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BASICS OF WELDING AND WELDING SYMBOLS
CONTENT:  Introduction  Definition: Welding  Welding Terminology  Basics of Welding Symbol  Welding processes and letter designation

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Introduction
Weld symbols on drawings was originally published in 1982 based on BS 499 (British Standards Institution 1980) ISO 2553 (International Organization For Standardization 1979) ANSI/AWS A2.4 (American Welding Society-1979) standards the current standards are ISO 2553 1992, BSEN 22553 1995, and ANSI/AWS A2.4 1998 Purpose of welding in drawing - Shorthand for designers, - Assures understanding, - Universal language - Provides information on Length, penetration, height, grove type, number of welds, size of weld, filler material, weld shape, surface finishing,

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ADVANCED ENGINEERING SOLUTION INC. ADVANCED ENGINEERING SOLUTION INC. Innovative Steps to Excellence Welding Definitions 
Welding is a process of joining two similar work pieces by melting them together, usually with an additional filler rod of some sort to take up space. Materials must be similar .

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Welding is a joining process that uses heat, pressure, and/or chemicals to fuse two materials together permanently 

The American Welding Society (AWS) definition for a welding process is "a materials joining process which produces coalescence of materials by heating them to suitable temperatures with or without the application of pressure or by the application of pressure alone and with or without the use of filler material".

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Structural joints which are established by positions of the connected material relative to one another  Weld Types -Weld types define the configuration of the weld and its underlying design approach. Most common are Fillet welds Groove welds  Welded penetration (for Groove welds)  Weld symbols  Size of weld  Length of weld .com AES Property/Confidential .aesglobalservices.ADVANCED ENGINEERING SOLUTION INC. www. ADVANCED ENGINEERING SOLUTION INC.. Innovative Steps to Excellence Welding Terminology  Welded joint types .

ADVANCED ENGINEERING SOLUTION INC.ADVANCED ENGINEERING SOLUTION INC. www.aesglobalservices. Innovative Steps to Excellence Welded Joint Types There are 5 basic types of welded joints: Butt Lap Corner Tee Edge Tee Edge Butt Lap Corner ..com AES Property/Confidential .

Innovative Steps to Excellence Weld Types Weld types are categorized by the weld shape or the type of groove that is filled with welding material.aesglobalservices. ADVANCED ENGINEERING SOLUTION INC. Most common types of welds are: Groove Fillet Plug Slot Other types of welds are: Flange Flare Seam .ADVANCED ENGINEERING SOLUTION INC..com AES Property/Confidential . www.

. .ADVANCED ENGINEERING SOLUTION INC. ADVANCED ENGINEERING SOLUTION INC. Innovative Steps to Excellence Weld Symbols It s a small drawing that can be usually interpreted as a simplified cross section of the weld as below. www.com AES Property/Confidential .aesglobalservices.

and corner joints .ADVANCED ENGINEERING SOLUTION INC. ADVANCED ENGINEERING SOLUTION INC. Innovative Steps to Excellence Fillet Welds Fillet welds are theoretically triangular in cross-section Fillet welds join two surfaces at approximately right angles to each other in lap.com AES Property/Confidential . www. tee..aesglobalservices.

Innovative Steps to Excellence Groove Welds Groove welds are specified when a fillet weld is not appropriate for the job   .aesglobalservices. The configuration of the pieces may not permit fillet welding A strength greater than that provided by a fillet weld is required Groove welds are made in the space or groove between the two pieces being welded www.ADVANCED ENGINEERING SOLUTION INC.com AES Property/Confidential . ADVANCED ENGINEERING SOLUTION INC..

aesglobalservices. ADVANCED ENGINEERING SOLUTION INC.. Innovative Steps to Excellence Weld penetration Groove welds fall into two categories Full penetration Partial penetration .ADVANCED ENGINEERING SOLUTION INC. the entire member cross-section is welded just part of the member cross-section is welded Fillet Full penetration single bevel groove weld Partial penetration single bevel groove weld Plug Full penetration Partial penetration double vee single J groove groove weld weld AES Property/Confidential www.com .

