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By:
Vamsi Krishna
Rajul Dubey
Daksh Bhatnagar
Debashree Pal
Aritraa Choudhary
Rajesh Gurnani
˜   

 A    
is an artificial language designed to
express computations that can be performed by a machine, particularly
a computer. Programming languages can be used to create programs that control
the behaviour of a machine, to express algorithms precisely, or as a mode of
human communication.
 Ôach language has a unique set of keywords (words that it understands) and a
special syntax for organizing program instructions.
cnternet
 The c

is a global system of interconnected computer
networks that use the standard cnternet Protocol
Suite (TCP/cP) to serve billions of users worldwide. ct is
a 
 
  that consists of millions of private,
public, academic, business, and government networks, of
local to global scope, that are linked by a broad array of
electronic and optical networking technologies
 Yne of the greatest things about the cnternet is that nobody
really owns it. ct is a global collection of networks, both big
and small. These networks connect together in many
different ways to form the single entity that we know as
the c

. cn fact, the very name comes from this idea of
͚c TÔR͛connected ͚ ÔT͛works.
cnternet Applications
 cnternet applications are programs of sorts that may
replicate a program that you have on your computer.
Generally, internet applications are less powerful than their
software counterparts that run on your computer. Good
examples of internet applications include Google Apps,
which are less powerful alternatives to Microsoft Yffice, any
web based mail client which can replace the functionality of
Yutlook or Thunderbird which runs on your computer.
Lastly, another example would be any program that you use
for your job which runs in a web browser, such as keeping
track of inventory or tracking trouble tickets
 666M The World Wide Web, or simply Web, is a way of accessing
information over the medium of the cnternet. ct is an informationMsharing
model that is built on top of the cnternet.
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
M A Web page is a simple text file that contains not only text, but
also a set of   that describe how the text should be formatted
when a browser displays it on the screen. The tags are simple instructions
that tell the Web browser how the page should look when it is displayed.
The tags tell the browser to do things like change the font size or color, or
arrange things in columns. The Web browser 

 these tags to
decide how to format the text onto the screen.
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M Web browsers are applications for displaying web pages. A
host of specialMpurpose languages has developed to control their
operation.
Markup Languages
 Markup languages are designed for the processing, definition and
presentation of text. The language specifies code for formatting, both the
layout and style, within a text file. The code used to specify the formatting
are called tags. HTML is a an example of a widely known and used markup
language.
 

    

 HTML (HyperText Markup Language) is the lingua franca of the cnternet. ct


is the Ô 
used to develop web pages. 

 means that some
text in the HTML document carries a link to a different location, which can
be on the same page or another page. Yn clicking this 'hot spot', the
viewer is transferred to that location.    means that specific portions
of a document are 
  to indicate how they should be displayed in
the browser.
According to purists, HTML is not a language per se, and they are right in
one way. HTML simply consists of tags that are placed around elements,
which then changes the properties of these enclosed elements. There are
hundreds of HTML tags and some of these are proprietary, which means
that only some browsers recognize them.
 Õ
Õ
 
   

The eÕtensible arkup anguage is a web page developing language that


enables programmers to create customized tags. These customized tags
can provide the muchMneeded functionality not available with HTML. XML
documents can be accessed using JSP, PHP etc.
Scripting Language
 A    
,    
or

 
is
a programming language that allows control of one or more software
applications. "Scripts" are distinct from the core code of the application,
as they are usually written in a different language and are often created or
at least modified by the endMuser. Scripts are often interpreted from
source code or bytecode, whereas application software is typically
first compiled to a native machine code or to an intermediate code.
 Scripts are used to add interactivity to otherwise static Web pages.
 Web browsers interpret scripts along with Hypertext Markup language
(HTML), the language in which Web pages are written. This can be done in
one of two ways. cn one scenario, programs written in scripting languages
can run directly from a server. Ytherwise, a script can be included with or
directly in an HTML Web page that someone downloads to a computer. cn
either case, the Web browser is used to access the program.
Java Script
 Ú   runs on the browser (client) and does not require any server
software. Thus, it is a clientMside scripting language. Since all execution
takes place on the browser, JavaScript is responsible for most of the
interactivity on a web page. cmage change or text colour change on mouse
over, creating mouse trails are all possible through JavaScript.
 Java can also be seen on the cnternet in the form of applets embedded in
an HTML page. a
are small Java programs that run on a Java
compatible browser.

O Some of the other Scripting languages


are VBScript by Microsoft, which only works in cnternet
Ôxplorer; XUL by the Mozilla project, which only works in Firefox