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By English Section

Date: 7/01/11

Contents - ANCOVA - Logistic Regression Analysis - Effect Modification using Generalized Estimating Equation (GEE) - Stratified Analysis and Test for trend

ANCOVA .

geometric mean is presented (average value of the natural logarithm of the data which will be closed to median) Need adequate number size (not low sample size) Use for one time point analysis (cross-sectional).ANCOVA ANCOVA is a multivariate analysis Use for measuring the end points that are continuous variables. For example: value of fasting blood sugar The assumption of ANCOVA is that the data is normally distributed. When we take log natural. the data must be transformed. For example by taking log natural. When the data are not normally distributed. .

Advantages of the Box-and Whisker is that it will reflect: 1. Deviation 2.Box-and-whisker plots Box-and-whisker plots can be used when the data is not normally distributed. Median value 4. IQR . The highest & lowest 3.

2.Repeated ANCOVA It is ANCOVA but can account for within and between group comparisons.. 3rd and 4th FBS) Repeated ANCOVA can tell us that there is at least one point difference between the two groups. Therefore post-hoc like Dunnet test is required to find out which time point is the true different. however. The result of between group difference is based on the average value of all time points (2st. i.e. more than 1 time points were compared and its baseline value of the study endpoint is put into the model as the covariate. it can not tell that which particular points are exactly different. many time points in one analysis It is used when 1. .

Logistic regression analysis .

Logistic regression analysis Logistic Regression is a type of predictive model that can be used when the target variable is a categorical variable with two categories for example live/die has disease/doesn t have disease .

Man-Whitney U tests used to analyze continuous variables that were not normal distributed. Time to fever clearance were compared using t-test.From lab page 24 Doxycycline versus Azithromycin for treatment of Leptospirosis and Scrub Typhus Statistical analysis All statistical analyses were performed by using SPSS (Aj. . told that it can be checked whether the authors got license or not). Pearson s or Fisher s exact test were used to compare rates and proportions. Independent sample t-tests were use to compare normally distributed variables.

and outcome for all 296 patients included in the study (intention-to-treat analysis) Notify that baseline and outcomes are in the same table which is uncommon. final diagnosis. Outcomes composed of Median time to fever clearance(h)---using ManWhitney U tests No. Demographic data.From table 1.(%) for successful---using Fisher s exact test .

If the time to event is short. if we plot time to fever clearance. it might not be interesting to use survival. so we use cumulative incidence.4) . that means everyone cured from fever.Question 19 : Which variables should be dependent variable for the logistic regression? Ans Logistic regression use for measure outcome which is success or not. Age. If look at successful (in the table). Moreover. the curve will go down (trend of curve is getting down to 1) . they can use survival curve. So the answer is rate of successful cases. No. of days of illness . the information means that most people hit endpoint (They get cured).6) and Azithromycin (97. Doxycyclin (95. Question 20 : which variable should be covariates for the logistic regression model? Ans Gender.

If the test overall result is not significant. do not perform the post hoc analysis . it mean they have at least 1 group is different. do post hoc test to prove that which pairs of intervention have significantly different. ANCOVA or repeated ANCOVA to test the significant different. This step has to calculate new P-value to prevent type1 error. Then.From Lab page 25 Multiple comparison Do the overall test ex. If you got significant.

. However.96SE). Areewan lecture (means + 1. 95% CI can be calculated by using equation per Aj. which are the values that can be used to compare between 12 and 18 mg/day groups.Question 21 : Are there differences between the groups receiving 12 mg/d vs 18 mg/d? Ans we cannot answer from the information provided on the table because they don t have information of 95% CI. The information that they have is the p value that compared each group with control (0 mg/day).

everyone was followed up for 2 months. OR (if they used logistic regression). For instance. OR are like RR.From Handout. however. page 14 . We will see OR that closely to RR. interpretation of HR. we see hazard ratio (if they used Cox regression. . if event of interest is < 5% RCT paper. 1st slide Multiple logistic regression model It s brother of Chi-square Follow up time of everyone is uniform.

Effect Modification .

baseline value. Fredickson type.familia hyperchloesteralemia. o It will show only overall average response of all population but not specifically the differences of the two drugs of each time point (except we put the interaction term in the model)> .The GEE (generalized estimating equation) IT is used to evaluate the effect of variables ( age. week 4. sex. 8 compared to 12 and two drugs) and interactions o Repeated-measured analysis will use GEE o Focus on estimating the average response over the population rather than the regression parameters that would enable prediction of the effect of changing one or more covariates on a given variable.

Non-inferiority (Equivalent) are intended to show that the effect of a new treatment is not worse than that of an active control by more than a specified margin. (it is hypothesized that new drug and old drug do not differ although they do not yield the same effective ÿ ö úüééûúè ú é ø èâ ÿø âé üú ú ü ûûã è noninferiority trial ÿ âãú è ú é ûû non-inferiority trial é â å ú ôãú õ ö è â å ý ø è ÷öø öâö è üé ââ å ÿ øõ û å öâö è .

1 equivalence margin To determine whether the effective of two drugs are significantly different.Clarify term non-inferiority with 0.1 10% üúéõøû â å öâö èâú è õ ã ûûú ã û è âú 10% é ÷ öâö èâú è ú åî âý ö èã èã ûûú ã û èã è 10 õè ý ö èúú üúå ö è øè 2 ö å è ú åî å . õ ùâ å ú ôé ë 95%CI ã è øèëúõ ã ûûú 1-ã ûûú 2 ã û è 1-ã û ûâú õ è 2 ìè úøúâ úõ 0.

15 Table 2 üúâ õå öâö èã è õû ã ú ú õ â ûå 95% CI ã è Pitavastatin [1] âû Pravastatin [2] 95% CI ã è ö ö ø õé õé â Lower Upper limit ú èé â ú üúå Difference é âéõ baseline ÿ ê úú÷ 95% CI å 0 é ÷ ü øù ÿ úâ õ ã ú ú õ 95% CI ë è õø [1-2] üúâ õå öâö èã è øè è ÷ õö ö èë è TG 150 å úå -10 èú pita âû pravas â ý ö èâú úâ õ TG â ëå Non-inferiority ã è TG õ â úõå ø 10% ÿ ê úú÷ ý ø õ â å 10% âå 10 é ÷ øè 2 ö üú Non-inferiority â å å å ö è ú úë è equivalence margin ø â úõ ö â õè èö ú õ ã ú õ ö èâú è ú åî .From lecture note p.

from the mean percentage change of TG. especially Week 4 and 8 but for Week 12. 16 Fig 3. From the mean percentage change of LDL Pitavastatin would decrease LDL level more than Pravastatin From lecture note p.From lecture note p. Pitavastatin would decrease TG more than Pravastatin.16 Fig 2. the TG level of Pitavastatin is finally raising to the Baseline .

Stratified Analysis & Test for trend .

To test whether the higher dose. . pneumoniae among case and controls and corresponding OR and 95%CI have presented titer 1:16 and 1:64 opportunity lung cancer but we could not conclude that titer 1:64 have probably more opportunity occur lung cancer than titer 1:16 because their 95% CI crossed 1.Test for trend The test is to detect dose response relationship. ± According to the study distribution of IgA and IgG antibody titers to C. the higher/lower response. Test for trend is very sensitive to get statistical significance if the higher levels have higher or lower responses although 95% CI of each category crosses 1 or 0.

Log rank Cox Univariate Multivairate for outcome measurement ANCOVA. Generalized linear model Logistic .Strategy for statistical selection Type of outcome continuous Binary (yes/no) T-test Chi-sq Time to event Survival analysis . Repeated ANCOVA.

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