ADVANCED ENGINEERING SOLUTION INC. final welds are made .com AES Property/Confidential . Continuous Weld A weld which extends continuously from one end of a joint to the other Stitch Weld (Bottom right) A series of welds of a specified length that are spaced a specified distance from each other www. ADVANCED ENGINEERING SOLUTION INC. Innovative Steps to Excellence Tack Weld (Top right) A temporary weld used to hold parts in place while more extensive..aesglobalservices.

www.aesglobalservices. ADVANCED ENGINEERING SOLUTION INC.com AES Property/Confidential .ADVANCED ENGINEERING SOLUTION INC.. Innovative Steps to Excellence Location of Elements of a Welding Symbol .

.Always Horizontal . ADVANCED ENGINEERING SOLUTION INC.aesglobalservices. Innovative Steps to Excellence Reference Line .ADVANCED ENGINEERING SOLUTION INC. Reference Line (Required element) www.com AES Property/Confidential .

aesglobalservices.. Innovative Steps to Excellence Arrow Line . .Arrow points to the line or lines on drawing which clearly identify the proposed joint or weld area. ADVANCED ENGINEERING SOLUTION INC. Reference Line (Required element) Arrow (or Leader) www.com AES Property/Confidential .ADVANCED ENGINEERING SOLUTION INC.

. or the supplementary information to be used in making the weld. procedures. .ADVANCED ENGINEERING SOLUTION INC.com AES Property/Confidential . ADVANCED ENGINEERING SOLUTION INC. as well as the welding specification. Reference Line (Required element) Arrow Tail www.The tail of the welding symbol is used to indicate the welding or cutting processes.aesglobalservices. Innovative Steps to Excellence Tail .

ADVANCED ENGINEERING SOLUTION INC.com AES Property/Confidential . Innovative Steps to Excellence Welding Specification . www.ADVANCED ENGINEERING SOLUTION INC..aesglobalservices.

aesglobalservices. Arrow side Other side Both sides All-around Melt through Backing or spacer AES Property/Confidential www.com . Innovative Steps to Excellence .ADVANCED ENGINEERING SOLUTION INC.. ADVANCED ENGINEERING SOLUTION INC.

com Basic Weld Symbol (Fillet weld symbol shown) AES Property/Confidential .aesglobalservices. ADVANCED ENGINEERING SOLUTION INC. Innovative Steps to Excellence Basic Weld Symbols ‡ ‡ Weld symbols are used to communicate the specific details and requirements of each weld to the welder Weld symbols are included on fabrication and erection drawings Horizontal Weld Line Tail Note (Indicating this is a typical weld) Leader Line .ADVANCED ENGINEERING SOLUTION INC. Field Weld Symbol Length and Spacing of weld (In Inches) Size of weld (In Inches) www..

aesglobalservices. www.com AES Property/Confidential .ADVANCED ENGINEERING SOLUTION INC. ADVANCED ENGINEERING SOLUTION INC. Innovative Steps to Excellence Size of Weld ..

ADVANCED ENGINEERING SOLUTION INC..aesglobalservices.com AES Property/Confidential . www. ADVANCED ENGINEERING SOLUTION INC. Innovative Steps to Excellence Size of Weld .

.ADVANCED ENGINEERING SOLUTION INC. Innovative Steps to Excellence Length of Welds . www. ADVANCED ENGINEERING SOLUTION INC.com AES Property/Confidential .aesglobalservices.

com AES Property/Confidential . www. ADVANCED ENGINEERING SOLUTION INC.ADVANCED ENGINEERING SOLUTION INC.. Innovative Steps to Excellence Size of Bevels .aesglobalservices.

aesglobalservices. ADVANCED ENGINEERING SOLUTION INC.ADVANCED ENGINEERING SOLUTION INC..com AES Property/Confidential . www. Innovative Steps to Excellence 8 Basic weld symbols .

ADVANCED ENGINEERING SOLUTION INC.aesglobalservices. www..com AES Property/Confidential . ADVANCED ENGINEERING SOLUTION INC. Innovative Steps to Excellence Welding Process Gas Welding Arc Welding Brazing Soldering Resistance Welding Solid State Welding Other Welding .

