load
 

PLANTS EQUIPPED WITH VERY LARGE INTERMITTENT INDUCTIVE LOADS, SUCH AS LARGE MOTORS, COMPRESSORS, ETC., IF THE CAPACITORS ARE ADDED IN THE CIRCUIT FOR THE TOTAL CONNECTED LOAD & MANUALLY OPERATED THEN 1. COST WILL BE HIGHER. CAPITAL COST REQUIREMENT IS HIGH 2. WHEN LOAD IS IN TURN OFF CONDITION, THE CAPACITORS WILL PRODUCE EXCESS LEADING CURRENT & AGAIN IT IS LEADING TO POOR POWER FACTOR 3. MANUALLY OPERATED CAPACITOR SWITCHES LEADING A INACCURATE POWER FACTOR IMPROVEMENT

Thank You