SANITATION SERVICES IN BAYELSA STATE

BY Peter Cookey Steering Committee Member Representing Anglophone African Countries Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council, Geneva Lecturer, Rivers State College of Health Science & Technology BAYELSA STATE CELEBRATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH WEEK President, Earth Watch Research Institute

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Introduction
Improvements in practice of disposing of human

excreta and other wastes management techniques are crucial to raising levels of public health. However an increasing amount of health associated problems result from lack of sanitation facilities, especially among the rural and the poor who live in our communities. Kalbermattan John M. et al (1980) observed that proper sanitation promotes health, improves the quality of the environment and thus, the quality of life in a community.

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Definition
 DFID (1998) defined the word sanitation to mean the safe

management of human excreta. It therefore includes both the hardware (e.g. latrines and sewer) and the software (regulation, hygiene promotion) needed to reduce faecaloral diseases transmission.  WSSCC(2010) defined sanitation as the management of human excreta.  The Nigerian Sanitation Fact Sheet (2008) noted that sanitation ecompasses a wide range of challenges including excreta disposal, hygiene, solid waste (garbage) disposal, drainage etc. with clauses that this fact sheet focuses on excreta.  UNITAR (2009) defined sanitation as a safe collection, storage, treatment and disposal/reuse/recycling of human excreta (faeces and urine) and wastewater.

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Sanitation Situations
 According to the latest population census Bayelsa State

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has a population of 1.7 million people.  Percentage of population using improved sanitation facilities in the South –South is 26.2% (NDHS 2008)  Percentage of population using improved sanitation facilities in the State is 6.4% (NDHS 2008)  Lack of proper waste management and inadequate hygiene practices.  Although sanitation is not available, residents do not generally identify it as a very high priority since the open rivers offer easy waste disposal route.  The State is faced with serious water supply and sanitation challenges  Defecation directly into the open surface water/land  Communities suffer from a weak infrastructure that cannot supports effective delivery of water supply and sanitation services.
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Lagos Akwa Ibom Anambra Imo
Kaduna FCT
Abia

86.6
86.1 85 82.8 82.5 80.7 73.4 68.5 67.3 65.3 61
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Differences in the Use of Improved Sanitation Facilities

Edo Borno Niger Zamfara Sokoto Ondo Ogun Delta Katsina

Kano

Jigawa

55.1 53.1
55 53.5 52.6 51 50.5 50.5 47.9 46.3 43.8 43.8 42.1 42 42 40.6 39.4 38.8 36 35.8 35.8 31.5

55.7

National 57.6%

Plateau

Osun Oyo Benue

Enugu Rivers Gombe
Kebbi

Taraba
Yobe

Kwara Cross Rivers Adamawa Nasarawa
Bauchi

Ekiti

Ebonyi Bayelsa

Kogi
14.2
0 20

21.2

40

60

80

100

Coverage (%)

Improved Sanitation

Tunu community of Bayelsa State Source: D.N. Ogbonna and D.Y. Idam A typical Overhung Toilet (Pier Latrine)

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Tunu community of Bayelsa State Source: D.N. Ogbonna and D.Y. Idam Disposal of night soil and other wastes into the river

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Yenegoa-Bayelsa State Source: UNEP-GPA Workshop

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Sanitation Challenges

 Bayelsa State is not on track for the achievement

of the MDG for water supply and sanitation  Lack of Political will  Weak Institutional arrangements and limited technical know-how.  There is very poor mechanism for sector monitoring and accountability.  Lack of harmonization across many policies and implementations  Inappropriate technology options to meet both the needs and various conditions  Poor governance and institutional structures for service delivery  Low investment level in operation and maintenance of facilities.  Poor data collection, collation, planning, implementation and evaluation.
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Sanitation Challenges
 Low

private sector participation in service delivery  Lack of appropriate tools and methodologies for social mobilization, advocacy, demand creation, behaviour change  Lack of WASH programmes in Schools and communities  Poor knowledge of sanitation practices in the communities  Absence of funding for sanitation and water

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MDG Targets for Nigeria
Indicator Target (2015)

The proportion of the population 75% using water from improved sources

The proportion of the population 63% using improved sanitation facilities

80

Acceleration Required to Meet MDG Target for Improved Water

75%

70
MDG Target

60

50% 47%

Coverage (%)

50

44%

40

30

20 1990
Required trend Current trend Continuing at same rate

2006

2015

Progress Required for Water
The regression shows that Nigeria is not on

tract in meeting the MDG target on use of water from improved sources. If the present pattern of water coverage continues only 74.8 million out of the estimated 170 million people will be using water from improved sources in 2015. This figure represents 52.7 million people short of the MDG target.