.ADVANCED ENGINEERING SOLUTION INC. www.com AES Property/Confidential . ADVANCED ENGINEERING SOLUTION INC.aesglobalservices. Innovative Steps to Excellence WELDING PROCESSES .

Stronger bond. and by the application of pressure. Innovative Steps to Excellence yGas Welding Uses Flame from burning gas to create welding heat. ADVANCED ENGINEERING SOLUTION INC. . Brazing: Similar to soldering.aesglobalservices. (Includes "Silver Soldering") Work heated to pre-melt temperatures Resistance Welding a group of welding processes which produces coalescence of metals with the heat obtained from resistance of the work to electric current in a circuit of which the work is a part. Most common solders are lead-tin alloys. www. Low temperature. but uses a higher temperature to fuse the filler metal to the work pieces. Soldering: Bonding by melting a soft metal to the surface of pieces to be joined.ADVANCED ENGINEERING SOLUTION INC. Good for joining dis-similar materials.. yArc welding Uses an electric arc to create welding heat.com AES Property/Confidential .

(Literally burning it away). thermit welding. which are not best defined under the other groupings.com AES Property/Confidential . Other Welding Processes This group of processes includes those. ADVANCED ENGINEERING SOLUTION INC. yCutting yWork is heated to melting point and beyond. www. and other miscellaneous welding processes in addition to electro slag welding which was mentioned previously. It consists of the following processes: electron beam welding.. laser beam welding. . and "cut" by oxidizing metal. Pressure may or may not be used.ADVANCED ENGINEERING SOLUTION INC. Innovative Steps to Excellence ySolid State Welding ya group of welding processes which produces coalescence at temperatures essentially below the melting point of the base materials being joined without the addition of a brazing filler metal.aesglobalservices.

. Innovative Steps to Excellence WELDING PROCESSES AND LETTER DESIGNATION Oxyfuel Gas Welding Oxyacetylene Welding (OAW ) Oxyhydrogen Welding (OHW ) Pressure Gas Welding (PGW) .aesglobalservices. ADVANCED ENGINEERING SOLUTION INC. Arc welding Carbon Arc (CAW ) Flux Cored Arc (FCAW ) Gas Metal Arc (GMAW ) Gas Tungsten Arc (GTAW ) Plasma Arc Shielded Metal Arc (PAW ) Shielded Metal Arc (SMAW ) Stud Arc (SW ) Stud Arc Submerged Arc (SAW ) www.com AES Property/Confidential .ADVANCED ENGINEERING SOLUTION INC.

Brazing Diffusion Brazing (DFB) Dip Brazing (DB) Furnace Brazing (FB) Induction Brazing (IB) Infrared Brazing (IRB) Resistance Brazing (RB) Torch Brazing (TB) www. Innovative Steps to Excellence WELDING PROCESSES AND LETTER DESIGNATION Soldering Dip Soldering (DS) Furnace Soldering (FS) Induction Soldering (IS) Infrared Soldering (IRS) Iron Soldering (INS) Resistance Soldering (RS) Torch Soldering (TS) Wave Soldering (WS) ..com AES Property/Confidential .aesglobalservices.ADVANCED ENGINEERING SOLUTION INC. ADVANCED ENGINEERING SOLUTION INC.

com AES Property/Confidential . Innovative Steps to Excellence WELDING PROCESSES AND LETTER DESIGNATION Resistance Welding Flash Welding (FW) High Frequency Resistance (HFRW) Percussion Welding (PEW) Projection Welding (RPW) Resistance-Seam Welding (RSEW) Resistance-Spot Welding (RSW) Upset Welding (UW) ..ADVANCED ENGINEERING SOLUTION INC. Solid State Welding Cold Welding (CW) Diffusion Welding (DFW) Explosion Welding (EXW) Forge Welding (FOW) Friction Welding (FRW) Hot Pressure Welding (HPW) Roll Welding (ROW) Ultrasonic Welding (USW) www. ADVANCED ENGINEERING SOLUTION INC.aesglobalservices.

com AES Property/Confidential ..ADVANCED ENGINEERING SOLUTION INC. ADVANCED ENGINEERING SOLUTION INC.aesglobalservices. www. Innovative Steps to Excellence .

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