80

70

Acceleration Required to Meet the MDG Target on Improved Sanitation

70% MDG Target

Coverage (%)

60

50

40 30 26% 1990
Current rate
Continuing at same rate

34% 30%

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2006
Required trend

2015

Coverage on Sanitation
The regression clearly shows that progress in

sanitation coverage is very minimal. If Nigeria continues at current rate only 57.8 million out of the estimated 170 million people will have access to improved sanitation facilities in 2015. This figure will represent 61.2 million people short of the MDG target on improved sanitation.

Adjusted MDG Sanitation target
80
70 60 MDG Target 50

Acceleration Required to Meet the MDG Target on Improved Sanitation

63%

Coverage (%)

40 30 26% 1990
Current rate
Continuing at same rate

34% 30%

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2006 Required trend

2015

Coverage on Sanitation
The regression clearly shows that progress

in sanitation coverage is very minimal. If Nigeria continues at current rate only 57.8 million out of the estimated 170 million people will have access to improved sanitation facilities in 2015. This figure will represent 49.3 million people short of the MDG target on improved sanitation.

2020:Vision and Goals for Water and Sanitation Sector
 The medium term vision of the sector is to “ensure a

sustainable and equitable access to safe, adequate, improved and affordable Water Supply and Sanitation for at least 65 per cent of the population by year 2013”. The goals within the medium term include the following: To increase improved national water supply coverage from 50 per cent to 65 per cent by 2013;  To increase national sanitation coverage from 35 per cent to 65 per cent by 2013;  Improve minimum water supply service from 23 litres per capita per day to 25 per litres per capita per day for rural communities by 2013;  Increase minimum water supply service from 30 litres per capita per day to 40 litres per capita per day for small town (semi-urban) communities by 2013;  Increase minimum water supply service from 80 litres per capita per day to 100 litres per capita per day for urban communities.
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2020: Policy Thrust for Water and Sanitation Sector
 The major policy thrusts for the water supply and sanitation

subsector during the medium term are as follows:  Increase the service level and coverage for water supply and sanitation in (Urban, Small Towns and Rural areas) by 2013;  Establish of legal and regulatory framework and institutional mechanism for quality standards for potable water supply;  Promote of capacity building, research development of projects and programmes with respect to the outputs/results of investment and the impact on intended beneficiaries;  Data and information management, assessment of water supply/sanitation and monitoring/evaluation  Promote community participation and other stakeholders, especially water users and the private sector;  Strengthen the institutions responsible for water supply and sanitation. The Water Research Institute, Kaduna should be properly positioned for capacity and research development

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RECOMMENDATION FOR EHOs’
We must improve our skills and competency in

the area of sanitation: Develop Critical Thinking Skills We must move away from inspection to develop real auditing skills and competency Policy and Strategy development skills Community Let Total Sanitation (CLTS); Community Let Self Micro-financing design to raise funds for latrine; Ecological Sanitation Sanitation Technological Options especially for coastal communities Join other relevant professional networks/associations
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WAY FORWARD
 Declares an emergency situation for sanitation and water

supply in the State  Strong community structure and well mobilised community members and communities are actively involved in programme planning and management  Functional LGA WASH unit/department facilitating programme  Development of Community action plans and LGAs actions plans  Prompt service delivery and acceptable quality to the community  Adequate budgetary provisions made for sanitation and hygene development  Effective coordination and management in place for sanitation and hygiene  Clear roles and responsibilities of the State and LGA should be well defined  Jetty toilets are not sanitation-wise because they pollute the water the people depend on their daily living
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THANK YOU

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